Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 149)


Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed.

Graphical Abstract


Alkaloid Hairy roots Phenolic Preservation Secondary metabolites Terpenoid 


  1. 1.
    Abhyankar G, Suprasanna P, Pandey BN, Mishra KP, Rao KV, Reddy VD (2010) Hairy root extract of Phyllanthus amarus induces apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 11:526–532Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahn J, Chong W, Kim Y, Hwang B (2006) Optimization of the sucrose and ion concentrations for saikosaponin production in hairy root culture of Bupleurum falcatum. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 11:121–126Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alikaridis F, Papadakis D, Pantelia K, Kephalas T (2000) Flavonolignan production from Silybum marianum transformed and untransformed root cultures. Fitoterapia 71:379–384Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andújar I, Ríos JL, Giner RM, Recio MC (2013) Pharmacological properties of shikonin—a review of literature since 2002. Planta Med 79:1685–1697Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arellano J, Vázquez F, Villegas T, Hernández G (1996) Establishment of transformed root cultures of Perezia cuernavacana producing the sesquiterpene quinone perezone. Plant Cell Rep 15:455–458Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asada Y, Li W, Yoshikawa T (1998) Isoprenylated flavonoids from hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Phytochemistry 47:389–392Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ayadi R, Trémouillaux-Guiller J (2003) Root formation from transgenic calli of Ginkgo biloba. Tree Physiol 23:713–718Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Babakov A, Bartova L, Dridze I, Maisuryan A, Margulis G, Oganian R, Voblikova V, Muromtsev G (1995) Culture of transformed horseradish roots as a source of fusicoccin-like ligands. J Plant Growth Regul 14:163–167Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Babaoglu M, Davey MR, Power JB, Sporer F, Wink M (2004) Transformed roots of Lupinus mutabilis: induction, culture and isoflavone biosynthesis. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 78:29–36Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bais HP, Walker TS, Schweizer HP, Vivanco JM (2002) Root specific elicitation and antimicrobial activity of rosmarinic acid in hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum. Plant Physiol Biochem 40:983–995Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bakkali AT, Jaziri M, Foriers A, Vander Heyden Y, Vanhaelen M, Homès J (1997) Lawsone accumulation in normal and transformed cultures of henna, Lawsonia inermis. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 51:83–87Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banerjee S, Rahman L, Uniyal GC, Ahuja PS (1998) Enhanced production of valepotriates by Agrobacterium rhizogenes induced hairy root cultures of Valeriana wallichii DC. Plant Sci 131:203–208Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Banerjee S, Singh S, Rahman LU (2012) Biotransformation studies using hairy root cultures—a review. Biotechnol Adv 30:461–468Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benjamin BD, Roja G, Heble MR (1994) Alkaloid synthesis by root cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Phytochemistry 35:381–383Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benson E, Hamill J (1991) Cryopreservation and post freeze molecular and biosynthetic stability in transformed roots of Beta vulgaris and Nicotiana rustica. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 24:163–172Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beynen AC, Katan MB (1985) Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol? Am J Clin Nutr 42:560–563Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhattacharyya R, Bhattacharya S (2004) Development of a potent in vitro source of Phylanthus amarus roots with pronounced activity against surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40:504–508Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bonhomme V, Laurain-Mattar D, Lacoux J, Fliniaux MA, Jacquin-Dubreuil A (2000) Tropane alkaloid production by hairy roots of Atropa belladonna obtained after transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing rol A, B, C genes only. J Biotechnol 81:151–158Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bourgaud F, Bouque V, Guckert A (1999) Production of flavonoids by Psoralea hairy root cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 56:96–103Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bourgaud F, Gravot A, Milesi S, Gontier E (2001) Production of plant secondary metabolites: a historical perspective. Plant Sci 161:839–851Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Báthori M, Pongrácz Z (2005) Phytoecdysteroids—from isolation to their effects on humans. Curr Med Chem 12:153–172Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carrizo CN, Pitta-Alvarez SI, Kogan MJ, Giulietti AM, Tomaro MaL (2001) Occurrence of cadaverine in hairy roots of Brugmansia candida. Phytochemistry 57:759–763Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carron TR, Robbins MP, Morris P (1994) Genetic modification of condensed tannin biosynthesis in Lotus corniculatus. 