Skip to main content

Biosensors for Diagnostic Applications

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE,volume 133)

Abstract

Biosensors combine a transducer with a biorecognition element and thus are able to transform a biochemical event on the transducer surface directly into a measurable signal. By this they have the potential to provide rapid, real-time, and accurate results in a comparatively easy way, which makes them promising analytical devices. Since the first biosensor was introduced in 1962 as an “enzyme electrode” for monitoring glucose in blood, medical applications have been the main driving force for further biosensor development. In this chapter we outline potential biosensor setups, focusing on transduction principles, biorecognition layers, and biosensor test formats, with regard to potential applications. A summary of relevant aspects concerning biosensor integration in efficient analytical setups is included. We describe the latest applications of biosensors in diagnostic applications focusing on detection of molecular biomarkers in real samples. An overview of the current state and future trends of biosensors in this field is given.

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Biosensor
  • Detection
  • Diagnostics
  • Test format

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Biosensor
  • Detection
  • Diagnostics
  • Test format

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/10_2011_130
  • Chapter length: 34 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-37691-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Hu S, Loo JA, Wong DT (2006) Human body fluid proteome analysis. Proteomics 6:6326–6353

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Yoo EH, Lee SY (2010) Glucose biosensors: an overview of use in clinical practice. Sensors 10:4558–4576

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Simon E (2010) Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis. Meas Sci Technol 21, Article No. 112002. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/21/11/112002

  4. Tothill IE (2009) Biosensors for cancer markers diagnosis. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:55–62

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Mascini M, Tombelli S (2008) Biosensors for biomarkers in medical diagnostics. Biomarkers 13:637–657

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Hartmann M, Roeraade J, Stoll D, Templin MF, Joos TO (2009) Protein microarrays for diagnostic assays. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1407–1416

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Wu J, Fu Z, Yan F, Ju H (2007) Biomedical and clinical applications of immunoassays and immunosensors for tumor markers. Trends Anal Chem 26:679–688

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Newman JD, Turner APF (2005) Home blood glucose biosensors: a commercial perspective. Biosens Bioelectron 20:2435–2453

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Gauglitz G, Luppa PB (2009) Point-of-care-testing patientennahe Labordiagnostik. Chem Unserer Zeit 43:308–318

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Braun S, Spannagl M, Völler H (2009) Patient self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1463–1471

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Warsinke A (2009) Point-of-care testing of proteins. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1393–1405

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Thévenot DR, Toth K, Durst RA, Wilson GS (1999) Electrochemical biosensors: recommended definitions and classification. Pure Appl Chem 71:2333–2348

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. D’Orazio P (2011) Biosensors in clinical chemistry—2011 update. Clin Chim Acta 412:1749–1761

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Luong JHT, Male KB, Glennon JD (2008) Biosensor technology: technology push versus market pull. Biotechnol Adv 26:492–500

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Rapp BE, Gruhl FJ, Länge K (2010) Biosensors with label-free detection designed for diagnostic applications. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:2403–2412

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Leca-Bouvier B, Blum LJ (2005) Biosensors for protein detection: a review. Anal Lett 38:1491–1517

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Li L (2011) Recent development of micromachined biosensors. IEEE Sens J 11:305–311

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Clark LC, Lyons C (1962) Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery. Ann N Y Acad Sci 102:29–45

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Shons A, Dorman F, Najarian J (1972) An immunospecific microbalance. J Biomed Mater Res 6:565–570

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Mosbach K, Danielsson B (1974) An enzyme thermistor. Biochim Biophys Acta 364:140–145

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Kronick MN, Little WA (1973) A new fluorescent immunoasssay. Bull Am Phys Soc 18:782

    Google Scholar 

  22. Kronick MN, Little WA (1975) A new immunoassay based on fluorescence excitation by internal reflection spectroscopy. J Immunol Methods 8:235–240

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Mansouri S, Schultz JS (1984) A miniature optical glucose sensor based on affinity binding. Nat Biotechnol 2:885–890

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Kriz CB, Rådevik K, Kriz D (1996) Magnetic permeability measurements in bioanalysis and biosensors. Anal Chem 68:1966–1970

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Baselt DR, Lee GU, Colton RJ (1996) Biosensor based on force microscope technology. J Vac Sci Technol B 14:789–793

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Baselt DR, Lee GU, Natesan M, Metzger SW, Sheehan PE, Colton RJ (1998) A biosensor based on magnetoresistance technology. Biosens Bioelectron 13:731–739

