Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics

Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 111)

Abstract

According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated—as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii—with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported.

Well-established probiotic effects are:
  1. 1.

    Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance.

     
  2. 2.

    Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut.

     
  3. 3.

    Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people.

     
  4. 4.

    Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth.

     
  5. 5.

    Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon.

     
  6. 6.

    Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants.

     
  7. 7.

    Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis).

     

A prebiotic is “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health”, whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides.

Health effects Host immunity Intestinal flora Prebiotics Probiotics Synbiotics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bottazzi V (1983) Food and feed production with microorganisms. Biotechnology 5:315–363 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary Modulation of the Colonic Microbiota: Introducing the Concept of Prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    (2000) Probiotische Mikroorganismenkulturen in Lebensmitteln. Abschlussbericht der Arbeitsgruppe “Probiotische Mikroorganismen in Lebensmitteln” am Bundesinstitut für gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin (BgVV), Berlin. In: Ernährungs-Umschau 47:191–195 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kollath W (1953) The increase of the diseases of civilization and their prevention. Münch Med Wochenschr 95:1260–1262 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lilly DM, Stillwell RH (1965) Probiotics growth promoting factors produced by micro-organisms. Science 147:747–748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fuller R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Bacteriol 66:365–378 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carre C (1887) Ueber Antagonisten unter den Bacterien. Correspondenz-Blatt Schweiz Aerzte 17:385–392 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tissier H (1906) Traitement des infections intestinales par la méthode de la flore bactérienne de l'intestin. CR Soc Biol 60:359–361 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Metchnikoff E (1907) Lactic acid as inhibiting intestinal putrefaction. In: The prolongation of life: optimistic studies. Heinemann, London, pp 161–183 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schrezenmeir J, De Vrese M (2001) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics—approaching a definition. Am J Clin Nutr 73:361–364 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salminen S, Bouley C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Cummings JH, Franck A, Gibson GR, Isolauri E, Moreau MC, Roberfroid M, Rowland I (1998) Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. Brit J Nutr 80:147–171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    FAO/WHO Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation 2001. Cordoba, Argentinia, 1.–4.10. 2001, pp 19–20 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanders ME (2003) Probiotics: considerations for human health. Nutr Rev 61:91–99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Vrese M (2003) Effects of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal symptoms, Helicobacter pylori activity and antibiotics-induced diarrhoea. Gastroenterology 124:A560 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    El Nezeami H, Mykkänen H, Kankaanpää P, Salminen S, Ahokas J (2000) Ability of Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium strains to remove aflatoxin B1 from chicken duodenum. J Food Protect 63:549–552 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saavedra JM, Baumann NA, Oung I, Perman JA, Yolken RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344:1046–1049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holzapfel WH, Haberer P, Snel J, Schillinger U, Huis in't Veld JHJ (1997) Overview of gut flora and probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol 41:85–101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reuter G (1997) Present and future of probiotics in Germany and in Central Europe. Biosci Microflora 16:43–51 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guarner F, Malagelada JR (2003) Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet 361:512–519 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eizaguirre I, Urkia NG, Asensio AB, Zubillaga I, Zubillaga P, Vidales C, Garcia-Arenzana JM, Aldazabal P (2002) Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of bacterial translocation in experimental short bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 37:699–702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gill HS, Shu Q, Lin H, Rutherfurd KJ, Cross ML (2001) Protection against translocating Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice by feeding the immuno-enhancing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berlin) 190:97–104 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mangell P, Nejdfors P, Wang M, Ahrne S, Westrom B, Thorlacius H, Jeppsson B (2002) Lactobacillus plantarum 299v inhibits Escherichia coli-induced intestinal permeability. Dig Dis Sci 47:511–516 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldin BR, Gorbach SL (1984) The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. Am J Clin Nutr 39:756–761 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coakley M, Ross RP, Nordgren M, Fitzgerald G, Devery R, Stanton C (2003) Conjugated linoleic acid biosynthesis by human-derived Bifidobacterium species. J Appl Microbiol 94:138–145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fonden R, Mogensen G, Tanaka R, Salminen S (2000) Effect of fermented dairy products on intestinal microflora, human nutrition, and health: current knowledge and future perspectives. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation, p 352 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vanderhoof JA (2001) Probiotics: future directions. Am J Clin Nutr 73:1152–1155 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Walker WA (2000) Role of nutrients and bacterial colonization in the development of intestinal host defense. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:2–7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mattar AF, Teitelbaum DH, Drongowski RA, Yongyi F, Harmon CM, Coran AG (2002) Probiotics up-regulate MUC-2 mucin gene expression in a Caco-2 cell-culture model. Pediatr Surg Int 18:586–590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marteau P, De Vrese M, Cellier C, Schrezenmeir J (2001) Protection from gastrointestinal diseases using probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 73:430–436 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Vrese M, Marteau PR (2007) Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea. J Nutr 137:803–811 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE (2006) Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis 6:374–382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Huang JS, Bousvaros A, Lee JW, Diaz A, Davidson EJ (2002) Efficacy of probiotic use in acute diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Dig Dis Sci 47:2625–2634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Allan SJ, Okoko B, Martinez E, Gregorio G, Dans LF (2004) Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD003048 Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saavedra JM, Baumann NA, Oung I, Perman JA, Yolken RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 34:1046–1049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Isolauri E, Joensuu J, Suolamalainen H, Luomala M, Vesikari T (1995) Improved immunogenecity of oral DxRRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 13:310–312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Majamaa H, Isolauri E, Saxelin M, Vesikari T (1995) Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 20:333–338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, Vesikari T (1997) Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 24:399–404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rechkemmer G, Holzapfel W, Haberer P, Wollowski I, Pool-Zobel BL, Watzl B (2000) Beeinflussung der Darmflora durch Ernährung. In: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung. Ernährungsbericht 2000. Druckerei Heinrich, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, pp 259–286 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chandra RK (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Res 22:65–69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, Larsen CN, Moller PL, Pedersen P, Tvede M, Weyrehter H, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A (2002) Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:411–416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buydens P, Debeuckelaere S (1996) Efficacy of SF68 in the treatment of acute diarrhea. A placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:887–891 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, Murtaza G, Iqbal K, Saeed Shekhani M, Iddiqi AQ (2006) Role of a probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) in management and prevention f diarrhoea. World J Gastroenterol 12:4557–4560 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krammer HJ, Kamper H, Von Bunau R, Zieseniss E, Stange C, Schlieger F, Clever I, Schulze J (2006) Probiotic Drug Therapy with E. coli Strain Nissle 1917 (EcN): results of a prospective study of the secords of 3807 Patients. Z Gastroenterol 44:651–656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA et al. (2000) Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:54–60 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mastretta E, Longo P, Laccisaglia A, Balbo L, Russo R, Mazzaccara A, Gianino P (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus GG and breast-feeding in the prevention of rotavirus nosocomial infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 35:527–531 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Costa-Ribeiro H, Ribeiro TC, Mattos AP, Valois SS, Neri DA, Almeida P, Cerqueira CM, Ramos E, Young RJ, Vanderhoof JA (2003) Limitations of probiotic therapy in acute, severe dehydrating diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 36:112–115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, Bouley CF, Reinert P (1999) The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001, on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. Int J Clin Pract 53:179–184 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, Bouley CF, Reinert P (2000) Multicenter study on 928 children attending day care centers to evaluate the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on the incidence of diarrhoea. Int J Clin Pract 54:568–571 Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, Meurman JH, Poussa T, Nase L, Saxelin M, Korpela R (2001) Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 322:1327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weizman Z, Asli G, Alsheikh A (2005) Effect of a probiotic infant formula on infections in child care centers: comparison of two probiotic agents. Pediatrics 115:5–9 Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, Taylor DN, Black RE, Cabrera L, Lescano AG, Meza R, Madico G (1999) A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 134:15–20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pereg D, Kimhi O, Tirosh A, Orr N, Kayouf R, Lishner M (2005) The effect of fermented yogurt on the prevention of diarrhea in a healthy adult population. Am J Infect Control 33:122–125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Black FT, Andersen PL, Orskov J, Orskov F, Gaarslev K, Laulund S (1989) Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveller's diarrhea. In: Steffen R (ed) Travel medicine. Conference on international travel medicine 1, Zurich, Switzerland. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 333–335 Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Smith M, Singer C (1997) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrhoea preventive. J Travel Med 4:3–7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, Hämäläinen P, Ihantola-Vormisto A, Muurasniemi-Isoviita, Nikkari S, Oksanen T, Pörsti I, Salminen E, Siitonen S, Stuckey H, Toppila A, Vapaatalo H (1990) Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 22:53–56 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Katelaris PH, Salam I, Farthing MJG (1995) Lactobacilli to prevent traveler's diarrhea? New Engl J Med 333:1360–1361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V, Cammarota G, Anti M, De Lorenzos A, Pola P, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A (2001) The effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:163–169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, Mykkänen H, Salminen S, Maunula L, Isolauri E (1999) Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomised study. Pediatrics 104:E64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A (2002) Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1461–1467 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kotowska M, Albrecht P, Szajewska H (2005) Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21:583–590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    McFarland LV (2006) Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 101:812–822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Katz JA (2006) Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol 40:249–255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Radzikowski A (2006) Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr 149:367–372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hawrelak JA, Whitten DL, Myers SP (2005) Is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effective in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. Digestion 72:51–56 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Duman DG, Bor S, Ozutemiz O, Sahin T, Oguz D, Istan F, Vural T, Sandkci M, Isksal F, Simsek I et al. (2005) Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea due to Helicobacterpylori eradication. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:1357–1361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, Corr AP, Weaver AL, Lohse CM (2001) Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 76:883–889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dendukuri N, Costa V, McGegor M, Brophy JM (2005) Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review. CMAJ 173:167–170 Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tomoda T, Nakano Y, Kageyama T (1988) Intestinal Candida overgrowth and Candida infection in patients with leukemia: effect of Bifidobacterium administration. Bifidobact Microflora 7:71–74 Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Delia P, Sansotta G, Donato V, Messina G, Frosina P, Pergolizzi S, De Renzis C, Famularo G (2002) Prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea with the use of VSL#3, a new high-potency probiotic preparation. Am J Gastroenterol 97:2150–2152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Urbancsek H, Kazar T, Mezes I, Neumann K (2001) Results of a double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Antibiophilus in patients with radiation-induced diarrhoea. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:391–396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Delia P, Sansotta G, Donato V, Frosina P, Messina G, De Renzis C, Famularo G (2007) Use of probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol 13:912–915 Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA (1998) Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem Toxicol 36:1085–1094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    De Vrese M, Kuhn C, Titze A, Lorenz A, Suhr M, Barth CA, Schrezenmeir J (1997) Einfluß von Art und Viabilität von Laktobazillen in Sauermilchprodukten auf die Laktoseverdauung. Akt Ernähr-1997 Med 22:44 Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oozeer R, Goupil-Feuillerat N, Alpert A, Van de Guchte M, Anba J, Mengaud J, Corthier G (2002) Lactobacillus casei is able to survive and initiate protein synthesis during its transit in the digestive tract of human flora-associated mice. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3570–3574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    De Vrese M, Stegelmann A, Richter B, Fenselau S, Laue C, Schrezenmeir J (2001) Probiotics—compensation for lactase insufficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 73:361–364 Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Labayen I, Martinez JA (2003) Probiotic bacteria and lactase deficiencies. Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:64–72 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Suhr M, De Vrese M, Barth CA (1995) Differenzierende Untersuchung der β-Galactosidaseaktivität von Wirts- und Mikroflora nach Joghurtverzehr. Milchwiss 50:629–633 Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhong Y, Priebe MG, Vonk RJ, Huang CY, Antoine JM, He T, Harmsen HJ, Welling GW (2004) The role of colonic microbiota in lactose intolerance. Dig Dis Sci 49:78–83 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Caplan MS, Miller-Catchpole R, Kaup S, Russell T, Lickerman M, Amer M, Xiao Y, Thomson R (1999) Bifidobacterial supplementation reduces the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. Gastroenterology 117:577–583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dieleman LA, Goerres MS, Arends A, Sprengers D, Torrice C, Hoentjen F, Grenther WB, Sartor RB (2003) Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment. Gut 52:370–376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Li Z, Yang S, Lin H, Huang J, Watkins PA, Moser AB, Desimone C, Song XY, Diehl AM (2003) Probiotics and antibodies to TNF inhibit inflammatory activity and improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 37:343–350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, Tavernini MM, Fedorak RN (1999) Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 116:1107–1114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gionchetti P, Rizello F, Venturi A, Campieri M (2000) Probiotics in infective diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:489–493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Faubion WA, Sandborn WJ (2000) Probiotic therapy with E. coli for ulcerative colitis: take the good with the bad. Gastroenterology 118:630–635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Guandalini S (2002) Use of Lactobacillus-GG in paediatric Crohn's disease. Dig Liver Dis 34:S63–S65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Malin M, Suomalainen H, Saxelin M, Isolauri E (1996) Promotion of IgA immune response in patients with Crohn's disease by oral bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG. Ann Nutr Metab 40:137–145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rembecken BJ, Snelling AM, Hawkey PM, Chalmers DM, Axon AT (1999) Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. Lancet 354:635–639 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Chapman TM, Plosker GL, Figgitt DP (2007) Spotlight on VSL#3 probiotic mixture in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Bio Drugs 21:61–63 Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fricu P, Zavoral M (2003) The effect of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:313–315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A et al. (2000) Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119:305–309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mach T (2006) Clinical usefulness of probiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases. J Physiol Pharmacol 57(9):23–33 Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gupta P, Andrew H, Kirschner BS, Guandalini S (2000) Is Lactobacillus GG helpful in children with Crohn's disease? Results of a preliminary, open-label study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:453–457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ishikawa H, Akedo I, Umesaki Y, Tanaka R, Imaoka A, Otani T (2003) Randomized controlled trial on the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J Am Coll Nutr 22:56–63 Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guslandi M, Giollo P, Testoni PA (2003) A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:697–698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW Madsen KL, Gionchetti P, Campieri M, De Simone C, Sartor RB (2005) VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 100:1539–1546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, Poggioli G, Schreiber S, Talbot IC, Nicholls RJ, Gionchetti P, Campieri M, Kamm MA (2004) Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 53:108–114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ewaschuk JB, Tejpar QZ, Soo I, Madsen K, Fedorak RN (2006) The role of antibiotic and probiotic therapies in current and future management of inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 8:486–498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bai AP, Ouyang Q (2006) Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. Postgrad Med J 82:376–382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chermesh I, Eliakim R (2006) Probiotics and the gastrointestinal tract: Where are we in 2005? World J Gastroenterol 12:853–857 Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Lammers KM, Morselli C, Sollazzi L, Davies S, Tambasco R, Calabrese C, Campieri M (2006) Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 12:3306–3313 Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dotan I, Rachmilewitz D (2005) Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: possible mechanisms of action. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 21:426–430 Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Peluso I, Fina D, Caruso R, Stolfi C, Caprioli F, Fantini MC, Caspani G, Grossi E, Di Iorio L, Paone FM, Pallone F, Monteleone G (2007) Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei B21060 suppresses human T-cell proliferation. Infect Immun 75:1730–1737 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim N, Kunisawa J, Kweon MN, Eog Ji G, Kiyono H (2007) Oral feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum (BGN4) prevents CD4(+) CD45RB(high) T cell-mediated inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of disordered T cell activation. Clin Immunol 123:30–39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dalmasso G, Cottrez F, Imbert V, Lagadec P, Peyron JF, Rampal P, Czerucka D, Groux H (2006) Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits inflammatory bowel disease by trapping T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Gastroenterology 131:1812–1825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Foligne B, Zoumpopoulou G, Dewulf J, Ben Younes A, Chareyre F, Sirard JC, Pot B, Grangette C (2007) A key role of dendritic cells in probiotic functionality. PLoS ONE 2:e313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, Andreoli A, Luzi C (2002) Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn.s disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 51:405–409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P Laharie D, Colombel JF, Bouhnik Y, Cadiot G, Soule JC, Boureille A, Metman E, Lerebours E, Carbonnel F, Dupas JL, Veyrac M, Coffin B, Moreau J, Abitbol V, Blum-Sperisen S, Mary JY (2006) Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn.s disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GETAID trial. Gut 55:842–847 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, Andreoli A, Luzi C (2002) Ineffectiviness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 51:405–409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schultz M, Timmer A, Herfarth HH, Balfour Sartor R, Vanderhoof JA, Rath HC (2004) Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease. BMC Gastroenterology 4:5–8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Van Gossum A, Dewit O, Louis E, De Hertogh G, Baert F, Fontaine F, Devos M, Enslen M, Paintin M, Franchimont D (2007) Multicenter randomized-controlled clinical trial of probiotics (Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1) on early endoscopic recurrence of Crohn's disease after ileo-caecal resection. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13:135–142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Möllenbrink M, Bruckschen E (1994) Behandlung der chronischen Obstipation mit physiologischen Escherichia-coli-Bakterien. Med Klin 89:587–593 Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ouwehand AC, Lagström H, Suomalainen T, Salminen S (2002) The effect of probiotics on constipation, faecal azoreductase activity and facal mucins. Ann Nutr Metab 10:159–162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Koebnick C, Wagner I, Leitzmann P, Stern U, Zunft HJF (2003) Probiotic beverage containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation. Can J Gastroenterol 17:655–659 Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bouvier M, Meance S, Bouley C, Berta J-L, Grimaud J-C (2001) Effects of consumption of a milk fermented by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on colonic transit times in healthy humans. Biosci Microflora 20:43–48 Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Halpern GM, Pridiville T, Blanckenburg M, Hsia T, Gerschwin ME (1996) Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol forte: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Am J Gastroenterol 91:1579–1585 Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Brigidi P, Vitali B, Swennen E, Bazzocchi G, Matteuzzi D (2001) Effects of probiotic administration upon composition and enzymatic activity of human fecal microbiota in patients with irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhea. Res Microbiol 152:735–741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B (2001) A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:1143–1147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J, Bond Y, Charbonneau D, O'Mahony L, Kiely B, Shanahan F, Quigley EM (2006) Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 101:1581–1590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Colecchia A, Vestito A, La Rocca A, Pasqui F, Nikiforaki A, Festi D, Symbiotic Study Group (2006) Effect of a symbiotic preparation on the clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation-variant. Results of an open, uncontrolled multicenter study. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 52:349–358 Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kajander K, Korpela R (2006) Clinical studies on alleviating the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 15:576–580 Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Adler SN (2006) The probiotic agent Escherichia coli M-17 has a healing effect in patients with IBS with proximal inflammation of the small bowel. Dig Liver Dis 38:713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kim HJ, Vazquez Roque MI, Camilleri M, Stephens D, Burton DD, Baxter K, Thomforde G, Zinsmeister AR (2005) A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination VSL# 3 and placebo in irritable bowel syndrome with bloating. Neurogastroenterol Motil 17:687–696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fanigliulo L, Comparato G, Aragona G, Cavallaro L, Iori V, Maino M, Cavestro GM, Soliani P, Sianesi M, Franze A, Di Mario F (2006) Role of gut microflora and probiotic effects in the irritable bowel syndrome. Acta Biomed 77:85–89 Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    O'Sullivan MA, O'Morain CA (2000) Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 32:294–301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, Woolner JT, Tarry SA, Hunter JO (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 47:2615–2620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Krasse P, Carlsson B, Dahl C, Paulsson A, Nilsson A, Sinkiewicz G (2006) Decreased gum bleeding and reduced gingivitis by the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. Swed Dent J 30:55–60 Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Caglar E, Sandalli N, Twetman S, Kavaloglu S, Ergeneli S, Selvi S (2005) Effect of yogurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. Acta Odontol Scand 63:317–320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    O'Connor EB, O'Riordan B, Morgan SM, Whelton H, O'Mullane DM, Ross RP, Hill C (2006) A lacticin 3147 enriched food ingredient reduces Streptococcus mutans isolated from the human oral cavity in saliva. J Appl Microbiol 100:1251–1260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Busscher HJ, Mulder AF, van der Mei HC (1999) In vitro adhesion to enamel and in vivo colonization of tooth surfaces by Lactobacilli from a bioyoghurt. Caries Res 33:403–404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nase L, Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Saxelin M, Ponka A, Poussa T, Korpela R, Meurman JH (2001) Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res 35:412–420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bayona Gonzalez A, Lopez Camara V, Gomez Castellanos A (1990) Prevention of caries with lactobacillus (final results of a clinical trial on dental caries with killed lactobacillus [streptococcus and lactobacillus given orally]). Pract Odontol 11:37–39 (in Spanish) Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Michetti P, Dorta G, Brassard D, Vouillamoz D, Schwitzer W, Felley C, Blum AL, Porta N, Rouvet M, Corthesy-Theulaz I (1995) L. acidophilus supernatant as an adjuvant in the therapy of H. pylori in humans. Gastroenterology 108:A166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Rivero JL, Sipponen P, Kaufmann M, Bauerfeind P, Wiesel PH, Brassart D, Pfeiffer A, Blum AL, Michetti P (2001) Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:25–29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sullivan A, Bennet R, Viitanen M, Palmgren A-C, Nord CE (2002) Influence of Lactobacillus F19 on intestinal microflora in children and elderly persons and impact on Helicobacter pylori infections. Microbiol Ecol Health Dis 14:17–21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L (2002) Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 65:16–20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ, Murray N, Kaufman SS (1998) Treatment strategies for small bowel bacterial overgrowth in short bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 27:155–160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, De Cucco Games A, Cerchio A, Quintas R, Gonzalez SN, Oliver G (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. acidophillus strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina (B Aires) 62:159–163 Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Siemenhoff ML, Dunn SR, Zollner GP, Fitzpatrick ME, Emery SM, Sandine WE, Ayres JW (1996) Biomodulation of the toxic and nutritional effects of small bowel bacterial overgrowth in endstage kidney disease using freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 22:92–96 Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Müting D (1989) Bifidum-Milch und Laktulose verhindern die Enzephalopathie. Ärztliche Praxis 24:798 Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Nanji AA, Khettry U, Sadrzadeh SMH (1994) Lactobacillus feeding reduce endotoxemia of experimental alcoholic liver disease. PSEMB 205:243–247 Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Burton JP, Cadieux PA, Reid G (2003) Improved understanding of the bacterial vaginal microbiota of women before and after probiotic instillation. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:97–101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Reid G (2001) Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr 73:437–443 Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Reid G, Charbonneau D, Erb J, Kochanowski B, Beuerman D, Poehner R, Bruce AW (2003) Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 35:131–113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C (1992) Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 19:146–148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hilton E, Isenberg HD, Alperstein P, France K, Borenstein MT (1992) Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis. Ann Int Med 116:353–357 Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, Colodner R, Keness Y (1996) Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Arch Fam Med 5:593–596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M (1995) Instillation of Lactobacillus and stimulation of indigenous organisms to prevent recurrence of urinary tract infections. Microecol Ther 23:32–45 Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Juarez Tomas MS, Ocana VS, Wiese B, Nader-Macias ME (2003) Growth and lactic acid production by vaginal Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1259, and inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol 52:1117–1124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A (2004) Lactobacilli for prevention of urogenital infections: a review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 8:87–95 Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Reid G, Bruce AW (2006) Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence. World J Urol 24(1):28–32 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Baerheim A, Larsen E, Digranes A (1994) Vaginal application of lactobacilli in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in women. Scand J Prim Health Care 12:239–243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Yamazaki S, Tsuyuki S, Akashiba H, Kamimura H, Kimura M, Kawashima T, Ueda K (1991) Immune response of Bifidobacterium-monoassociated mice. Bifidobact Microflora 10:19–31 Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gill SH, Rutherford J, Cross L, Gopal PK (2001) Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HNO 19. Am J Clin Nutr 74:833–839 Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Jahreis G, Vogelsang H, Kiessling G, Schubert R, Bunte C, Hammes WP (2002) Influence of probiotic saucage (Lactobacillus paracasei) on blood lipids and immunological parameters of healthy volunteers. Food Res Int 35:133–138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kitazawa H, Ino T, Kawai Y, Itoh T, Saito T (2002) A novel immunostimulating aspect of Lactobacillus gasseri: induction of “Gasserokine” as chemoattractants for macrophages. Int J Food Microbiol 25:29–38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Moineau S, Goulet J (1991) Effect of feeding fermented milks on the pulmonary macrophage activity in mice. Milchwiss 46:551–554 Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Nagao F, Nakayama M, Muto T, Okumura K (2000) Effects of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the immune system in healthy human subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:2706–2708 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Aattouri N, Lemonnier D (1997) Production of interferon induced by Streptococcus thermophilus: role of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. J Nutr Biochem 8:25–31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cross ML, Mortensen RR, Kudsk J, Gill HS (2002) Dietary intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 enhances production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in antigen-primed mice. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 191:49–53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pochard P, Gosset P, Grangette C, Andre C, Tonnel AB, Pestel J, Mercenier A (2002) Lactic acid bacteria inhibit TH2 cytokine production by mononuclear cells from allergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:617–623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    De Vrese M, Ghadimi D, Winkler P, Schrezenmeir J (2006) Antiallergenes Potenzial von Milchsäure-produzierenden Bakterien. Vorträge zur Hochschultagung 2006 der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der CAU Kiel 108:205–214 Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    De Vrese M, Rautenberg P, Laue C, Koopmans M, Herreman T, Schrezenmeir J (2005) Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination. Eur J Nutr 44:406–413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fukushima Y, Kawata Y, Hara H, Terada A, Mitsuoka T (1998) Effect of a probiotic formula on intestinal immunoglobulin A production in healthy children. Int J Food Microbiol 42:39–44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen E, Laine S, Arvilommi H (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatr Res 32:141–144 Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Marteau P, Vaerman J-P, Dehennin J-P, Bord S, Brassart D, Pochart P, Desjeux J-F, Rambaud J-C (1997) Effects of intrajejunal perfusion and chronic ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii strain LA1 on serum concentrations and jejunal secretions of immunoglobulins and serum proteins in healthy humans. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 21:293–298 Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rio ME, Zago Beatriz L, Garcia H, Winter L (2002) The nutritional status change the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of lactic bacteria on the emerging of respiratory tract diseases in children. Arch Latinoam Nutr 52:29–34 Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Turchet P, Laurenzano M, Auboiron S, Antoine JM (2003) Effect of fermented milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on winter infections in free-living elderly subjects: a randomised, controlled pilot study. J Nutr Health Aging 7:75–77 Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    De Vrese M, Winkler P, Rautenberg P, Harder T, Noah C, Laue C, Ott S, Hampe J, Schreiber S, Heller K, Schrezenmeir J (2005) Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Nutr 24:481–491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Winkler P, De Vrese M, Ch. Lauel C, Schrezenmeier J (2005) Effect of a dietary supplement containtng probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. Int J Clin Pharm Ther 4:318–326 Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    De Vrese M, Winkler P, Rautenberg P, Harder T, Noah C, Laue C, Ott S, Hampe J, Schreiber S, Heller K, Schrezenmeir J (2006) Probiotic bacteria reduced duration and severity but not the incidence of common cold episodes in a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Vaccine 24:6670–6674 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Isolauri E (1995) The treatment of cow's milk allergy. Eur J Clin Nutr 49:49–55 Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sütas Y, Moilanen E, Salminen S (2000) Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 30:1604–1610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Majamaa H, Isolauri E (1997) Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:179–185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, Michaelsen KF, Jeppesen DL, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A (2003) Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:389–395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Helin T, Haahtela S, Haahtela T (2002) No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), on birch-pollen allergy: a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Allergy 57:243–246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E (2001) Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357:1076–1079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E (2002) Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109:119–121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Arvilommi H, Isolauri E (2003) Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361:1869–1871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Inoue R, Nishio A, Fukushima Y, Ushida K (2007) Oral treatment with probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (La1) for a specific part of the weaning period prevents the development of atopic dermatitis induced after maturation in model mice, NC/Nga. Brit J Dermatol 156:499–509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Passeron T, Lacour JP, Fontas E, Ortonne JP (2006) Prebiotics and synbiotics: two promising approaches for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children above 2 years. Allergy 61:431–437 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T, Tuure T, Kuitunen M (2007) Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:192–198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Weston S, Halbert A, Richmond P, Prescott SL (2005) Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 90:892–897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sistek D, Kelly R, Wickens K, Stanley T, Fitzharris P, Crane J (2006) Is the effect of probiotics on atopic dermatitis confined to food sensitized children? Clin Exp Allergy 36:629–633 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Forsythe P, Inman MD, Bienenstock J (2007) Oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits the allergic airway response in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:561–569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ogawa T, Hashikawa S, Asai Y, Sakamoto H, Yasuda K, Makimura Y (2006) A new synbiotic, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei together with dextran, reduces murine and human allergic reaction. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 46:400–409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Folster-Holst R, Muller F, Schnopp N, Abeck D, Kreiselmaier I, Lenz T, Von Ruden U, Schrezenmeir J, Christophers E, Weichenthal M (2006) Prospective, randomized controlled trial on Lactobacillus rhamnosus in infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Brit J Dermatol 155:1256–1261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Taylor AL, Dunstan JA, Prescott SL (2007) Probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life fails to reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis and increases the risk of allergen sensitization in high-risk children: a randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:184–191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Brouwer ML, Wolt-Plompen SA, Dubois AE, Van der Heide S, Jansen DF, Hoijer MA, Kauffman HF, Duiverman EJ (2006) No effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis in infancy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy 36:899–906 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Moreira A, Kekkonen R, Korpela R, Delgado L, Haahtela T (2006) Allergy in marathon runners and effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on allergic inflammatory markers. Respir Med 101:1223–1231 Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kirjavainen PV, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E (2003) Probiotic bacteria in the management of atopic disease: underscoring the importance of viability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 36:223–227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kirjavainen PV, Arvola T, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E (2002) Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning? Gut 51:51–55 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Baharav E, Mor F, Halpern M, Weinberger A (2004) Lactobacillus GG bacteria ameliorate arthritis in Lewis rats. J Nutr 134:1964–1969 Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Calla A, Rao DR, Chawan CB, Shackelford I (1997) Bifidobacterium longum and lactulose suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 18:517–521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    De Roos N, Katan M (2000) Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 71:405–411 Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Friend BA, Farmer RE, Shahani KM (1982) Effect of feeding and intraperitoneal implantation of yoghurt culture cells on Ehrlich ascites tumor. Milchwiss 37:708–710 Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Aso Y, Akazan H, Kotake T, Tsukamoto T, Imai K, Maito S (1995) BLP Study Group. Preventive effect of Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double-blind trial. Eur Urol 27:104–109 Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ohashi Y, Nakai S, Tsukamoto T, Masumori N, Akaza H, Miyanaga N et al. (2002) Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urol Int 68:273–280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Rafter JJ (1995) The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention. Scand J Gastroenterol 30:497–502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Oatley JT, Rarick MD, Ji GE, Linz JE (2000) Binding of aflatoxin B1 to bifidobacteria in vitro. J Food Protect 63:1133–1136 Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Fujiwara S, Seto Y, Kimura A, Hashiba H (2001) Establishment of orally-administered Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055SR in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and its influence on intestinal microflora and metabolism. J Appl Microbiol 90:343–352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Haskard CA, El-Nezami HS, Kankaanpää PE, Salminen S, Ahokas JT (2001) Surface binding of aflatoxin B1 lactic acid bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3086–3091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Tannock GW, Munro K, Harmsen HJM, Welling GW, Smart J, Gopal PK (2000) Analysis of the fecal microflora of human subjects consuming a probiotic product containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2578–2588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hayatsu H, Hayatsu T (1993) Suppressing effect of Lactobacillus casei administration on the urinary mutagenicity arising from ingestion of fried ground beef in the human. Cancer Lett 73:173–179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Horie H, Zeisig M, Hirayama K, Midtvedt T, Moller L, Rafter J (2003) Probiotic mixture decreases DNA adduct formation in colonic epithelium induced by the food mutagen 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole in a human-flora associated mouse model. Eur J Cancer Prev 12:101–107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gilliland SE, Nelson CR, Maxwell C (1985) Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:377–381 Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Klaver FA, Van der Meer R (1993) The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt-deconjugating activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:1120–1124 Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Rasic JL, Vujicic IF, Skringer M, Vulic M (1992) Assimilation of cholesterol by some cultures of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Biotechnol Lett 14:39–44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Agerbaek M, Gerdes LU, Richelsen B (1995) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of a new fermented milk product in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 49:346–352 Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Richelsen B, Kristensen K, Pedersen SB (1996) Long-term (6 months) effect of a new fermented milk product on the level of plasma lipoproteins—a placebo-controlled and double blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:811–815 Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hlivak P, Odraska J, Ferencik M, Ebringer L, Jahnova E, Mikes Z (2005) One-year application of probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74 decreases serum cholesterol levels. Bratisl Lek Listy 106:67–72 Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Naruszewicz M, Johansson ML, Zapolska-Downar D, Bukowska H (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr 76:1249–1255 Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kiessling G, Schneider J, Jahreis G (2002) Long-term consumption of fermented dairy products over 6 months increases HDL cholesterol. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:843–849 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Oxman T, Shapira M, Klein R, Avazov N, Rabinowitz B (2001) Oral administration of Lactobacillus induces cardioprotection. J Altern Complement Med 7:345–354 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Agerholm-Larsen L, Bell ML, Grunwald GK, Astrup A (2000) The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta-analysis of short-term intervention studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:856–860 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Bukowska H, Pieczul-Mroz J, Jastrzebska M, Chelstowski K, Naruszewicz M (1998) Decrease in fibrinogen and LDL-cholesterol levels upon supplementation of diet with Lactobacillus plantarum in subjects with moderately elevated cholesterol. Atherosclerosis 137:437–438 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Greany KA, Bonorden MJ, Hamilton-Reeves JM, McMullen MH, Wangen KE, Phipps WR, Feirtag J, Thomas W, Kurzer MS (2007) Probiotic capsules do not lower plasma lipids in young women and men. Eur J Clin Nutr 62:232–237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Simons LA, Amansec SG, Conway P (2006) Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum on serum lipids in subjects with elevated serum cholesterol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16:531–535 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fabian E, Elmadfa I (2006) Influence of daily consumption of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on the plasma lipid profile in young healthy women. Ann Nutr Metab 50:387–393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Lewis SJ, Burmeister S (2005) A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:776–780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Adams MR (1999) Safety of industrial lactic acid bacteria. J Biotechnol 68:171–178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Boriello SP, Hammes WP, Holzapfel W, Marteau P, Schrezenmeir J, Vaara M, Valtonen V (2003) Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis 36:775–780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie (1997) Eingruppierung biologischer Agenzien: Bakterien. In: Sichere Biotechnologie. Merkblatt B006, 2/97, ZH 1/346 Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Gasser F (1994) Safety of lactic acid bacteria and their occurence in human clinical infections. Bull Inst Pasteur 92:45–67 Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, Pietarinen I, Saxelin M, Tynkkynen S, Koskela M (1999) Liver abscess due to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 28:1159–1160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Mackay AD, Taylor MB, Kibbler CC, Hamilton-Miller JM (1999) Lactobacillus endocarditis caused by a probiotic organism. Clin Microbiol Infect 5:290–292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Pletinx M, Legein J, Vandenplas Y (1995) Fungemia with S. boulardii in a 1-year old girl with protracted diarrhoea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 21:113–115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Riquelme AJ, Calvo MA, Guzman AM, Depix MS, Garcia P, Perez C, Arrese M, Labarca JA (2003) Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia after Saccharomyces boulardii treatment in immunocompromised patients. J Clin Gastroenterol 36:41–43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, Saxelin M, Vaara M, Ruutu P, Sarna S, Valtonen V, Jarvinen A (2002) Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland. Clin Infect Dis 35:1155–1156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Heller KJ (2001) Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms. Am J Clin Nutr 73:374S Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Shah NP, Lankaputhra WEV, Britz ML, Kyle WSA (1995) Survival of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yogurt during refrigerated storage. Int Dairy J 5:515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Joseph PJ, Dave RI, Shah NP (1998) Antagonism between yogurt bacteria and probiotic bacteria isolated from commercial starter cultures, commercial yogurts, and a probiotic capsule. Food Australia 50:20 Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Kolter R (1993) The stationary phase of the bacterial life cycle. Ann Rev Biochem 47:855 Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Wetzel K, Menzel M, Heller KJ (1999) Stress response in Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus induced by carbon starvation. Kieler Milchwirtschaftl Forsch Ber 51:319 Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Dave RI, Shah NP (1997) Effect of cysteine on the viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in yogurts made with commercial starter cultures. Int Dairy J 7:537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Kunji ERS, Mierau I, Hagting A, Poolman B, Konings WN (1996) The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 70:91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Fox PF, Law J, McSweeney PLH, Wallace J (1993) Biochemistry of cheese ripening. In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: Chemistry, Physics, and Microbiology; General Aspects. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 389–438 Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Desmazeaud M (1996) Growth inhibitors of lactic acid bacteria. In: Cogan TM, Accolas J-P (eds) Dairy starter cultures. VCH Publishers, New York, p 131 Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Lankaputhra WEV, Shah NP, Britz ML (1996) Survival of bifidobacteria during refrigerated storage in the presence of acid and hydrogen peroxide. Milchwiss 51:65 Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Leuschner RG, Heidel M, Hammes WP (1998) Histamine and tyramine degradation by food fermenting microorganisms. Int J Food Microbiol 39:1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Vinderola CG, Prosello W, Ghiberto D, Reinheimer JA (2000) Viability of probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and non-probiotic microflora in Argentinian fresco cheese. J Dairy Sci 83:1905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Blanchette L, Roy D, Gauthier SF (1996) Production of Cottage Cheese Using Dressings Fermented by Bifidobacteria. J Dairy Sci 79:8–15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Gomez AMP, Malcata FX, Klaver FAM, Grande HJ (1995) Incorporation and survival of Bifidobacterium sp. Strain Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus strain Ki in a cheese product. Neth Milk Dairy J 49:71–95 Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Gobbetti M, Corsetti A, Smacchi E, Zocchetti A, De Angelis M (1997) Production of Crescenza cheese by incorporation of bifidobacteria. J Dairy Sci 81:37–47 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Gardiner GE, Ross RP, Collins JK, Fitzgerald G, Stanton C (1998) Development of a probiotic Cheddar cheese containing human-derived Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2192–2199 Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Gardiner GE, Ross RP, Wallace JM, Scanlan FP, Jägers PPJM, Fitzgerald GF, Collins JK, Stanton C (1999) Influence of the probiotic adjunct culture of Enterococcus faecium on the quality of Cheddar cheese. J Agric Food Chem 47:4907–4916 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Gardiner GE, Stanton C, Lynch PB, Collins JK, Fitzgerald G, Ross RP (1999) Evaluation of Cheddar cheese as a food carrier for delivery of a probiotic strain to the gastrointestinal tract. J Dairy Sci 82:1379–1387 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Corbo MR, Albenzio M, De Angelis M, Sevi A, Gobbetti M (2001) Microbial and biochemical properties of canestrato pugliese hard cheese supplemented with bifidobacteria. J Dairy Sci 84:551–561 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Möller C, De Vrese M (2004) Review: probiotic effects of selected acid bacteria. Milchwiss 59:597–601 Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Auty MAE, Gardiner GE, Mc Brearty S, O'Sullivan EO, Mulvihill DM, Collins JK, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C, Ross RP (2001) Direct in situ viability assessment of bacteria in probiotic dairy products using viability staining in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:420–425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Mc Brearty S, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Collins JK, Wallace JM, Stanton C (2001) Influence of two commercially available bifidobacteria cultures on Cheddar cheese quality. Int Dairy J 11:599–610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Zarate G, Chaia AP, Gonzalez S, Oliver G (2000) Viability and beta-galactosidase activity of dairy propionibacteria subjected to digestion by artificial gastric and intestinal fluids. J Food Protect 63:1214–1221 Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Songisepp E, Kullisaar T, Hutt P, Elias P, Brilene T, Zilmer M, Mikelsaar M (2004) A new probiotic cheese with antioxidative and antimicrobial activity. J Dairy Sci 87:2017–2023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Coeuret V, Gueguen M, Vernoux JP (2004) In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese. J Dairy Res 71:451–460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Kumura H, Tanoue Y, Tsukahara M, Tanaka T, Shimazaki K (2004) Screenig of dairy yeast strains for probiotic applications. J Dairy Sci 87:4050–4056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Psomas E, Fletouris DJ, Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E, Tzanetakis N (2003) Assimilation of cholesterol by yeast strains isolated from infant feces and Feta cheese. J Dairy Sci 86:3416–3422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Saavedra J, Taranto MP, Sesma F, De Valdez GF (2003) Homemade traditional cheeses for the isolation of probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains. Int J Food Microbiol 88:241–245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Medici M, Vinderola CG, Perdigon G (2004) Gut mucosal immunomodulation by probiotic fresh cheese. Int Dairy J 14:611–618 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Ryhanen EL, Pihlanto-Leppala A, Pahkala EB (2001) A new type of ripened, low-fat cheese with bioactive properties. Int Dairy J 11:441–447 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Saxelin M (2000) Clinical documentation, product development and marketing of Lactobacillus GG. Scand J Nutr 44:102 Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Hekmat S, McMahon DJ (1992) Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in Ice Cream for Use as a Probiotic Food. J Dairy Sci 75:1415–1422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Davidson RH, Duncan SE, Hackney CR, Eigel WN, Boling JW (2000) Probiotic Culture Survival and Implications in Fermented Frozen Yogurt Characteristics. J Dairy Sci 83:666–673 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Favaro-Trindade CS, Bernardi S, Bodini RB, De Carvalho Balieiro JC, De Almeida E (2006) Sensory Acceptability and Stability of Probiotic Microorganisms and Vitamin C in Fermented Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Ice Cream. J Food Sci 71:492 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    De Vrese M (1997) Probiotika—eine Option für die Süßwarenindustrie? Deut Molkereizeitung 12:500–508 Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Weber H (ed) (2003) Mikrobiologie der Lebensmittel – Fleisch – Fisch – Feinkost. Behr's Verlag, Hamburg Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Työppönen S, Petäjä E, Mattila-Sandholm T (2003) Bioprotectives and probiotics for dry sausages. Int J Food Microbiol 83:233–244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Erkkila S, Suihko M-L, Eerola S, Petaja E, Mattila-Sandholm T (2001) Dry sausages fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Int J Food Microbiol 64:205–210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    To BCS, Etzel MR (1997) Spray drying, freeze drying, or freezing of three different lactic acid bacteria species. JFS 62:576–578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Raffalt J (1999) Technologische Lösungsvorschläge zur Herstellung von Nahrungs- und Genussmitteln sowie pharmazeutischen Formulierungen mit gesundheitsfördernden lyophilisierten Milchsäurebakterien. Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Leslie SB, Israeli E, Lighthart B, Crowe JH, Crowe LM (1995) Trehalose and sucrose protect both membranes and proteins in intact bacteria during drying. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3592–3597 Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Oliver AE, Crowe LM, Crowe JH (1998) Methods for dehydration-tolerance: depression of the phase transition temperature in dry membranes and carbohydrate vitrification. Seed Sci Res 8:211–221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Corcoran BM, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C (2004) Comparative survival of probiotic lactobacilli spray-dried in the presence of prebiotic substances. J Appl Microbiol 96:1024–1039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    De Vrese M, Winkler P, Aulert D, Eskandar F, Hartmann U, Laue C, Müller BW, Schlothauer R, Schneider J, Van Venrooy I, Von Holt A, Schrezenmeir J (2005) Alginat- und Fett-Mikropartikel zur Stabilisierung von Probiotika und zum Colon-targeting. Kieler Milchwirtschaftliche Forschungsberichte 57:57 Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Gardiner G, O'Sullivan E, Kelly J, Auty MAE, Fitzgerald GF, Collins JK, Ross RP, Stanton C (2000) Comparative survival rates of human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius strains during heat treatment and spray drying. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2605–2616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Selmer-Olsen E, Sorhaug T, Birkeland SE, Pehrson R (1999) Survival of Lb. helveticus entrapped in calcium alginate in relation to water content, storage and rehydration. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23:79–85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Desmond C, Stanton C, Fitzgerald G, Collins K, Ross RP (2001) Environmental adaptation of probiotic lactobacilli towards improvement of performance during spray drying. Int Dairy J 11:801–808 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Groboillot A, Boadi D, Poncelet KD, Neufeld RJ (1994) Immobilization of cells for application in the food industry. Crit Rev Biotechnol 14:75–107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Shah NP, Ravula RR (2000) Microeancapsulation of probiotic bacteria and their survival in frozen fermented dairy desserts. Aust J Dairy Technol 55:139–144 Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Godward G, Kailasapathy K (2003) Viability and survival of free, encapsulated and co-encapsulated probiotic bacteria in ice cream. Milchwiss 58:161–164 Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo JAE, Roberfroid MB (2004) Dietary Modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 17:257–259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Roberfroid M (2007) Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr 137:830–837 Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Nilsson U, Björck I (1988) Availability of cereal fructans and inulin in the rat intestinal tract. J Nutr 118:1482–1486 Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Playne MJ, Crittenden R (1996) Commercially available oligosaccharides. IDF Bulletin 313:10–22 Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Sandberg AS, Andersson H, Haalgren B, Hasselblad K, Isaksson B (1981) Experimental model for in vivo determination of dietary fibre and its effect on