1. Heterologous antisense dihydroflavonol reductase down-regulates tannin accumulation in “hairy root” cultures. Theor Appl Genet 87:1006–1015Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caspeta L, Quintero R, Villarreal ML (2005) Novel airlift reactor fitting for hairy root cultures: developmental and performance studies. Biotechnol Prog 21:735–740Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cequier-Sanchez E, Rodriguez C, Dorta-Guerra R, Ravelo A, Zarate R (2011) Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production. BMC Biotechnol 11:42Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang C, Chang K, Lin Y, Liu S, Chen C (2005) Hairy root cultures of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino: a promising approach for the production of gypenosides as an alternative of ginseng saponins. Biotechnol Lett 27:1165–1169Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chinou I (2005) Labdanes of natural origin-biological activities (1981–2004). Curr Med Chem 12:1295–1317Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Christen P, Roberts M, Phillipson JD, Evans W (1989) High-yield production of tropane alkaloids by hairy-root cultures of a Datura candida hybrid. Plant Cell Rep 8:75–77Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Constabel CP, Towers GHN (1988) Thiarubrine accumulation in hairy root cultures of Chaenactis douglasii. J Plant Physiol 133:67–72Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Davioud E, Kan C, Hamon J, Tempé J, Husson H-P (1989) Production of indole alkaloids by in vitro root cultures from Catharanthus trichophyllus. Phytochemistry 28:2675–2680Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delbeque J, Beydon P, Chapuis L (1995) In vitro incorporation of radio labelled cholesterol and mevalonic acid into ecdysteron by hairy root cultures of a plant Serratula tinctoria. Eur J Entomol 92:301–307Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deno H, Yamagata H, Emoto T, Yoshioka T, Yamada Y, Fujita Y (1987) Scopolamine production by root cultures of Duboisia myoporoides: II. Establishment of a hairy root culture by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. J Plant Physiol 131:315–323Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dhakulkar S, Ganapathi TR, Bhargava S, Bapat VA (2005) Induction of hairy roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. and production of verbascoside in hairy roots. Plant Sci 169:812–818Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Djilani A, Dicko A (2012) The therapeutic benefits of essential oils. In: Bouayed J (ed) Nutrition, well-being and health. In Tech.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dondorp AM, Nosten F, Yi P, Das D, Phyo AP, Tarning J, Lwin KM, Ariey F, Hanpithakpong W, Lee SJ, Ringwald P, Silamut K, Imwong M, Chotivanich K, Lim P, Herdman T, An SS, Yeung S, Singhasivanon P, Day NPJ, Lindegardh N, Socheat D, White NJ (2009) Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 361:455–467Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Von Eickstedt K, Rahman S (1969) Psychopharmacologic effect of valepotriates. Arzneim Forsch 19:316–319Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Etsè KD, Aïdam AV, Melin C, Blanc N, Oudin A, Courdavault V, Creche J, Lanoue A (2014) Optimized genetic transformation of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and the production of chelerythrine and skimmiamine in hairy root cultures. Eng Life Sci 14:95–99Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Le Flem-Bonhomme V, Laurain-Mattar D, Fliniaux MA (2004) Hairy root induction of Papaver somniferum var. album, a difficult-to-transform plant, by A. rhizogenes LBA 9402. Planta 218:890–893Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Flores HE, Vivanco JM, Loyola-Vargas VM (1999) ‘Radicle’ biochemistry: the biology of root-specific metabolism. Trends Plant Sci 4:220–226Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Flores H, Pickard J, Hoy M (1988) Production of polyacetylenes and thiophenes in heterotrophic and photosynthetic root cultures of Asteraceae. In: Lam J, Breheler H, Arnason T, Hansen L (eds) Chemistry and biology of naturally occurring acetylenes and related compounds (NOARC) bioactive molecules, vol 7, pp 233–254Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fraga BM, Díaz CE, Guadaño A, González-Coloma A (2005) Diterpenes from Salvia broussonetii transformed roots and their insecticidal activity. J Agric Food Chem 53:5200–5206Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fu C, Zhao D, Xue X, Jin Z, Ma F (2005) Transformation of Saussurea involucrata by Agrobacterium rhizogenes: hairy root induction and syringin production. Proc Biochem 40:3789–3794Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Furmanowa M, Syklowska-Baranek K (2000) Hairy root cultures of Taxus × media var. Hicksii Rehd. as a new source of paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccatin III. Biotechnol Lett 22:683–686Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gangopadhyay M, Sircar D, Mitra A, Bhattacharya S (2008) Hairy root culture of Plumbago indica as a potential source for plumbagin. Biol Plant 52:533–537Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Georgiev M, Pavlov A, Bley T (2007) Hairy root type plant in vitro systems as sources of bioactive substances. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:1175–1185Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Giri A, Banerjee S, Ahuja PS, Giri CC (1997) Production of hairy roots in Aconitum heterophyllum wall. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 33:280–284Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giri A, Narasu M (2000) Transgenic hairy roots: recent trends and applications. Biotechnol Adv 18:1–22Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grzegorczyk I, Królicka A, Wysokińska H (2006) Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid. Z Naturforsch C 61:351–356Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gränicher F, Christen P, Kapetanidis I (1992) High-yield production of valepotriates by hairy root cultures of Valeriana officnalis L. var. sambucifolia Mikan. Plant Cell Rep 11:339–342Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gränicher F, Christen P, Kapétanidis I (1995) Production of valepotriates by hairy root cultures of Centranthus ruber DC. Plant Cell Rep 14:294–298Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grąbkowska R, Królicka A, Mielicki W, Wielanek M, Wysokińska H (2010) Genetic transformation of Harpagophytum procumbens by Agrobacterium rhizogenes: iridoid and phenylethanoid glycoside accumulation in hairy root cultures. Acta Physiol Plant 32:665–673Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guillon S, Trémouillaux-Guiller J, Pati P, Rideau M, Gantet P (2006) Hairy root research: recent scenario and exciting prospects. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:341–346Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guillon S, Trémouillaux-Guiller J, Pati P, Rideau M, Gantet P (2006) Harnessing the potential of hairy roots: dawn of a new era. Trends Biotechnol 24:403–409Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guillon S, Trémouillaux-Guiller J, Pati P, Gantet P (2008) Hairy roots: a powerful tool for plant biotechnological advances. In: Ramawat K, Merillon J (eds) Bioactive molecules and medicinal plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 271–283Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gunjan S, Lutz J, Bushong A, Rogers D, Littleton J (2013) Hairy root cultures and plant regeneration in Solidago nemoralis transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Am J Plant Sci 4:1675–1678Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Głąb B, Furmanek T, Miklaszewska M, Banaś A, Królicka A (2013) Lipids in hairy roots and non-Agrobacterium induced roots of Crambe abyssinica. Acta Physiol Plant 35:2137–2145Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hamill J, Robins R, Rhodes M (1989) Alkaloid production by transformed root cultures of Cinchona ledgeriana. Planta Med 55:354–357Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hayes J, Kelleher M, Eggleston I (2008) The cancer chemopreventive actions of phytochemicals derived from glucosinolates. Eur J Nutr 47:73–88Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hirata K, Goda S, Phunchindawan M, Du D, Ishio M, Sakai A, Miyamoto K (1998) Cryopreservation of horseradish hairy root cultures by encapsulation-dehydration. J Ferment Bioeng 86:418–420Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hong S, Peebles CAM, Shanks JV, San K, Gibson SI (2006) Terpenoid indole alkaloid production by Catharanthus roseus hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring rol ABC genes. Biotechnol Bioeng 93:386–390Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hook I (1994) Secondary metabolites in hairy root cultures of Leontopodium alpinum Cass. (Edelweiss). Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 38:321–326Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Huang W-Y, Cai Y-Z, Zhang Y (2009) Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: potential use for cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 62:1–20Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Huang SH, Vishwakarma RK, Lee TT, Chan HS, Tsay HS (2014) Establishment of hairy root lines and analysis of iridoids and secoiridoids in the medicinal plant Gentiana scabra. Bot Stud 55:17Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ikenaga T, Oyama T, Muranaka T (1995) Growth and steroidal saponin production in hairy root cultures of Solanum aculeatissimum. Plant Cell Rep 14:413–417Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Inoguchi M, Ogawa S, Furukawa S, Kondo H (2003) Production of an Allelopathic Polyacetylene in Hairy Root Cultures of Goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:863–868Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ionkova I, Kartnig T, Alfermann W (1997) Cycloartane saponin production in hairy root cultures of Astragalus mongholicus. Phytochemistry 45:1597–1600Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ishimaru K, Shimomura K (1991) Tannin production in hairy root culture of Geranium thunbergii. Phytochemistry 30:825–828Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ishimaru K, Sudo H, Satake M, Matsunaga Y, Hasegawa Y, Takemoto S, Shimomura K (1990) Amarogentin, amaroswerin and four xanthones from hairy root cultures of Swertia japonica. Phytochemistry 29:1563–1565Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jaziri M, Legros M, Homes J, Vanhaelen M (1988) Tropine alkaloids production by hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger. Phytochemistry 27:419–420Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jaziri M, Shimomura K, Yoshimatsu K, Fauconnier M-L, Marlier M, Homes J (1995) Establishment of normal and transformed root cultures of Artemisia annua L. for artemisinin production. J Plant Physiol 145:175–177Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jun Cheul A, Baik H, Tada H, Ishimaru K, Sasaki K, Shimomura K (1996) Polyacetylenes in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum. Phytochemistry 42:69–72Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jung G, Tepfer D (1987) Use of genetic transformation by the Ri T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes to stimulate biomass and tropane alkaloid production in Atropa belladonna and Calystegia sepium roots grown in vitro. Plant Sci 50:145–151Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Karwasara V, Dixit V (2009) Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated genetic transformation of Abrus precatorius L. Pharmacognosy Mag 5:336–342Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kaur K, Jain M, Kaur T, Jain R (2009) Antimalarials from nature. Bioorg Med Chem 17:3229–3256Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kim O, Bang K, Shin Y, Lee M, Jung S, Hyun D, Kim Y, Seong N, Cha S, Hwang B (2007) Enhanced production of asiaticoside from hairy root cultures of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban elicited by methyl jasmonate. Plant Cell Rep 26:1941–1949Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kim S, Cha M, Lee E, Kim I, Kwon J, Kang S, Park T (2012) In vitro induction of hairy root from isoflavones-producing Korean wild arrowroot Pueraria lobata. J Plant Biotechnol 39:205–211Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kim H, Popova E, Shin D, Bae C, Baek H, Park S, Engelmann F (2012) Development of a droplet-vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of Rubia akane (nakai) hairy roots using a systematic approach. Cryo Lett 