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Renneberg R, Pfeiffer D, Lisdat F, Wilson G, Wollenberger U, Ligler F, Turner APF (2008) Frieder Scheller and the short history of biosensors. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 109:1–18

    Google Scholar 

  28. Grieshaber D, MacKenzie R, Vörös J, Reimhult E (2008) Electrochemical biosensors—sensor principles and architectures. Sensors 8:1400–1458

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Hsing IM, Xu Y, Zhao W (2007) Micro- and nano-magnetic particles for applications in biosensing. Electroanalysis 19:755–768

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. Pohanka M, Skládal P (2008) Electrochemical biosensors—principles and applications. J Appl Biomed 6:57–64

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Lojou É, Bianco P (2006) Application of the electrochemical concepts and techniques to amperometric biosensor devices. J Electroceram 16:79–91

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. Koncki R (2007) Recent developments in potentiometric biosensors for biomedical analysis. Anal Chim Acta 599:7–15

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. Chang BY, Park SM (2010) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Annu Rev Anal Chem 3:207–229

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Pumera M (2011) Graphene in biosensing. Mater Today 14:308–315

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Qureshi A, Kang WP, Davidson JL, Gurbuz Y (2009) Review on carbon-derived, solid-state, micro and nano sensors for electrochemical sensing applications. Diam Relat Mater 18:1401–1420

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  36. Alonso-Lomillo MA, Domínguez-Renedo O, Arcos-Martínez MJ (2010) Screen-printed biosensors in microbiology; a review. Talanta 82:1629–1636

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  37. Bertoncello P, Forster RJ (2009) Nanostructured materials for electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based detection methods: recent advances and future perspectives. Biosens Bioelectron 24:3191–3200

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. Mastichiadis C, Niotis AE, Petrou PS, Kakabakos SE, Misiakos K (2008) Capillary-based immunoassays, immunosensors and DNA sensors—steps towards integration and multi-analysis. Trends Anal Chem 27:771–784

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Gauglitz G, Proll G (2008) Strategies for label-free optical detection. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 109:395–432

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Abbas A, Linman MJ, Cheng Q (2011) New trends in instrumental design for surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 26:1815–1824

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Scarano S, Mascini M, Turner APF, Minunni M (2010) Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 25:957–966

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Sepúlveda B, Angelomé PC, Lechuga LM, Liz-Marzán LM (2009) LSPR-based nanobiosensors. Nano Today 4:244–251

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Zourob M, Elwary S, Fan X, Mohr S, Goddard NJ (2009) Label-free detection with the resonant mirror biosensor. Methods Mol Biol 503:89–138

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Fan X, White IM, Shopova SI, Zhu H, Suter JD, Sun Y (2008) Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review. Anal Chim Acta 620:8–26

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. Gauglitz G (2010) Direct optical detection in bioanalysis: an update. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:2363–2372

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  46. Proll G, Markovic G, Steinle L, Gauglitz G (2009) Reflectometric interference spectroscopy. Methods Mol Biol 503:167–178

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Kasai S, Tanabashi A, Kajiki K, Itsuji T, Kurosaka R, Yoneyama H, Yamashita M, Ito H, Ouchi T (2009) Micro strip line-based on-chip terahertz integrated devices for high sensitivity biosensors. Appl Phys Express 2, Article No. 062401. doi:10.1143/APEX.2.062401

  48. Han XX, Zhao B, Ozaki Y (2009) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for protein detection. Anal Bioanal Chem 394:1719–1727

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. Lucklum R, Hauptmann P (2006) Acoustic microsensors—the challenge behind microgravimetry. Anal Bioanal Chem 384:667–682

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. Fu YQ, Luo JK, Du XY, Flewitt AJ, Li Y, Markx GH, Walton AJ, Milne WI (2010) Recent developments on ZnO films for acoustic wave based bio-sensing and microfluidic applications: a review. Sens Actuators B 143:606–619

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  51. Waggoner PS, Tan CP, Craighead HG (2010) Microfluidic integration of nanomechanical resonators for protein analysis in serum. Sens Actuators B 150:550–555

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Ferreira GNM, da-Silva AC, Tomé B (2009) Acoustic wave biosensors: physical models and biological applications of quartz crystal microbalance. Trends Biotechnol 27:689–697.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. Länge K, Rapp BE, Rapp M (2008) Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1509–1519

