Advertisement

Keywords

Heart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Brain Natriuretic Peptide Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Severe Heart Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult. Circulation 2001;104:2996–3007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    The Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) investigators. Effects on enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325: 293–303.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, et al. The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES) investigator. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pitt B, Pool-Wilson PA, Segal R, et al. The ELITE II investigators. Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomized trial–the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. Lancet. 2000;355:1582–1587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Young JB, Dunlap ME, Pfeffer A, et al. for the candesartan in heart failure assessment in mortality and morbidity (CHARM) investigators and Committees. Mortality and morbidity reduction with candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: Results of the CHARM low-left ventricular ejection fraction trials. Circulation 2004;110:2618–2626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomized trial. Lancet 1999;353:9–13.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The MERIT-HF Study Group (Deedwania, Gottlieb S, Principal Investigators, USA). Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in congestive heart failure. Lancet 1999;353:2001–2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001 May 31;344(22): 1651–1658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 1997;336:525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Personalised recommendations