33:506–517Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kim H, Popova E, Yi J, Cho G, Park S, Lee S, Engelmann F (2010) Cryopreservation of hairy roots of Rubia akane (Nakai) using a droplet-vitrification procedure. Cryo Lett 31:473–484Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kim Y, Xu H, Park W, Park N, Lee S, Park S (2010) Genetic transformation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and production of rutin in transformed root cultures. Aust J Crop Sci 4:485–490Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kino-Oka M, Mine K, Taya M, Tone S, Ichi T (1994) Production and release of anthraquinone pigments by hairy roots of madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) under improved culture conditions. J Ferment Bioeng 77:103–106Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kisiel W, Stojakowska A (1997) A sesquiterpene coumarin ether from transformed roots of Tanacetum parthenium. Phytochemistry 46:515–516Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kisiel W, Stojakowska A, Malarz J, Kohlmüzer S (1995) Sesquiterpene lactones in Agrobacterium rhizogenes—transformed hairy root culture of Lactuca virosa. Phytochemistry 40:1139–1140Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kitanaka S, Kunishi M, Taira T, Takahashi S, Yazawa S, Miyazawa Y, Nakajima Y, Okuno K, Fukuoka S, Takido M (1997) Ginsenoside production, tissue culture and induction of regeneration of interspecific hybrid ginseng (Panax ginseng x P. quinquefolium). Nat Med 1–3Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kittipongpatana N, Hock R, Porter J (1998) Production of solasodine by hairy root, callus, and cell suspension cultures of Solanum aviculare Forst. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 52:133–143Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kjeldsen E, Svejstrup J, Gromova I, Alsner J, Westergaard O (1992) Camptothecin inhibits both the cleavage and religation reactions of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I. J Mol Biol 228:1025–1030Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Knopp E, Strauss A, Wehrli W (1988) Root induction on several Solanaceae species by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and the determination of root tropane alkaloid content. Plant Cell Rep 7:590–593Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ko K, Ebizuka Y, Noguchi H, Sankawa U (1995) Production of polypeptide pigments in hairy root cultures of Cassia plants. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 43:274–278Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Królicka A, Staniszewska I, Bielawski K, Maliński E, Szafranek J, Łojkowska E (2001) Establishment of hairy root cultures of Ammi majus. Plant Sci 160:259–264Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kursinszki L, Troilina J, Szõke É (1998) Determination of visnagin in Ammi visnaga hairy root cultures using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Microchem J 59:392–398Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kuźma Ł, Kisiel W, Królicka A, Wysokińska H (2011) Genetic transformation of Salvia austriaca by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and diterpenoid isolation. Pharmazie 66:904–907Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kuźma Ł, Skrzypek Z, Wysokinska H (2006) Diterpenoids and triterpenoids in hairy roots of Salvia sclarea. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 84:152–160Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kyo M, Miyauchi Y, Fujimoto T, Mayama S (1990) Production of nematocidal compounds by hairy root cultures of Tagetes patula L. Plant Cell Rep 9:393–397Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lambert E, Goossens A, Panis B, Van Labeke M, Geelen D (2009) Cryopreservation of hairy root cultures of Maesa lanceolata and Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 96:289–296Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Laurain D, Trémouillaux-Guiller J, Chénieux JC, Van Beek T (1997) Production of ginkgolides and bilobalide in transformed and gametophyte derived cell cultures of Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 46:127–130Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lee S, Xu H, Kim Y, Park S (2008) Rosmarinic acid production in hairy root cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:969–972Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Li F-X, Jin Z-P, Zhao D-X, Cheng L-Q, Fu C-X, Ma F (2006) Overexpression of the Saussurea medusa chalcone isomerase gene in S. involucrata hairy root cultures enhances their biosynthesis of apigenin. Phytochemistry 67:553–560Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lin HW, Kwok KH, Doran PM (2003) Development of Linum flavum hairy root cultures for production of coniferin. Biotechnol Lett 25:521–525Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lodhi AH, Bongaerts RJM, Verpoorte R, Coomber SA, Charlwood BV (1996) Expression of bacterial isochorismate synthase (EC in transgenic root cultures of Rubia peregrina. Plant Cell Rep 16:54–57Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lorence A, Medina-Bolivar F, Nessler CL (2004) Camptothecin and 10-hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata hairy roots. Plant Cell Rep 22:437–441Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    De Luca V, St Pierre B (2000) The cell and developmental biology of alkaloid biosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 5:168–173Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Majumdar S, Garai S, Jha S (2011) Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants. Plant Cell Rep 30:941–954Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W (2002) Sesquiterpene lactones in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus. Z Naturforsch 57c:994–997Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mano Y, Nabeshima S, Matsui C, Ohkawa H (1987) Production of tropane alkaloids by hairy-root cultures of Scopolia japonica. Agric Biol Chem 