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Waggoner PS, Craighead HG (2007) Micro- and nanomechanical sensors for environmental, chemical, and biological detection. Lab Chip 7:1238–1255

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  55. Hwang KS, Lee SM, Kim SK, Lee JH, Kim TS (2009) Micro- and nanocantilever devices and systems for biomolecule detection. Annu Rev Anal Chem 2:77–98

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Xie B, Ramanathan K, Danielsson B (2000) Mini/micro thermal biosensors and other related devices for biochemical/clinical analysis and monitoring. Trends Anal Chem 19:340–349

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. Ramanathan K, Danielsson B (2001) Principles and applications of thermal biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 16:417–423

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  58. Zhang Y, Tadigadapa S (2004) Calorimetric biosensors with integrated microfluidic channels. Biosens Bioelectron 19:1733–1743

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Llandro J, Palfreyman JJ, Ionescu A, Barnes CHW (2010) Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review. Med Biol Eng Comput 48:977–998

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. Wang SX, Li G (2008) Advances in giant magnetoresistance biosensors with magnetic nanoparticle tags: review and outlook. IEEE Trans Magn 44:1687–1702

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. Class for Physics of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (2007) The discovery of giant magnetoresistance. AAPPS Bull 17:2–11

    Google Scholar 

  62. Yalow RS, Berson SA (1959) Assay of plasma insulin in human subjects by immunological methods. Nature 184:1648–1649

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  63. Wu AHB (2006) A selected history and future of immunoassay development and applications in clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta 369:119–124

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  64. Silvestre CIC, Pinto PCAG, Segundo MA, Saraiva MLMFS, Lima JLFC (2011) Enzyme based assays in a sequential injection format: a review. Anal Chim Acta 689:160–177

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  65. Conroy PJ, Hearty S, Leonard P, O’Kennedy RJ (2009) Antibody production, design and use for biosensor-based applications. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:10–26

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  66. Teles FRR, Fonseca LP (2008) Trends in DNA biosensors. Talanta 77:606–623

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  67. Zhou L, Wang MH, Wang JP, Ye ZZ (2011) Application of biosensor surface immobilization methods for aptamer. Chin J Anal Chem 39:432–438

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  68. Song S, Wang L, Li J, Zhao J, Fan C (2008) Aptamer-based biosensors. Trends Anal Chem 27:108–117

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  69. Su L, Jia W, Hou C, Lei Y (2011) Microbial biosensors: a review. Biosens Bioelectron 26:1788–1799

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  70. Shimomura-Shimizu M, Karube I (2010) Applications of microbial cell sensors. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 118:1–30

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Whitcombe MJ, Chianella I, Larcombe L, Piletsky SA, Noble J, Porter R, Horgan A (2011) The rational development of molecularly imprinted polymer-based sensors for protein detection. Chem Soc Rev 40:1547–1571

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  72. Fodey T, Leonhard P, O’Mahony J, O’Kennedy R, Danaher M (2011) Developments in the production of biological and synthetic binders for immunoassay and sensor-based detection of small molecules. Trends Anal Chem 30:254–269

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  73. Bally M, Bailey K, Sugihara K, Grieshaber D, Vörös J, Städler B (2010) Liposome and lipid bilayer arrays towards biosensing applications. Small 6:2481–2497

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  74. Gedig ET (2008) Surface chemistry in SPR technology. In: Schasfoort RBM, Tudos AJ (eds) Handbook of surface plasmon resonance, 1st edn. RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  75. Länge K, Rapp M (2009) Influence of intermediate hydrogel layer and amount of binding sites on the signal response of surface acoustic wave biosensors. Sens Actuators B 142:39–43

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Carlsson J, Gullstrand C, Westermark GT, Ludvigsson J, Enander K, Liedberg B (2008) An indirect competitive immunoassay for insulin autoantibodies based on surface plasmon resonance. Biosens Bioelectron 24:876–881

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  77. Länge K, Grimm S, Rapp M (2007) Chemical modification of parylene C coatings for SAW biosensors. Sens Actuators B 125:441–446

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Masson JF, Battaglia TM, Khairallah P, Beaudoin S, Booksh KS (2007) Quantitative measurement of cardiac markers in undiluted serum. Anal Chem 79:612–619

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  79. Länge K, Gruhl FJ, Rapp M (2009) Influence of preparative carboxylation steps on the analyte response of an acoustic biosensor. IEEE Sens J 9:2033–2034