the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Brit J Nutr 45:282–294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Bach Knudsen KE, Hessov I (1995) Recovery of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in the small intestine of man. Brit J Nutr 74:101–113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Ellegärd L, Andersson H, Bosaeus I (1997) Inulin and oligofructose do not influence the absorption of cholesterol, or the excretion of cholesterol, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, or bile acids but increases energy excretion in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 51:1–5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S, Gibson GR (1998) Validation of a three-stage compound continuous culture system for investigating the effect of retention time on the ecology and metabolism of bacteria in the human colonic microbiota. Microbiol Ecol 35:180–187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Szilit O, Andrieux C (1993) Physiological and pathological effects of carbohydrate fermentation. In: Simopoulos AP, Corring T, Rérat A (eds) Intestinal Flora, Immunity, Nutrition and Health, World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. Karger, Basel 74:88–122 Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Akkermans A, van Elsas JD, De Bruijn FJ (ed) (1995) Molecular microbial ecology manual. Kluwer Academic Publ, Nowell, MA Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    O'Sullivan MG (1997) Metabolism of bifidogenic factors by gut flora—an overview. IDF Bull 313:23 Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Saito Y, Tanaka T, Rowland IR (1992) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on the human gut microflora in in vitro culture. Microbiol Ecol Health Dis 5:105–110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Ito M, Kimura M, Deguchi Y, Miyamori-Watabe A, Yajima T, Kan T (1993) Effect of transgalactosilated disaccharides on the human intestinal microflora and their metabolism. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 39:279–288 Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Rowland IR, Tanaka R (1993) The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with human faecal microflora. J Appl Bacteriol 74:667–674 Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Buddington RK, Williams CH, Chen S, Witherly SA (1996) Dietary supplement of neosugar alters the fecal flora and decreases activities of some reductive enzymes in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 62:709–716 Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Menne E, Guggenbuhl N, Pycke JM (1995) The effect of FYOS on the compositon of human faecal flora. Internal report, ORAFTI, Tienen, Belgium Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Cherbur C (2002) Inulin and oligofructose in the dietary fiber concept. Brit J Nutr 87:159–162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Nyman M (2002) Fermentation and bulking capacity of indigestible carbohydrates: the case of Inulin and oligofructose. Brit J Nutr 87:163–168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Kolida S, Tuohy K, Gibson GR (2002) Prebiotic effects of Inulin and oligofructose. Brit J Nutr 87:193–197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Bielecka M, Biedrzycka E, Majkowska A (2002) Selection of probiotics and prebiotics for synbiotics and confirmation of their in vivo effectiveness. Food Res Int 35:139–144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Fooks LJ, Gibson GR (2002) In vitro investigations of the effect of probiotics and prebiotics on selected human intestinal pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39:67–75 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Asahara T, Nomoto K, Shimizu K, Watanuki M, Tanaka R (2001) Increased resistance of mice to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection by synbiotic administration of Bifidobacteria and transgalactosylated oligosaccharides. J Appl Microbiol 91:985–996 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Bomba A, Nemcova R, Gancarcikova S, Herich R, Guba P, Mudronova D (2002) Improvement of the probiotic effect of microorganisms by their combination with maltodextrins, fructo-oligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Brit J Nutr 88:95–99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Langlands SJ, Hopkins MJ, Coleman N, Cummings JH (2004) Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel. Gut 53:1610–1616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Cummings JH, Macfarlane G (2002) Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics. Brit J Nutr 87:145–51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Videla S, Vilaseca J, Antolin M, Garcia-Lafuente A, Guarner F, Crespo E, Casalots J, Salas A, Malagelada JR (2001) Dietary inulin improves distal colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in the rat. Am J Gastroenterol 96:1486–1493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Lewis S, Burmeister S, Brazier J (2005) Effect of the prebiotic oligofructose on relapse of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:442–448 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Kanamori Y, Sugiyama M, Hashizume K, Yuki N, Morotomi M, Tanaka R (2004) Experience of long-term synbiotic therapy in seven short bowel patients with refractory enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg 39:1686–1692 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Cummings JH, Christie S, Cole TJ (2001) A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:1139–1145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Lewis S, Burmeister S, Cohen S, Brazier J, Awasthi A (2005) Failure of dietary oligofructose to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21:469–477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Brunser O, Gotteland M, Cruchet S, Figueroa G, Garrido D, Steenhout P (2006) Effect of a milk formula with prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment. Pediatr Res 59:451–456 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Duggan C, Penny ME, Hibberd P, Gil A, Huapaya A, Cooper A, Coletta F, Emenhiser C, Kleinman RE (2003) Oligofructose-supplemented infant cereal: 2 randomized, blinded, community-based trials in Peruvian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 77:937–942 Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Hunter JO, Tuffnell Q, Lee AJ (1999) Controlled trial of oligofructose in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. J Nutr 129:1451–1453 Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Klinder A, Forster A, Caderni G, Femia AP, Pool-Zobel BL (2004) Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor-preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses, probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis), and their synbiotic combination. Nutr Cancer 49:144–155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Bolognani F, Rumney CJ, Pool-Zobl B, Rowland IR (2001) Effect of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and Inulin on the formation of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Eur J Nutr 40:293–300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Pool-Zobel B, Van Loo J, Roberfroid M (2002) Experimental evidences on the potential of prebiotic fructans to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Brit J Nutr 87:273–281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Roller M, Caderni G, Rechkemmer G, Watzl B (2002) Long-term treatment with a prebiotic modulates the gut-associated immune system of azoxymethane-treated F344 rats. Paper presented at the SKLM Symposium “Functional Food: Safety Aspects”, May 5–7 2002, Karlsruhe, Germany Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Verghese M, Rao DR, Chawan CB, Williams LL, Shackelford L (2002) Dietary inulin suppresses azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colon tumors at the promotion stage in young Fisher 344 rats. J Nutr 132:2809–2813 Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Taper HS, Roberfroid MB (2002) Inulin/Oligofructose and anticancer therapy. Brit J Nutr 87:283–286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Femia AP, Luceri C, Dolara P, Giannini A, Biggeri A, Salvadori M, Clune Y, Collins KJ, Paglierani M, Caderni G (2002) Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23:1953–1960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Fiordaliso M, Kok N, Desager J-P, Goethals F, Deboyser D, Roberfroid M, Delzenne N (1995) Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats. Lipids 30:163–167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Delzenne NM, Daubioul C, Neyrinck A, Lasa M, Taper HS (2002) Inulin and oligofructose modulate lipid metabolis in animals, review of biological events and future prospects. Brit J Nutr 87:S255–259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Daubioul C, Rousseau N, Demeure R, Gallez B, Taper H, Declerck B, Delzenne N (2002) Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats. J Nutr 132:967–973 Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Mortensen A, Poulsen M, Frandsen H (2002) Effect of long-chained fructan Raftilose ® HP on blood lipids and spontaneous atherosklerosis in low density receptor knockout mice. Nutr Res 22:473–480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Delzenne NM, Kok N (2001) Effects of fructan-type prebiotics on lipid metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 73:456–458 Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Delzenne N, Ferre P, Beylor M, Daubioul C, Declerq B, Diraison F, Dugail I, Foufelle F, Foretz M, Mace K, Reimer R, Palmer G, Rutter GT, Tavare JU, Van Loo J, Vidal HZ (2001) Study of the regulation by nutrients of the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and obesity in humans and animals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 11:118–121 Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Williams CM, Jackson KG (2002) Inulin and oligofructose: effects on lipid metabolism from human studies. Brit J Nutr 87:261–264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Pereira DI, Gibson GR (2002) Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37:259–281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Cani PD, Dewever C, Delzenne NM (2004) Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Brit J Nutr 92:521–526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Balcazar-Munoz BR, Martinez-Abundis E, Gonzalez-Ortiz M (2003) Effect of oral inulin administration on lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in subjects with obesity and dyslipidemia. Rev Med Chil 131:597–604 Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Ohta A, Ohtsuki M, Hosono A, Adachi T, Hara H, Sakata T (1998) Dietary fructooligosaccharides prevent osteopenia after gastrectomy in rats. J Nutr 128:106–110 Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Scholz-Ahrens KE, Acil Y, Schrezenmeir J (2002) Effect of oligofructose or dietary calcium on repeated calcium and phosphorusn balances, bone mineralization and trabecular structure in ovariectomized rats. Brit J Nutr 88:365–377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Scholz-Ahrens K, Schaafsma G, Van den Heuvel EG, Schrezenmeir J (2001) Effects of prebiotics on mineral metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 73:459–464 Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Van den Heuvel E, Muys T, Van Dokkum W, Schaafsma G (1999) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 69:544–548 Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Liang L, Gunn SK, Darlington G, Ellis KJ (2005) A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 82:471–476 Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Griffin IJ, Davila PM, Abrams SA (2002) Non-digestible oligosaccharides and calcium absorption in girls with adequate calcium intake. Brit J Nutr 87:187–191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Lopez-Huertas E, Teucher B, Boza JJ, Martinez-Ferez A, Majsak-Newman G, Baro L, Carrero JJ, Gonzalez-Santiago M, Fonolla J, Fairweather-Tait S (2006) Absorption of calcium from milks enriched with fructo-oligosaccharides, caseinophosphopeptides, tricalcium phosphate, and milk solids. Am J Clin Nutr 83(2):310–316 Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Schley PD, Field CJ (2002) The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics. Brit J Nutr 87:221–230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Bakker-Zierikzee AM, Tol EA, Kroes H, Alles MS, Kok FJ, Bindels JG (2006) Faecal SIgA secretion in infants fed on pre- or probiotic infant formula. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:134–140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Hoentjen F, Welling GW, Harmsen HJ, Zhang X, Snart J, Tannock GW, Lien K, Churchill TA, Lupicki M, Dieleman LA (2005) Reduction of colitis by prebiotics in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is associated with microflora changes and immunomodulation. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:977–985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Buddington KK, Donahoo JB, Buddington RK (2001) Dietary oligofructose and inulin.protect mice from enteric and systemic pathogtens and tumor inducers. J Nutr 132:472–477 Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Bunout D, Hirsch S, Pia de la Maza M, Munoz C, Haschke F, Steenhout P, Klassen P, Barrera G, Gattas V, Petermann M (2002) Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 26:372–376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Kanamori Y, Hashizume K, Sugiyama M, Morotomi M, Yuki N, Tanaka R (2002) A novel synbiotic therapy dramatically improved the intestinal function of a pediatric patient with laryngotracheo-esophageal cleft (LTEC) in the intensive care unit. Clin Nutr 21:527–530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Fujitani S, Ueno K, Kamiya T, Tsukahara T, Ishihara K, Kitabayashi T, Itabashi K (2007) Increased number of CCR4-positive cells in the duodenum of ovalbumininduced food allergy model nc_jic mice and antiallergic activity of fructooligosaccharides. Allergol Int 56:131–138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T, Tuure T, Kuitunen M (2007) Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:192–198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Mountzouris KC, McCartney AL, Gibson GR (2002) Intestinal microflora of human infants and current trends for ist nutritional modulation. Brit J Nutr 87:405–420 Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Vandenplas Y (2002) Oligosaccharides in infant formula. Brit J Nutr 87:293–296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Agarwal R, Sharma N, Chaudhry R, Deorari A, Paul VK, Gewolb IH, Panigrahi P (2003) Effects of Oral Lactobacillus GG on Enteric Microflora in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 36:397–402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Millar MR, Bacon C, Smith SL, Walker V, Hall MA (1993) Enteral feeding of premature infants with Lactobacillus GG. Arch Dis Chil 69:483–487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Boehm G, Casetta P, Lidestri M, Negretti M, Jelinek J, Stahl B, Marini A (2001) Effect of dietary oligosaccharides (OS) on faecal bifidobacteria in formula-fed preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 32:393 Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Moro G, Minoli I, Mosca F, Fanaro S, Jelinek J, Stahl B, Boehm G (2002) Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34:291–295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Knol J, Boehm G, Lidestri M, Negretti F, Jelinek J, Agosti M, Stahl B, Marini A, Mosca F (2005) Increase of faecal bifidobacteria due to dietary oligosaccharides induces a reduction of clinically relevant pathogen germs in the faeces of formula-fed preterm infants. Acta Paediatr Suppl 94:31–33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Knol J, Scholtens P, Kafka C, Steenbakkers J, Gro S, Helm K, Klarczyk M, Schopfer H, Bockler HM, Wells J (2005) Colon microflora in infants fed formula with galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides: more like breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:36–42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Fanaro S, Boehm G, Garssen J, Knol J, Mosca F, Stahl B, Vigi V (2005) Galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides as prebiotics in infant formulas: a review. Acta Paediatr Suppl 94:22–26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Danan C, Huret Y, Tessèdre A-C, Bensaada M, Szylit O, Butel M-J (2000) Could oligosaccharide supplementation promote gut colonization with a beneficial flora in preterm infants? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30:217–219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Butel M-J, Waligora-Dupriet A-J, Szylit O (2002) Prebiotics and experimental model of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. Brit J Nutr 87:213–219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Juffrie M (2002) Fructooligosaccharides and diarrhea. Biosci Microflora 21:31–34 Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Saavedra J, Tschernia A (2002) Human studies with probiotics and prebiotics: clinical implications. Brit J Nutr 87:241–246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Fisberg M, Maulen I, Vasquez E, Garcia J, Comer GM, Alarcon PA (2000) Effect of oral supplementation with and without synbiotics on catch-up growth in preschool children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:Abstract 987 Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Firmansyah A, Pramita GD, Carrié Fässler AL, Haschke F, Link-Amster H (2000) Improved humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants receiving infant cereals with fructooligosaccharides. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31:Abstract 521 Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Nopchinda S, Varavithya W, Phuapradit P, Sangchai R, Suthutvoravut U, Chantraruksa V, Haschke F (2002) Effect of bifidobacterium Bb12 with or without Streptococcus thermophilus supplemented formula on nutritional status. J Med Assoc Thai 85:1225–1231 Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Absolonne J, Jossart M, Coussement P, Roberfroid M (1995) Digestive acceptability of oligofructose. Proc 1 Orafti Research Conf pp 151–160 Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Andersson H, Asp N-G, Bruce A, Roos S, Wadstrom T, Wold AE (2001) Health effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a literature review on human studies. Scand J Nutr 45:58–75 Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    Bomba A, Nemcova R, Gancarcikova S, Herich R, Guba P, Mudronova D (2002) Improvement of the probiotic effect of microorganisms by their combination with maltodextrins, fructo-oligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Brit J Nutr 88:95–99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Schrezenmeir J, Heller K, McCue M, Llamas C, Lam W, Burow H, Kindling-Rohracker M, Fischer W, Sengespeik HC, Comer GM, Alarcon P (2004) Benefits of oral supplementation with and without synbiotics in young children with acute bacterial infections. Clin Pediatr 43:239–249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Jain PK, McNaught CE, Andersen ADG, MacFie J (2004) Influence of synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and oligofructose on gut barrier function and sepsis in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr 23:467–475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Caderni G, Femia AP, Giannini A, Favuzza A, Luceri C, Salvadori M, Dolara P (2003) Identification of mucin-depleted foci in the unsectioned colon of azoxymethane-treated rats: correlation with carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 63:2388–2392 Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Marten B, Scholz-Ahrens KE, Schrezenmeir J (2004) Pre- and syn- but not probiotics increase calcium absorption and retention in ovariecomized rats. Proc Germ Nutr Soc 6:71 (in German) Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Bartosch S, Woodmansey EJ, Paterson JC, McMurdo ME, Macfarlane GT (2005) Microbiological effects of consuming a synbiotic containing Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and oligofructose in elderly persons, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and counting of viable bacteria. Clin Infect Dis 40:28–37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Gotteland M, Poliak L, Cruchet S, Brunser O (2005) Effect of regular ingestion of Saccharomyces boulardii plus inulin or Lactobacillus acidophilus LB in children colonized by Helicobacter pylori. Acta Paediatr 94:1747–1751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Kanamori Y, Sugiyama M, Hashizume K, Yuki N, Morotomi M, Tanaka R (2004) Experience of long-term synbiotic therapy in seven short bowel patients with refractory enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg 39:1686–1692 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Andersen ADG, McNaught CE, Jain PK, MacFie J (2004) Randomised clinical trial of synbiotic therapy in elective surgical patients. Gut 53:241–245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Physiologie und Biochemie der ErnährungMax Rubner InstitutKielGermany

Personalised recommendations