50:2715–2722Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mano Y, Ohkawa H, Yamada Y (1989) Production of tropane alkaloids by hairy root cultures of Duboisia leichhardtii transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant Sci 59:191–201Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mathur A, Gangwar A, Mathur A, Verma P, Uniyal G, Lal R (2010) Growth kinetics and ginsenosides production in transformed hairy roots of American ginseng—Panax quinquefolium L. Biotechnol Lett 32:457–461Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Matsumoto T, Tanaka N (1991) Production of phytoecdysteroids by hairy root cultures of Ajuga reptans var. atropurpurea. Agric Biol Chem 55:1019–1025Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    McCue P, Shetty K (2004) Health benefits of soy isoflavonoids and strategies for enhancement: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44:361–367Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Medina-Bolivar F, Condori J, Rimando A, Hubstenberger J, Shelton K, O’Keefe S, Bennett S, Dolan M (2007) Production and secretion of resveratrol in hairy root cultures of peanut. Phytochemistry 68:1992–2003Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mencović N, Šavikin-Fodulović K, Vinterhalter B, Vinterhalter D, Jancović T, Krstić D (2000) Secoiridoid content in hairy roots of Gentiana punctata. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 10:73–75Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Merkli A, Christen P, Kapetanidis I (1997) Production of diosgenin by hairy root cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Plant Cell Rep 16:632–636Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Morris P, Robbins MP (1992) Condensed tannin formation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed root and shoot organ cultures of Lotus corniculatus. J Exp Bot 43:221–231Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Motomori Y, Shimomura K, Mori K, Kunitake H, Nakashima T, Tanaka M, Miyazaki S, Ishimaru K (1995) Polyphenol production in hairy root cultures of Fragaria x ananassa. Phytochemistry 40:1425–1428Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Muji Ermayanti T, McComb JA, O’Brien PA (1994) Stimulation of synthesis and release of swainosonine from transformed roots of Swainsona galegifolia. Phytochemistry 36:313–317Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Murakami Y, Shimomura K, Yoshihira K, Ishimaru K (1998) Polyacetylenes in hairy root cultures of Trachelium caeruleum L. J Plant Physiol 152:574–576Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Murthy HN, Dijkstra C, Anthony P, White DA, Davey MR, Power JB, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2008) Establishment of Withania somnifera hairy root cultures for the production of Withanolide A. J Integr Plant Biol 50:975–981Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Nagella P, Thiruvengadam M, Jung SJ, Murthy HN, Chung IM (2013) Establishment of Gymnema sylvestre hairy root cultures for the production of gymnemic acid. Acta Physiol Plant 35:3067–3073Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nam Y, Choi M, Hwang H, Lee M-G, Kwon B-M, Lee W-H, Suk K (2013) Natural flavone jaceosidin is a neuroinflammation inhibitor. Phytother Res 27:404–411Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nin S, Bennici A, Roselli G, Mariotti D, Schiff S, Magherini R (1997) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Artemisia absinthium L. (wormwood) and production of secondary metabolites. Plant Cell Rep 16:725–730Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Norberg A, Hoa N, Liepinsh E, Phan D, Thuan N, Jornvall H, Sillard R, Ostenson C (2004) A novel insulin-releasing substance, phanoside, from the plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Biol Chem 279:41361–41367Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nussbaumer P, Kapétanidis I, Christen P (1998) Hairy roots of Datura candida×D. aurea: effect of culture medium composition on growth and alkaloid biosynthesis. Plant Cell Rep 17:405–409Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ogasawara T, Chiba K, Tada M (1993) Production in high-yield of a naphthoquinone by a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum. Phytochemistry 33:1095–1098Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Okršlar V, Štrukelj B, Kreft S, Bohanec B, Zel J (2002) Micropropagation and hairy root culture of Solanum Laciniatum Ait. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:352–357Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ono N, Bandaranayake PCG, Tian L (2012) Establishment of pomegranate (Punica granatum) hairy root cultures for genetic interrogation of the hydrolyzable tannin biosynthetic pathway. Planta 236:931–941Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ono N, Tian L (2011) The multiplicity of hairy root cultures: prolific possibilities. Plant Sci 180:439–446Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pangeni R, Sahni JK, Ali J, Sharma S, Baboota S (2014) Resveratrol: review on therapeutic potential and recent advances in drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 11:1285–1298Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Park S, Kim Y, Lee S (2009) Establishment of hairy root culture of Rubia akane Nakai for alizarin and purpurin production. Sci Res Essays 4:94–97Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Parr A, Hamill J (1987) Relationship between Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed hairy roots and intact, uninfected nicotiana plants. Phytochemistry 26:3241–3245Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Patra N, Srivastava A (2014) Enhanced production of artemisinin by hairy root cultivation of Artemisia annua in a modified stirred tank reactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 1–14Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Porter J (1991) Host range and implications of plant infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 