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  80. Hernandez K, Fernandez-Lafuente R (2011) Control of protein immobilization: coupling immobilization and site-directed mutagenesis to improve biocatalyst or biosensor performance. Enzyme Microb Technol 48:107–122

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  81. Crowther JR (2000) The ELISA guidebook. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  82. Jiang X, Li D, Xu X, Ying Y, Li Y, Ye Z, Wang J (2008) Immunosensors for detection of pesticide residues. Biosens Bioelectron 23:1577–1587

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  83. Sadik OA, Aluoch AO, Zhou A (2009) Status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical techniques. Biosens Bioelectron 24:2749–2765

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  84. Perkel JM (2009) Who needs labels? Macromolecular interaction sans labels. Science 325:1561–1565

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  85. Cooper MA (2006) Optical biosensors: where next and how soon? Drug Discov Today 11:1061–1067

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  86. Treviño J, Calle A, Rodríguez-Frade JM, Mellado M, Lechuga LM (2009) Determination of human growth hormone in human serum samples by surface plasmon resonance immunoassay. Talanta 78:1011–1016

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Lubin AA, Plaxco KW (2010) Folding-based electrochemical biosensors: the case for responsive nucleic acid architectures. Acc Chem Res 43:496–505

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  88. Tyagi S, Kramer FR (1996) Molecular beacons: probes that fluoresce upon hybridization. Nat Biotechnol 14:303–308

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  89. Fritz J, Cooper EB, Gaudet S, Sorger PK, Manalis SR (2002) Electronic detection of DNA by its intrinsic molecular charge. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:14142–14146

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  90. Fan C, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ (2003) Electrochemical interrogation of conformational changes as a reagentless method for the sequence-specific detection of DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9134–9137

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  91. Cash KJ, Ricci F, Plaxco KW (2009) An electrochemical sensor for the detection of protein–small molecule interactions directly in serum and other complex matrices. J Am Chem Soc 131:6955–6957

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  92. Zhao S, Yang W, Lai RY (2011) A folding-based electrochemical aptasensor for detection of vascular endothelial growth factor in human whole blood. Biosens Bioelectron 26:2442–2447

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  93. Mitsakakis K, Gizeli E (2011) Detection of multiple cardiac markers with an integrated acoustic platform for cardiovascular risk assessment. Anal Chim Acta 699:1–5

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  94. Biacore Life Sciences (2011) Flow systems. http://www.biacore.com/lifesciences/technology/introduction/Flow_cells. Accessed 29 Aug 2011

  95. SAW Instruments (2011) Products: sensor chips and chemistries. http://www.saw-instruments.com. Accessed 29 Aug 2011

  96. Rozlosnik N (2009) New directions in medical biosensors employing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) derivative-based electrodes. Anal Bioanal Chem 395:637–645

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  97. Rapp BE, Carneiro L, Länge K, Rapp M (2009) An indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis (FIA) system allowing diffusion free pumping of liquids by using tetradecane as intermediary liquid. Lab Chip 9:354–356

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  98. Rapp BE, Schickling B, Prokop J, Piotter V, Rapp M, Länge K (2011) Design and integration of a generic disposable array-compatible sensor housing into an integrated disposable indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis system. Biomed Microdevices 13:909–922

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  99. Echeverry G, Hortin GL, Rai AJ (2010) Introduction to urinalysis: historical perspectives and clinical application. Methods Mol Biol 641:1–12

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  100. Spielmann N, Wong DT (2011) Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives. Oral Dis 17:345–354

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  101. Mattsson N (2011) CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. Clin Chem Lab Med 49:345–352

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  102. World Health Organization (2011) Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fact sheet N°317, January 2011. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en. Accessed 29 Aug 2011

  103. Mohammed MI, Desmulliez MPY (2011) Lab-on-a-chip based immunosensor principles and technologies for the detection of cardiac biomarkers: a review. Lab Chip 11:569–595

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  104. Abbott Point of Care (2011) Cardiac troponin I/cTNI. Article no 715595-00M. Revision date 17 Jan 2011. Abbott Point of Care, Abbott Park

    Google Scholar 

  105. de Vasconcelos EA, Peres NG, Peireira CO, da Silva VL, da Silva EF Jr, Dutra RF (2009) Potential of a simplified measurement scheme and device structure for a low cost label-free point-of-care capacitive biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 25:870–876

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Dutra RF, Mendes RK, da Silva VL, Kubota LT (2007) Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for human cardiac troponin T based on self-assembled monolayer. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43:1744–1750

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  107. Billah MM, Hodges CS, Hays HCW, Millner PA (2010) Directed immobilization of reduced antibody fragments onto a novel SAM on gold for myoglobin impedance immunosensing. Bioelectrochemistry 80:49–54

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  108. Albrecht C, Kaeppel N, Gauglitz G (2008) Two immunoassay formats for fully automated CRP detection in human serum. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1845–1852

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  109. Lin KC, Kunduru V, Bothara M, Rege K, Prasad S, Ramakrishna BL (2010) Biogenic nanoporous silica-based sensor for enhanced electrochemical detection of cardiovascular biomarkers proteins. Biosens Bioelectron 25:2336–2342

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  110. World Health Organization (2011) Cancer. Fact sheet N°297, February 2011. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en. Accessed 29 Aug 2011

  111. Ludwig JA, Weinstein JN (2005) Biomarkers in cancer staging, prognosis and treatment selection. Nat Rev Cancer 5:845–856

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  112. Gohring JT, Dale PS, Fan X (2010) Detection of HER2 breast cancer biomarker using the opto-fluidic ring resonator biosensor. Sens Actuators B 146:226–230

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  113. Chang YF, Hung SH, Lee YJ, Chen RC, Su LC, Lai CS, Chou C (2011) Discrimination of breast cancer by measuring prostate-specific antigen levels in women’s serum. Anal Chem 83:5324–5328

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  114. Soerjomataram I, Louwman MWJ, Ribot JG, Roukema JA, Coebergh JWW (2008) An overview of prognostic factors for long-term survivors of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 107:309–330

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  115. Loo LN, Capobianco JA, Wu W, Gao X, Shih WY, Shih WH, Pourrezaei K, Robinson MK, Adams GP (2011) Highly sensitive detection of HER2 extracellular domain in the serum of breast cancer patients by piezoelectric microcantilevers. Anal Chem 83:3392–3397

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  116. Healy DA, Hayes CJ, Leonard P, McKenna L, O’Kennedy R (2007) Biosensor developments: application to prostate-specific antigen detection. Trends Biotechnol 25:125–131

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  117. Li H, Wei Q, Wang G, Yang M, Qu F, Qian Z (2011) Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for cancer biomarker with signal enhancement based on nitrodopamine-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles. Biosens Bioelectron 26:3044–3049

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  118. Uludağ Y, Tothill IE (2010) Development of a sensitive detection method of cancer biomarkers in human serum (75%) using a quartz crystal microbalance sensor and nanoparticles amplification system. Talanta 82:277–282

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Su F, Xu C, Taya M, Murayama K, Shinohara Y, Nishimura SI (2008) Detection of carcinoembryonic antigens using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Sensors 8:4282–4295

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  120. Laboria N, Fragoso A, Kemmner W, Latta D, Nilsson O, Botero ML, Drese K, O’Sullivan CK (2010) Amperometric immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen in colon cancer samples based on monolayers of dendritic bipodal scaffolds. Anal Chem 82:1712–1719

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  121. Jiang W, Yuan R, Chai Y, Mao L, Su H (2011) A novel electrochemical immunoassay based on diazotization-coupled functionalized bioconjugates as trace labels for ultrasensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Biosens Bioelectron 26:2786–2790

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  122. Liao JY (2007) Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone using a label-free epoxysilane-modified capacitive immunosensor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:1385–1391

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  123. Mahler M, Fritzler MJ (2010) Epitope specificity and significance in systemic autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1183:267–287

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  124. Agmon-Levin N, Lian ZX, Shoenfeld Y (2011) Explosion of autoimmune diseases and the mosaic of old and novel factors. Cell Mol Immunol 8:189–192

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  125. Shoenfeld Y, Cervera R, Gershwin ME (2008) Diagnostic criteria in autoimmune diseases. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  126. Thaler M, Buhl A, Welter H, Schreiegg A, Kehrel M, Alber B, Metzger J, Luppa PB (2009) Biosensor analyses of serum autoantibodies: application to antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1417–1429

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  127. Ayela C, Roquet F, Valera L, Granier C, Nicu L, Pugnière M (2007) Antibody–antigenic peptide interactions monitored by SPR and QCM-D, a model for SPR detection of IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum. Biosens Bioelectron 22:3113–3119

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  128. de Gracia Villa M, Jiménez-Jorquera C, Haro I, Gomara MJ, Sanmartí R, Fernández-Sánchez C, Mendoza E (2011) Carbon nanotube composite peptide-based biosensors as putative diagnostic tools for rheumatoid arthritis. Biosens Bioelectron 27:113–118

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. Drouvalakis KA, Bangsaruntip S, Hueber W, Kozar LG, Utz PJ, Dai H (2008) Peptide-coated nanotube-based biosensor for the detection of disease-specific autoantibodies in human serum. Biosens Bioelectron 23:1413–1421

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  130. Metzger J, von Landenberg P, Kehrel M, Buhl A, Lackner KJ, Luppa PB (2007) Biosensor analysis of β2-glycoprotein I–reactive autoantibodies: evidence for isotype-specific binding and differentiation of pathogenic from infection-induced antibodies. Clin Chem 53:1137–1143

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  131. Konstantinov KN, Sitdikov RA, Lopez GP, Atanassov P, Rubin RL (2009) Rapid detection of anti-chromatin autoantibodies in human serum using a portable electrochemical biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 24:1949–1954

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  132. Lai NS, Wang CC, Chiang HL, Chau LK (2007) Detection of antinuclear antibodies by a colloidal gold modified optical fiber: comparison with ELISA. Anal Bioanal Chem 388:901–907

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  133. Porfir’eva AV, Evtyugin GA, Podshivalina EY, Anchikova LI, Budnikov GK (2007) A potentiometric DNA sensor for determining autoimmune antibodies to DNA. J Anal Chem 62:1180–1186

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  134. Evtugyn GA, Porfireva AV, Hianik T, Cheburova MS, Budnikov HC (2008) Potentiometric DNA sensor based on electropolymerized phenothiazines for protein detection. Electroanalysis 20:1300–1308

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  135. Fakhrullin RF, Vinter VG, Zamaleeva AI, Matveeva MV, Kourbanov RA, Temesgen BK, Ishmuchametova DG, Abramova ZI, Konovalova OA, Salakhov MK (2007) Quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor for the detection of antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Anal Bioanal Chem 388:367–375

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  136. Buhl A, Metzger JH, Heegaard NHH, von Landenberg P, Fleck M, Luppa PB (2007) Novel biosensor-based analytic device for the detection of anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Clin Chem 53:334–341

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  137. Fiegel F, Buhl A, Jaekel HP, Werle E, Schmolke M, Ollert M, Luppa PB (2010) Autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA-intermethod comparison between four commercial immunoassays and a research biosensor-based device. Lupus 19:957–964

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  138. da Silva Neves MMP, González-Garcia MB, Nouws HPA, Delerue-Matos C, Santos-Silva A, Costa-García A (2010) Celiac disease diagnosis and gluten-free food analytical control. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1743–1753

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  139. Balkenhohl T, Lisdat F (2007) Screen-printed electrodes as impedimetric immunosensors for the detection of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in human sera. Anal Chim Acta 597:50–57

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  140. Dulay S, Luzano-Sánchez P, Iwuoha E, Katakis I, O’Sullivan CK (2011) Electrochemical detection of celiac disease-related anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies using thiol based surface chemistry. Biosens Bioelectron 26:3852–3856

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  141. Bei R, Masuelli L, Palumbo C, Modesti M, Modesti A (2009) A common repertoire of autoantibodies is shared by cancer and autoimmune disease patients: inflammation in their induction and impact on tumor growth. Cancer Lett 281:8–23

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  142. Ladd J, Lu H, Taylor AD, Goodell V, Disis ML, Jiang S (2009) Direct detection of carcinoembryonic antigen autoantibodies in clinical human serum samples using a surface plasmon resonance sensor. Colloids Surf B 70:1–6

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  143. Xia N, Liu L, Harrington MG, Wang J, Zhou F (2010) Regenerable and simultaneous surface plasmon resonance detection of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides in cerebrospinal fluids with signal amplification by streptavidin conjugated to an N-terminus-specific antibody. Anal Chem 82:10151–10157

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  144. Krištofiková Z, Bocková M, Hegnerová K, Bartoš A, Klaschka J, Říčný J, Řípová D, Homola J (2009) Enhanced levels of mitochondrial enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 in patients with Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis. Mol Biosyst 5:1174–1179

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kerstin Länge .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Gruhl, F.J., Rapp, B.E., Länge, K. (2011). Biosensors for Diagnostic Applications. In: Seitz, H., Schumacher, S. (eds) Molecular Diagnostics. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, vol 133. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/10_2011_130

Download citation