10:387–421Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pradel H, Dumke-Lehmann U, Diettrich B, Luckner M (1997) Hairy root cultures of Digitalis lanata. Secondary metabolism and plant regeneration. J Plant Physiol 151:209–215Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Qin M, Li G, Yun Y, Ye H, Li G (1994) Induction of hairy root from Artemisia annua with Agrobacterium Rhizogenes and its culture in vitro. J Integr Plant Biol 36:165–170Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Qin B, Ma L, Wang Y, Chen M, Lan X, Wu N, Liao Z (2014) Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and UV-B on gene expression and tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Anisodus luridus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 117:483–490Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Romero F, Delate K, Kraus G, Solco A, Murphy P, Hannapel D (2009) Alkamide production from hairy root cultures of Echinacea. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 45:599–609Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rostampour S, Sohi H, Jourabchi E, Ansari E (2009) Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids production in Persian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.): preliminary report. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:1807–1814Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ruiz L, Ruiz L, Maco M, Cobos M, Gutierrez-Choquevilca A-L, Roumy V (2011) Plants used by native Amazonian groups from the Nanay River (Peru) for the treatment of malaria. J Ethnopharm 133:917–921Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Saito K, Sudo H, Yamazaki M, Koseki-Nakamura M, Kitajima M, Takayama H, Aimi N (2001) Feasible production of camptothecin by hairy root culture of Ophiorrhiza pumila. Plant Cell Rep 20:267–271Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Saito K, Yamazaki M, Shimomura K, Yoshimatsu K, Murakoshi I (1990) Genetic transformation of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) by chimeric foreign genes and production of cardioactive glycosides. Plant Cell Rep 9:121–124Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sakai A, Engelmann F (2007) Vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification: a review. Cryo Lett 28:151–172Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Salma M, Engelmann-Sylvestre I, Collin M, Escoute J, Lartaud M, Yi J-Y, Kim H, Verdeil J, Engelmann F (2014) Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots. Protoplasma 251:649–659Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Santos PG, Figueiredo AC, Lourenço PL, Barroso J, Pedro L, Oliveira MM, Schripsema J, Deans S, Scheffer JC (2002) Hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens (dill): establishment, growth, time-course study of their essential oil and its comparison with parent plant oils. Biotechnol Lett 24:1031–1036Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Santos PAG, Figueiredo AC, Oliveira MM, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Deans SG, Scheffer JJC (2005) Growth and essential oil composition of hairy root cultures of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (lovage). Plant Sci 168:1089–1096Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Santos PM, Figueiredo AC, Oliveira MM, Barroso J, Pedro LG, Deans SG, Younus AKM, Scheffer JJC (1998) Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from fruits and roots of Pimpinella anisum. Phytochemistry 48:455–460Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sasaki K, Udagawa A, Ishimaru H, Hayashi T, Alfermann AW, Nakanishi F, Shimomura K (1998) High forskolin production in hairy roots of Coleus forskohlii. Plant Cell Rep 17:457–459Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sato K, Yamazaki T, Okuyama E, Yoshihira K, Shimomura K (1991) Anthraquinone production by transformed root cultures of Rubia tinctorum: influence of phytohormones and sucrose concentration. Phytochemistry 30:1507–1509Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sauerwein M, Ishimaru K, Shimomura K (1991) Indole alkaloids in hairy roots of Amsonia elliptica. Phytochemistry 30:1153–1155Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sauerwein M, Shimomura K (1991) Alkaloid production in hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Phytochemistry 30:3277–3280Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sauerwein M, Yamazaki T, Shimomura K (1991) Hernandulcin in hairy root cultures of Lippia dulcis. Plant Cell Rep 9:579–581Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Savona M, Mascarello C, Bisio A, Romussi G, Profumo P, Warchol M, Bach A, Ruffoni B (2003) S. cinnabarina Martens et Galeotti: optimisation of the extraction of a new compound, tissue culture and hairy root transformation. Agr Med 133:28–35Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shanks JV, Bhadra R, Morgan J, Rijhwani S, Vani S (1998) Quantification of metabolites in the indole alkaloid pathways of Catharanthus roseus: implications for metabolic engineering. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:333–338Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Shanks J, Morgan J (1999) Plant ‘hairy root’ culture. Curr Opin Biotech 10:151–155Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Shi H, Kintzios S (2003) Genetic transformation of Pueraria phaseoloides with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and puerarin production in hairy roots. Plant Cell Rep 21:1103–1107Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shimomura K, Sudo H, Saga H, Kamada H (1991) Shikonin production and secretion by hairy root cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Plant Cell Rep 10:282–285Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Shinde A, Malpathak N, Fulzele D (2009) Enhanced production of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. Using elicitation and precursor feeding. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 14:288–294Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Siddiq A, Dembitsky V (2008) Acetylenic anticancer agents. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 8:132–170Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sidwa-Gorycka M, Krolicka A, Orlita A, Malinski E, Golebiowski M, Kumirska J, Chromik A, Biskup E, Stepnowski P, Lojkowska E (2009) Genetic transformation of Ruta graveolens L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes: hairy root cultures a promising approach for production of coumarins and furanocoumarins. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 97:59–69Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sircar D, Roychowdhury A, Mitra A (2007) Accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in hairy roots of Daucus carota. J Plant Physiol 164:1358–1366Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sivakumar G, Liu C, Towler MJ, Weathers PJ (2010) Biomass production of hairy roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a scaled-up mist bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:802–813Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Spena A, Schmülling T, Koncz C, Schell J (1987) Independent and synergistic activity of rol A, B, and C loci in stimulating abnormal growth in plants. EMBO J 6:3891–3899Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Srivastava S, Srivastava AK (2012) Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:1549–1553Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sudha C, Obul Reddy B, Ravishankar G, Seeni S (2003) Production of ajmalicine and ajmaline in hairy root cultures of Rauvolfia micrantha Hook f., a rare and endemic medicinal plant. Biotechnol Lett 25:631–636Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Swain S, Rout K, Chand P (2012) Production of triterpenoid anti-cancer compound taraxerol in Agrobacterium-transformed root cultures of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.). Appl Biochem Biotechnol 168:487–503Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sáenz-Carbonell L, Loyola-Vargas V (1997) Datura stramonium hairy roots tropane alkaloid content as a response to changes in Gamborg’s B5 medium. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 61:321–337Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Tada H, Nakashima T, Kunitake H, Mori K, Tanaka M, Ishimaru K (1996) Polyacetylenes in hairy root cultures of Campanula medium L. J Plant Physiol 147:617–619Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Tada H, Shimomura K, Ishimaru K (1995) Polyacetylenes in Hairy Root Cultures of Lobelia chinensis Lour. J Plant Physiol 146:199–202Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Takeda T, Kondo T, Mizukami H, Ogihara Y (1994) Bryonolic acid production in hairy roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii Max. var Japonica Kitam. Transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and its cytotoxic activity. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 42:730–732Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Tanaka N, Matsuura E, Terahara N, Ishimaru K (1999) Secondary metabolites in transformed root cultures of Campanula glomerata. J Plant Physiol 155:251–254Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Tanaka N, Takao M, Matsumoto T (1994) Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation and regeneration of Vinca minor L. Plant Tissue Cult Lett 11:191–198Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tang W, Eisenbrand G (1992) Gentiana spp. In: Tang W, Eisenbrand G (eds) Chinese drugs of plant origin, chemistry, pharmacology, and use in traditional and modern medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 549–553Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Taya M, Mine K, Kino-Oka M, Tone S, Ichi T (1992) Production and release of pigments by culture of transformed hairy root of red beet. J Ferment Bioeng 73:31–36Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Teoh K, Weathers P, Cheetham R, Walcerz D (1996) Cryopreservation of transformed (hairy) roots of Artemisia annua. Cryobiol 33:106–117Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Thiruvengadam M, Praveen N, Kim E-H, Kim S-H, Chung I-M (2014) Production of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds and biological activities from hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Protoplasma 251:555–566Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Thron U, Maresch L, Beiderbeck R, Reichling J (1989) Accumulation of unusual phenylpropanoids in transformed and non-transformed root cultures of Coreopsis tinctoria. Z Naturforsch 44:573–577Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tiwari RK, Trivedi M, Guang ZC, Guo GQ, Zheng GC (2007) Genetic transformation of Gentiana macrophylla with Agrobacterium rhizogenes: growth and production of secoiridoid glucoside gentiopicroside in transformed hairy root cultures. Plant Cell Rep 26:199–210Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Touno K, Yoshimatsu K, Shimomura K (2006) Characteristics of Atropa belladonna hairy roots cryopreserved by vitrification method. Cryo Lett 27:65–72Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Triplett B, Moss S, Bland J, Dowd M (2008) Induction of hairy root cultures from Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense to produce gossypol and related compounds. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 44:508–517Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Tusevski O, Stanoeva J, Stefova M, Kungulovski D, Pancevska N, Sekulovski N, Panov S, Simic S (2013) Hairy roots of Hypericum perforatum L.: a promising system for xanthone production. Cent Eur J Biol 8:1010–1022Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Udomsuk L, Jarukamjorn K, Tanaka H, Putalun W (2011) Improved isoflavonoid production in Pueraria candollei hairy root cultures using elicitation. Biotechnol Lett 33:369–374Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Uozumi N, Kobayashi T (1995) Artificial seed production through encapsulation of hairy root and shoot tips. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, vol 30, pp 170–180Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Vdovitchenko MY, Kuzovkina IN (2011) Artificial seed preparation as the efficient method for storage and production of healthy cultured roots of medicinal plants. Russ J Plant Physiol 58:524–530Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Venugopala K, Rashmi V, Odhav B (2013) Review on natural coumarin lead compounds for their pharmacological activity. Biomed Res Int, 963248Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Verma PC, Singh D, Rahman Lu, Gupta MM, Banerjee S (2002) In vitro-studies in Plumbago zeylanica: rapid micropropagation and establishment of higher plumbagin yielding hairy root cultures. J Plant Physiol 159:547–552Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Verma P, ur Rahman L, Negi A, Jain D, Khanuja SPS, Banerjee S (2007) Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.: establishment and selection of superior hairy root clone. Plant Biotechnol Rep 1:169–174Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wagner H, Jurcic K (1979) On the spasmolytic activity of valeriana extracts. Planta Med 37:84–86Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wahby I, Arráez-Román D, Segura-Carretero A, Ligero F, Caba JM, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2006) Analysis of choline and atropine in hairy root cultures of Cannabis sativa L. by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis 27:2208–2215Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wan J, Gong X, Jiang R, Zhang Z, Zhang L (2013) Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Asiaticoside in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat through up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1. Phytother Res 27:1136–1142Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wang X, Beckham TH, Morris JC, Chen F, Gangemi JD (2008) Bioactivities of gossypol, 6-methoxygossypol, and 6,6′-dimethoxygossypol. J Agric Food Chem 56:4393–4398Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wang CT, Liu H, Gao XS, Zhang HX (2010) Overexpression of G10H and ORCA3 in the hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus improves catharanthine production. Plant Cell Rep 29:887–894Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Washida D, Shimomura K, Nakajima Y, Takido M, Kitanaka S (1998) Ginsenosides in hairy roots of a panax hybrid. Phytochemistry 49:2331–2335Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Weathers PJ, Cheetham RD, Follansbee E, Teoh K (1994) Artemisinin production by transformed roots of Artemisia annua. Biotechnol Lett 16:1281–1286Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wielanek M, Królicka A, Bergier K, Gajewska E, Skłodowska M (2009) Transformation of Nasturtium officinale, Barbarea verna and Arabis caucasica for hairy roots and glucosinolate-myrosinase system production. Biotechnol Lett 31:917–921Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wielanek M, Urbanek H (1999) Glucotropaeolin and myrosinase production in hairy root cultures of Tropaeolum majus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 57:39–45Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    World Health Organization (2013) World malaria report.
  193. 193.
    Wysokiińska H, Rózga M (1998) Establishment of transformed root cultures of Paulownia tomentosa for verbascoside production. J Plant Physiol 152:78–83Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Xu H, Park J, Kim Y, Park N, Lee S, Park S (2009) Optimization of growth and pyranocoumarins production in hairy root culture of Angelica gigas Nakai. J Med Plants Res 3:978–981Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Yamanaka M, Ishibashi K, Shimomura K, Ishimaru K (1996) Polyacetylene glucosides in hairy root cultures of Lobelia cardinalis. Phytochemistry 41:183–185Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Yonemitsu H, Shimomura K, Satake M, Mochida S, Tanaka M, Endo T, Kaji A (1990) Lobeline production by hairy root culture of Lobelia inflata L. Plant Cell Rep 9:307–310Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Yoshikawa T, Furuya T (1987) Saponin production by cultures of Panax ginseng transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant Cell Rep 6:449–453Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Yoshimatsu K, Yamaguchi H, Shimomura K (1996) Traits of Panax ginseng hairy roots after cold storage and cryopreservation. Plant Cell Rep 15:555–560Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Young-Am C, Yu H, Song J, Chun H, Park S (2000) Indigo production in hairy root cultures of Polygonum tinctorium Lour. Biotechnol Lett 22:1527–1530Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Zhai B, Clark J, Ling T, Connelly M, Medina-Bolivar F, Rivas F (2014) Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L. Molecules 19:756–766Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Zhang H, Liu J, Lu H, Gao S (2009) Enhanced flavonoid production in hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch by combining the over-expression of chalcone isomerase gene with the elicitation treatment. Plant Cell Rep 28:1205–1213Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Zhao D, Fu C, Chen Y, Ma F (2004) Transformation of Saussurea medusa for hairy roots and jaceosidin production. Plant Cell Rep 23:468–474Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Zhao J, Zou L, Zhang C, Li Y, Peng L, Xiang D, Zhao G (2014) Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process. Phcog Mag 10:234–240Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zhi BH, Alfermann AW (1993) Diterpenoid production in hairy root cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Phytochemistry 32:699–703Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Zhou Y, Hirotani M, Yoshikawa T, Furuya T (1997) Flavonoids and phenylethanoids from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis. Phytochemistry 44:83–87Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations