Advertisement

A Critical Look at the Ediacaran Trace Fossil Record

  • Sören Jensen
  • Mary L. Droser
  • James G. Gehling
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 27)

Keywords

Lower Cambrian Trace Fossil Yangtze Platform Dengying Formation Cambrian Boundary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aceñolaza, F. G., and Alonso, R. N., 2001, Icno-asociaciones de la transición Precambrico/Cámbrico en el noroeste de Argentina, J. Iberian Geol. 27: 11–22.Google Scholar
  2. Aceñolaza, F. G., Bettucci, L. S., and Fernicola, J. C., 1998, Icnofósiles del Grupo Lavalleja Neoproterozoico de Uruguay, Coloquios de Paleontologia 49: 9–21.Google Scholar
  3. Aceñolaza, G. F., 2004, Precambrian–Cambrian ichnofossils, and enigmatic “annelid tube” and microbial activity in the Puncoviscana Formation (La Hilguera; Tucumán Province, NW Argentina), Geobios 37: 127–133.Google Scholar
  4. Alpert, S. P., 1974, Trace fossils of the Precambrian–Cambrian succession, Whitey-Inyo mountains, California, Ph D. Thesis, Univeristy of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  5. Alpert, S. P., 1975, Planolites and Skolithos from the upper Precambrian–Lower Cambrian, White-Inyo mountains, California, J. Paleontol. 49: 508–521.Google Scholar
  6. Alpert, S. P., 1977, Trace fossils and the basal Cambrian, in: Trace fossils 2 (T. P. Crimes and J. C. Harper, eds.), pp. 1–8, Geological Journal Special Issue 9, Seel House Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  7. Amthor, J. E., Grotzinger, J. P., Schröder, S., Bowring, S. A., Ramezani, J., Martin, M. W., and Matter, A., 2003, Extinction of Cloudina and Namacalathus at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in Oman, Geology 31: 431–434.Google Scholar
  8. Banks, N. L., 1970, Trace fossils from the late Precambrian and Lower Cambrian of Finnmark, Norway, in: Trace fossils (T. P. Crimes and J. C. Harper, eds.), pp. 91–138, Geological Journal Special Issue 3, Seel House Press, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  9. Bartley, J. K., Pope, M., Knoll, A. H., Semikhatov, M.A., and Petrov, P. Yu., 1998, A Vendian–Cambrian boundary succession from the northwestern margin of the Siberian Platform: stratigraphy, paleontology, chemostratigraphy and correlation, Geol. Mag. 135: 473–494.Google Scholar
  10. Bekker, Yu. R., 1992, Drevnejshaya ediakarskaya biota urala, Izvestia Akademiya Nauk, Seria Geologicheskaya 1992(6): 16–24.Google Scholar
  11. Bekker, Yu. R., and Kishka, N. V., 1989, Otkrytie ediakarskoj bioty na juzhnom Urale, in: Teoreticheskie i prikladnye aspekty sovremennoj paleontologii (T .N. Bogdanov and L. I. Khozatsky, eds.), pp. 109–120, Nauka, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  12. Bekker, Yu. R., and Kishka, N. V., 1991, Iskopaemye sledy v verkhnevendskikh otlozheniya juzhnogo urala, Izvestia Akademiya Nauk, Seria Geologicheskaya 1991(6): 66–78.Google Scholar
  13. Bottjer, D. J., Hagadorn, J. W., and Dornbos, S. Q., 2000, The Cambrian substrate revolution, GSA Today 10(9): 1–7.Google Scholar
  14. Brasier, M. D., and McIlroy, D., 1998, Neonereites uniserialis from c. 600 Ma year old rocks in western Scotland and the emergence of animals, J. Geol. Soc. London 155: 5–12.Google Scholar
  15. Brasier, M. D., and Shields, G., 2000, Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphy and correlation of the Port Askaig glaciation, Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland, J. Geol. Soc. London 157: 909–914.Google Scholar
  16. Bromley, R. G., 1996, Trace fossils, Biology, Taphonomy and Applications, 2nd ed., Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  17. Buatois, L. A., and Mángano, M. G., 2003, La icnofauna de la Formacción Puncoviscana en le noroestes argentino: Implicancias en la colonización de fondos oceánicos y reconstrucción de paleoambientes y paleoecosistemas de la transición precámbrica-cámbrica, Ameghiniana 40: 103–117.Google Scholar
  18. Buatois, L. A., and Mángano, M. G., 2004, Terminal Proterozoic–Early Cambrian ecosystems: ichnology of the Puncoviscana Formation, northwest Argentina, Fossils and Strata 51, 1–16.Google Scholar
  19. Buatois, L. A., and Mángano, M. G., 2005, The Cambrian system in northwestern Argentina: stratigraphical and palaeontological framework. Discussion, Geologica Acta 3: 65–72.Google Scholar
  20. Buatois, L. A., Mángano, M. G., Maples, C. G., and Lanier, W. P., 1998, Taxonomic reasessment of the ichnogenus Beaconichnus and additional examples from the Carboniferous of Texas, Ichnos 5: 287–302.Google Scholar
  21. Buckman, J. O., 1994, Archaeonassa Fenton and Fenton 1937 reviewed, Ichnos 3: 185–192.Google Scholar
  22. Budd, G. E., and Jensen, S., 2000, A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla, Biol. Rev. 75: 253–295.Google Scholar
  23. Budd, G. E., and Jensen, S. 2003., The limitations of the fossil record and the dating of the origin of the Bilateria, in: Telling the evolutionary time: molecular clocks and the fossil record (P.C.J. Donoghue, and M. P. Paul, eds.), pp. 166–189, CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  24. Chen, M., Chen, Y., and Qian, Y., 1981, Some tubular fossils from Sinian–Lower Cambrian boundary sequences, Yangtze Gorge, Bull. Tianjin Inst. Geol. Mineral Resources 1981(3): 117–124.Google Scholar
  25. Chen, Z., Sun, W., and Hua, H., 2002, Preservation and morphologic interpretation of late Sinian Gaojiashania from southern Shaanxi, Acta Palaeontol. Sinica 41: 448–454.Google Scholar
  26. Chistyakov, B. G., Kalmykova, N. A., Nesov, L. A., and Suslov, G. A., 1984, O nalichii vendskikh otlozhenij v srednem techenii r. Onegi i vozmozhnom syshchestvovanii obolochnikov (Tunicata: Chordata) v dokembrii, Vestnik Leningradskogo gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 1984(6): 11–19.Google Scholar
  27. Cloud, P. E., and Nelson, C. A., 1966, Phanerozoic–Cryptozoic and related transitions: new evidence, Science 154, 1–5.Google Scholar
  28. Cloud, P. E., Wright, J., Glover, L., 1976, Traces of animal from 620 million-year old rocks on North Carolina, Am. Sci. 64: 396–406.Google Scholar
  29. Condon, D., Zhu, M., Bowring, S., Wang, W., Yang, A., and Jin, Y., 2005, U–Pb ages from tthe Neoproterozoic Doushantou formation, China, Science 308: 95–99.Google Scholar
  30. Conway Morris, S., 2003, The Cambrian “explosion” of metazoans and molecular biology: would Darwin be satisfied? Int. J. Developmental Biol. 47: 505–515.Google Scholar
  31. Cope, J. C. W., 1983, Precambrian fossils of the Carmarthen area, Dyfed, Natur in Wales 1(2): 11–16.Google Scholar
  32. Corsetti, F. A., and Hagadorn, J. W., 2003, The Precambrian–Cambrian transition in the southern Great Basin, USA. The Sedimentary Rec. 1: 4–8.Google Scholar
  33. Crimes, T. P., 1987, Trace fossils and correlation of late Precambrian and early Cambrian strata, Geol. Mag. 124: 97–119.Google Scholar
  34. Crimes, T. P., 1992, Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary, J. Geol. Soc. London 149: 637–646.Google Scholar
  35. Crimes, T. P., 1994, The period of early evolutionary failure and the dawn of evolutionary success: the record of biotic changes across the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, in: The Palaeobiology of Trace fossils (S. K. Donovan, ed.), pp. 105–133, John Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  36. Crimes, T. P., and Fedonkin, M. A., 1996, Biotic changes in platform communities across the Precambrian–Phanerozoic boundary, Rivista Italiana de Paleontologia i Stratigrafia 102: 317–332.Google Scholar
  37. Crimes, T. P., and Germs, G. J. B., 1982, Trace fossils from the Nama Group (Precambrian–Cambrian) of southwest Africa (Namibia), J. Paleontol. 56: 890–907.Google Scholar
  38. Ding, Q., and Xing, Y., 1988, Trace fossils, in: The Sinian System of Hubei (Z. Zhao et al., eds.), pp, 182–185, China University of Geosciences Press, Wuhan.Google Scholar
  39. Ding, Q., Xing, Y., and Chen, Y., 1985, Metazoa and trace fossils, in: Biostratigraphy of the Yangtze Gorge Area 1. Sinian (Z. Zhao, ed.), pp. 115–117, Geological Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  40. Ding, Q., Xing, Y., Wang, Z., Yin, C., and Gao, L., 1993, Tubular and trace fossils from the Sinian Dengying Formation in the Miaohe–Liantuo area, Hubei Province, Geol. Rev. 39, 118–123Google Scholar
  41. Dornbos, S. Q., Bottjer, D. J., and Chen, J., 2004, Evidence for seafloor microbial mats and associated metazoan lifestyles in Lower Cambrian phosphorites of Southwest China, Lethaia 37: 127–137.Google Scholar
  42. Dornbos, S. Q., Bottjer, D. J., and Chen, J., 2005, Paleoecology of benthic metazoans in the Early Cambrian Maotianshan Shale biota and the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale biota: evidence for the Cambrian substrate revolution, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 220: 47–67.Google Scholar
  43. Droser, M. L., Gehling, J. G., and Jensen, S., 1999, When the worm turned; concordance of Early Cambrian ichnofabric and trace fossil record in siliciclastic rocks of South Australia, Geology 27: 625–629.Google Scholar
  44. Droser, M. L., Jensen, S., Gehling, J. G., Myrow, P., and Narbonne, G.M., 2002a, Lowermost Cambrian Ichnofabrics from the Chapel Island Formation, Newfoundland: implications for Cambrian substrates, Palaios 17: 3–15.Google Scholar
  45. Droser, M. L., Jensen, S., and Gehling, J.G. 2002b, Trace fossils and substrates of the terminal Proterozoic–Cambrian transition: implications for the record of early bilaterians and sediment mixing, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12572–12576.Google Scholar
  46. Droser, M. L., Gehling, J.G., and Jensen, S., 2005, Ediacaran trace fossils: true and false, in: Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development (D. E. G. Briggs, ed.), pp. 125–138, Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven.Google Scholar
  47. Droser, M. L., Gehling, J.G., and Jensen, S., 2006, Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: the unabridged edition? Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232: 131–147.Google Scholar
  48. Dzik, J., 2003, Anatomical information content in the Ediacaran fossils and their possible zoological affinities, Integr. Comparative Biol. 32: 114–126.Google Scholar
  49. Dzik, J., 2005, Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the “Cambrian explosion”, Paleobiology 31: 503–521.Google Scholar
  50. Ekdale, A. A., Bromley, R. G., Pemberton, S. G., 1984, Ichnology: The use of Trace Fossils in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. SEPM Short Course 15, 317 pp.Google Scholar
  51. Farmer, J., Vidal, G., Moczydlowska, M., Strauss, H., Ahlberg, P., and Siedlecka, A., 1992, Ediacaran fossils from the Innerelv Member (late Proterozoic) of the Tanafjorden area, northeastern Finnmark, Geol. Mag. 129: 181–195.Google Scholar
  52. Fedonkin, M. A., 1976, Sledy mnogokletochnykh iz Valdajskoj serii, Izvestia Akademiya Nauk, Seriya Geologicheskaya 1976(4): 129–132.Google Scholar
  53. Fedonkin, M. A., 1980, Iskopaemye sledy dokembrijskikh metazoa, Izvestia Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya 1980(1): 39–46.Google Scholar
  54. Fedonkin, M. A., 1981, Belomorskaya biota venda, Trudy Akademii Nauk SSSR 342, pp. 1–100.Google Scholar
  55. Fedonkin, M. A, 1985, Paleoichnology of Vendian metazoa, in: The Vendian system: historic-geological and paleontological basis (B. S. Sokolov and M. A. Ivanovskiy, eds.), pp. 112–116, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  56. Fedonkin, M. A., 2003, The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record, Palaeontol. Res. 7: 9–41.Google Scholar
  57. Fedonkin, M. A., and Runnegar, B. N., 1992, Proterozoic metazoan trace fossils, in: The Proterozoic Biosphere: a multidisciplinary study (J. W. Schopf, and C. Klein, eds.), pp. 389–395. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Fedonkin, M. A., Liñán, E., and Perejón, A., 1985, Icnofósiles de las rocas precámbrico-cámbricas de la Sierra de Cçordoba. España, Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Sección Geológica 81: 125–138.Google Scholar
  59. Gehling, J. G., 1991, The case for Ediacaran fossil roots to the Metazoan tree, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 20: 181–224.Google Scholar
  60. Gehling, J. G., 1996, The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the late Precambrian Pound Sungroup. [dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles, 234 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Gehling, J. G., 1999, Microbial mats in Terminal Proterozoic siliciclastics: Ediacaran death masks, Palaios 14: 40–57.Google Scholar
  62. Gehling, J. G., 2004, Fleshing out the Ediacaran period, in: Abstract Volume for the Workshop of Meeting 2 of IGCP493 (UNESCO) (P. Komarower and P. Vickers-Rich eds.), 4 pages (unpaginated).Google Scholar
  63. Gehling, J. G., and Narbonne, G. M., 2002, Zonation of the terminal Proterozoic (Ediacaran), Geol. Soc. Australia Abstr. 68, 63–64.Google Scholar
  64. Gehling, J. G., Narbonne, G. M., and Anderson, M. M., 2000, The first named Ediacaran body fossil, Aspidella terranovica, Palaeontology 43: 427–456.Google Scholar
  65. Gehling, J. G., Jensen, S. Droser, M. L., Myrow, P. M., and Narbonne, G. M., 2001, Burrowing below the basal Cambrian GSSP, Fortune Head, Newfoundland. Geol. Mag. 138: 213–218.Google Scholar
  66. Gehling, J. G., Droser, M. L., Jensen, S., and Runnegar, B. N., 2005, Ediacaran organisms: relating form to function, in: Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development(D. E. G. Briggs, ed.), pp. 43–66, Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven.Google Scholar
  67. Germs, G. J .B., 1972, Trace fossils from the Nama Group, south-west Africa, Journal of Paleontology 46: 864–870.Google Scholar
  68. Germs, G. J. B., 1973, Possible sprigginid worm and a new trace fossil from the Nama Group, South West Africa, Geology 1: 69–70.Google Scholar
  69. Geyer, G., and Uchman, A., 1995, Ichnofossil assemblages from the Nama Group (Neoproterozoic–Lower Cambrian) in Namibia and the Proterozoic–Cambrian boundary problem revisited, in: Morocco ’95. The Lower-Middle Cambrian standard of western Gondwana (G. Geyer and E. Landing, eds.), pp. 175–202. Beringeria Special Issue 2Google Scholar
  70. Gibson, G. G., 1989, Trace fossils from late Precambrian Carolina Slate Belt, south-central North Carolina, J. Paleontol. 63: 1–10.Google Scholar
  71. Glaessner, M. F., 1969, Trace fossils from the Precambrian and basal Cambrian, Lethaia 2: 369–393.Google Scholar
  72. Glaessner, M. F., 1977, Re-examination of Archaeichnium, a fossil from the Nama Group, Ann. South African Museum 74: 335–342.Google Scholar
  73. Grant, S. W. F., 1990, Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic, Am. J. Sci. 290A,261–294.Google Scholar
  74. Grazhdankin, D., 2003, Structure and depositional environment of the Vendian complex in the southeastern White Sea area, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 11: 313–331.Google Scholar
  75. Grazhdankin, D., 2004, Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution, Paleobiology 30: 203–221.Google Scholar
  76. Grotzinger, J., Bowring, S. A., Saylor, B. Z., and Kaufman, A. J., 1995, Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution, Science 270: 598–604.Google Scholar
  77. Gureev, Yu. A., 1981, Nova znakhidka zhittediyalnosti o vidkladakh Vendu severnogo Pridnistrovya, Doklady Akademija Nauk USSR, Serija B 1981(12): 5–12.Google Scholar
  78. Gureev, Yu. A, 1983, Koltsevye bioglify iz otlozhenij kanilovskoj serii Venda Pridnestrovya, Geologicheskij Zhurnal 43(1) :130–132.Google Scholar
  79. Gureev, Yu. A., 1984, Bioglifi fanerozojskogo vidu o vendi podillya ta ikh stratigrafichne znacheniya, Doklady Akademija Nauk USSR, Serija B 1984(4): 5–8.Google Scholar
  80. Gureev, Yu, A., Velikanov, V. A., and Ivantjenko, V. Ya, 1985, Besskeletnaya fauna v otlozheniyakh baltiskoj i berezhkovskoj serij podolii, Doklady Akademija Nauk USSR, Serija B 1985(6): 10–14.Google Scholar
  81. Hagadorn, J. W., and Waggoner, B. M., 2000, Ediacaran fossils from the southwestern Great Basin, United States, J. Paleontol. 74: 349–359.Google Scholar
  82. Hagadorn, J. W., Schellenberg, S. A., and Bottjer, D. B., 2000, Paleoecology of a large early Cambrian bioturbator, Lethaia 33: 142–156.Google Scholar
  83. Haines, P. W., 2000, Problematic fossils in the late Neoproterozoic Wonoka Formation, South Australia, Precambrian Res. 100: 97–108.Google Scholar
  84. Hofmann, H. J., Narbonne, G. M., and Aitken, J. D., 1990, Ediacaran remains from intertillite beds in northwestern Canada, Geology 18: 1199–1202.Google Scholar
  85. Hofmann, H. J., Cecile, M. P., and Lane, L. S., 1994, New occurrences of Oldhamia and other trace fossils in the Cambrian of the Yukon and Ellesmere Island, arctic Canada, Can. J. Earth Sci. 31: 767–782.Google Scholar
  86. Isakov, A. V., 1990, Ikhnofauna i drugie teksturnye snaki v pozdnem dokembrem uchuro-aldanskogo vodorazdela, in: Pozdnij dokembriij i rannij paleozoj sibiri (V. V. Khomentovsky, et al. eds.), pp. 147–155, Novosibirsk.Google Scholar
  87. Ivantsov, A.Yu., and Malakovskaya, Ya. E., 2002, Gigantskie sledy vendskikh zhivotnykh, Doklady Akademii Nauk 385: 382–386.Google Scholar
  88. Jenkins, R. J. F., 1981, The concept of an “Ediacaran Period” and its stratigraphic significance in Australia, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia 105: 179–194.Google Scholar
  89. Jenkins, R. J. F., 1995, The problems and potential of using animal fossils and trace fossils in terminal Proterozoic biostratigraphy, Precambrian Res. 73: 51–69.Google Scholar
  90. Jenkins, R. J. F., Plummer, P. S., and Moriarty, K., C., 1981, Late Precambrian pseudofossils from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia 105: 67–83.Google Scholar
  91. Jenkins, R. J. F., McKirdy, D. M., Foster, C. B., O’Leary, T., and Pell, S. D., 1992, The record and stratigraphic implications of organic-waller microfossils from the Ediacaran (terminal Proterozoic) of South Australia, Geol. Mag. 129: 401–410.Google Scholar
  92. Jensen, S., 1997, Trace fossils from the Lower Cambrian Mickwitzia sandstone, south-central Sweden, Fossils and Strata 42: 1–111.Google Scholar
  93. Jensen, S., 2003, The Proterozoic and earliest Cambrian trace fossil record; patterns, problems and perspectives, Integr. Comparative Biol. 43: 219–228.Google Scholar
  94. Jensen, S., and Runnegar, B. N., 2005. A complex trace fossil from the Spitskop Member (Ediacaran -?Lower Cambrian) of south Namibia, Geol. Mag. 142: 561–569.Google Scholar
  95. Jensen, S., Saylor, B. Z., Gehling, J. G., and Germs, G. J. B., 2000, Complex trace fossils from the terminal Proterozoic of Namibia, Geology 28: 143–146.Google Scholar
  96. Jensen, S., Gehling, J. G., Droser, M. L., and Grant, S. W. F., 2002, A scratch circle origin for the medusoid fossil Kullingia, Lethaia 35: 291–299.Google Scholar
  97. Jensen, S., Droser, M. L., and Gehling, J. G, 2005a, Trace fossil preservation and the early evolution of animals, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 220: 19–29.Google Scholar
  98. Jensen, S., Palacios, T., and Martí Mus, M., 2005b, Megascopic filamentous organisms preserved as grooves and ridges in Ediacaran siliciclastics, Paleobios 25 Suppl. to No. 2, 65–66.Google Scholar
  99. Keighley, D. G., and Pickerill, R. K., 1995, Commentary: the ichnotaxa Palaeophycus and Planolites, historical perspectives and recommendations, Ichnos 3: 301–309.Google Scholar
  100. Keighley, D. G., and Pickerill, R. K., 1996, Small Cruziana, Rusophycus, and related ichnotaxa from eastern Canada: the nomenclatural debate and systematic ichnology, Ichnos 4: 261–285.Google Scholar
  101. Knoll, A. H., Walter, M. R., Narbonne, G. M., and Christie-Blick, N., 2004a, A new period for the geological time scale, Science 305: 621–622.Google Scholar
  102. Knoll, A. H., Walter, M. R., Narbonne, G. M., and Christie-Blick, N., 2004b, Three “first places” for Ediacaran Period, Episodes 27: 222.Google Scholar
  103. Li, Y., and Ding, L., 1996, Trace fossils, in: Sinian Miaohe Biota (Ding L. et al., eds.), pp. 120–127, Geological Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  104. Li, R., and Yang, S., 1988, Trace fossils near the Sinian–Cambrian boundary in eastern Yunnan and central Sichuan, China, Geoscience 2: 158–174.Google Scholar
  105. Li, Y., Ding, L., Zhang, L., Dong, J., and Chen, H., 1992, Metazoans and trace fossils, in: The Study of the late Sinian – Early Cambrian biotas from the northern Margin of the Yangtze platform (Ding, L., Zhang, L., Li, Y., and Dong, J., eds.), pp. 91–106, Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  106. Lin, S., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, L., 1986, Body and trace fossils of metazoa and algal macrofossils from the upper Sinian Gaojiashan Formation, southern Shaanxi, Shaanxi Geol. 4(6): 9–17.Google Scholar
  107. Liñan, E., and Palacios, T., 1987, Asociaciones de pistas fósiles y microorganismos de pared orgánica del Proterozoico, en las facies esquisto-grauváqicas del norte de Cáceres. Consecuensias regionales, Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Sección Geológica 82: 211–232.Google Scholar
  108. Liñan, E., and Tejero, R., 1988, Las formaciones précambricas del antiform de Paracuellos (Cadenas ibéricas), Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Sección Geológica 84: 39–49.Google Scholar
  109. Lindholm, R. M., and Casey, J. F., 1990, The distribution and possible biostratigraphic significance of the ichnogenus Oldhamia in the shales of the Blow Me Down Brook Formation, western Newfoundland, Can. J. Earth Sci. 27: 1270–1287.Google Scholar
  110. Mángano, M. G., Buatois, L. A. , and Rindsberg, A. K., 2002, Carboniferous Psammichnites: systematic re-evaluation, taphonomy and autecology, Ichnos 9: 1–22.Google Scholar
  111. Martin, M. W., Grazhdankin, D. V., Bowring, S. A., Evans, D. A. D., Fedonkin, M. A., and Kirschvink, J. L., 2000, Age of Neoproterozoic Bilaterian Body and Trace Fossils, White Sea, Russia: Implications for Metazoan Evolution, Science 288: 841–845.Google Scholar
  112. Mathur, V. K., and Shanker, R., 1989, First record of Ediacaran Fossils from the Krol Formation of Naini Tal Syncline, J. Geol. Soc. India 34: 245–254.Google Scholar
  113. McIlroy, D, and Logan, G. A., 1999, The impact of bioturbation on infaunal ecology and evolution during the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, Palaios 14: 58–72.Google Scholar
  114. McIlroy, D., Crimes, T. P., and Pauley, J. C., 2005, Fossils and matgrounds from the Neoproterozoic Longmyndian Suopergroup, Shropshire, UK, Geol. Mag. 142: 441–455.Google Scholar
  115. McMenamin, M., 1996, Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4990–4993.Google Scholar
  116. Narbonne, G. M., 2005, The Ediacara biota: Neoproterozoic origin of animals and their ecosystems, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 33: 421–442.Google Scholar
  117. Narbonne, G. M., and Aitken, J. D., 1990, Ediacaran fossils from the Sekwi Brook area, Mackenzie mountains, northwestern Canada, Palaeontology 33: 945–980.Google Scholar
  118. Narbonne, G. M., and Hofmann, H. J., 1987, Ediacaran biota of the Wernecke Mountains, Yukon Territory, Palaeontology 30: 647–676.Google Scholar
  119. Narbonne, G. M., Myrow, P. M., Landing, E., and Anderson, M. M., 1987, A candidate stratotype for the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, Fortune Head, Burin Peninsula, southeastern Newfoundland, Can. J. Earth Sci. 24: 1277–1293.Google Scholar
  120. Narbonne, G. M., Saylor, B. Z., and Grotzinger, J. P., 1997, The youngest Ediacaran fossils from southern Africa. J. Paleontol. 71: 953–967.Google Scholar
  121. Orr, P., 2001, Colonization of the deep-marine environment during the early Phanerozoic: the ichnofaunal record. Geol. J. 36: 265–278.Google Scholar
  122. Pacześna, J., 1986, Upper Vendian and Lower Cambrian ichnocoenoses of Lublin region, Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego 355: 31–47.Google Scholar
  123. Pacześna, J., 1996, The Vendian and Cambrian ichnocoenoses from the Polish part of the East-European platform, Prace Pañstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego 152: 1–77.Google Scholar
  124. Palij, V., M. 1976, Ostatki besskeletnoj fauny i sledy zhiznedeyatelnosti iz otlozhenij verkhnego dokembriya i nizhnego Kembriya Podolii, in: Paleontologiya i stratigrafiya verkhnego dokembriya i nizhnego paleozoya jugo-zapadna vostochno-evropejskoj platformy, pp. 63–77, Naukova Dumka, Kiev.Google Scholar
  125. Palij, V. M., Posti, E., and Fedonkin, M. A., 1979, Myagkotelye metazoa i iskopaemye sledy zhivotnykh venda i rannego kembriya, in: Paleontologiya verkhnedokembrijskikh i kembrijskikh otlozhenij Vostochno-Evropejskoj platformy (B. M. Keller and A. Yu. Rozanov, eds.), pp. 49–82, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  126. Pemberton, S. G.,and Frey, R. W., 1982, Trace fossil nomenclature and the Planolites-Palaeophycus dilemma, J. Paleontol. 56: 843–881.Google Scholar
  127. Pickerill, R. K., 1994, Nomenclature and taxonomy of invertebrate trace fossils, in: The Palaeobiology of Trace fossils (S. K. Donovan, ed.), pp. 3–42, John Wiley, Chichester etc.Google Scholar
  128. Poire, D. G., del Valle, A., and Regalia, G. M., 1984, Trazas fosiles en cuartcitas de la formacion Sierras Bayas (Precambrico) y su comparacion con las de la Formacion Balcarce (Cambro–Ordovicico), sierras septentrionales de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Noveno Congreso Geologico Argentino, Actas 4: 249–266.Google Scholar
  129. Rasmussen, B., Bengtson, S., Fletcher, I. R., and McNaughton, N., 2002, Discoidal impressions and trace-like fossils more than 1200 million years old, Science 296: 1112–1115.Google Scholar
  130. Runnegar, B., 1991, Oxygen and the early evolution of the Metazoa, in: Metazoan life without oxygen (C. Bryant ed.), pp. 65–87, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  131. Runnegar, B. N., 1992, Proterozoic Metazoan trace fossils, in: The Proterozoic Biosphere: a multidisciplinary study (J. W. Schopf, and C. Klein, eds.), pp. 1009–1015, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  132. Runnegar, B., 1994, Proterozoic eukaryotes: evidence from biology and geology, in: Early Life on Earth (S. Bengtson, ed.), pp. 287–297, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  133. Runnegar, B., 1995, Vendobionta or metazoa? Developments in understanding the Ediacara “fauna”, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 195: 303–318.Google Scholar
  134. Seilacher, A., 1956, Der Beginn des Kambriums als biologische Wende, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 103: 155–180.Google Scholar
  135. Seilacher, A., 1990, Paleozoic trace fossils, in: The Geology of Egypt (R. Said ed.), pp. 649–670, Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  136. Seilacher, A., 1995, Fossile kunst, Goldschneck, KorbGoogle Scholar
  137. Seilacher, A., 1997, Fossil Art, The Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Drumheller.Google Scholar
  138. Seilacher, A., 1999, Biomat-related lifestyles in the Precambrian, Palaios 14: 86–93.Google Scholar
  139. Seilacher, A., and Pflüger, F., 1994, From biomats to benthic agriculture: a biohistoric revolution, in: Biostabilization of Sediments (W. E. Krumbein ed.), pp. 97–105, Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Carl von Ossietzky Universität, Oldenburg.Google Scholar
  140. Seilacher, A., Buatois, L. A., and Mángano, M. G., 2005, Trace fossils in the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition: behavioral diversification, ecological turnover and environmental shift, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 227: 323–356.Google Scholar
  141. Seilacher, A., Grazhdankin, D., and Legouta, A., 2003, Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists, Palaeontol. Res. 7: 43–54.Google Scholar
  142. Seilacher, A., Meschede, M., Bolton, E. W., Luginsland, H. 2000, Precambrian “fossil” Vermiforma is a tectograph, Geology 28: 235–238.Google Scholar
  143. Shanker, R., Mathur, V. K., Kumar, O., and Srivastava, M. C., 1997, Additional Ediacaran biota from the Krol Group, lesser Himalaya, Indian and their significance, Geosci. J. 18: 79–94.Google Scholar
  144. Shen, B., Xiao, S., Dong, L., Zhou, C., and Liu, J., in press, Problematic macrofossils from Ediacaran successions in north China and Chaidam blocks: implications for their evolutionary root and biostratigraphic significance, J. Paleontol. Google Scholar
  145. Sokolov, B. S., 1972, Vendskij etap v istorii zemli, in: Mezhdunarodnyj geologicheskij kongress XXIV sessiya. Dokladov sovetskikh geologov. Problema 7. Paleontologiya, pp. 114–124, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  146. Sokolov, B. S., 1997, Ocherki stanovleniya Venda, KMK Scientic Press, Moscow.Google Scholar
  147. Sovetov, Yu. K., and Komlev, D. A., 2005, Tillites at the base of the Oselok Group, footfills of the Sayan Mountains, and the Vendian lower boundary in the southwestern Siberian Platform, Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 14, 337–366.Google Scholar
  148. Steiner, M., 1994, Die neoproterozoischen Megaalgen Südchinas, Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Series E 15: 1–146.Google Scholar
  149. Tangri, S. K., Bhargava, O. N., and Pande, A. C., 2003, Late Precambrian–Early Cambrian trace fossils from the Tethyan Himalaya, Bhutan and their bearing on the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, J. Geol. Soc. India 62: 708–716.Google Scholar
  150. Uchman, A., 1995, Taxonomy and palaeoecology of flysch trace fossils: the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation and associated facies (Miocene, northern Apennines, Italy), Beringeria 15, 1–115.Google Scholar
  151. Uchman, A., 2003, Trends in diversity, frequency and complexity of graphoglyptid trace fossils: evolutionary and palaeoenvironmental aspects, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 192: 123–142.Google Scholar
  152. Valentine, J. W., 1994, Late Precambrian bilaterians: grades and clades, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 6751–6757Google Scholar
  153. Vidal, G., Jensen, S., Palacios, T., 1994, Neoproterozoic (Vendian) ichnofossils from the Lower Alcudian strata in central Spain, Geol. Mag. 131:169–179.Google Scholar
  154. Waggoner, B., 1998, Interpreting the earliest metazoan fossils: what can we learn? Am. Zool. 38: 975–982.Google Scholar
  155. Waggoner, B., 1999, Biogeographic analyses of the Ediacara biota: a conflict with paleotectonic reconstructions, Paleobiology 25, 440–458.Google Scholar
  156. Waggoner, B., 2003, The Ediacaran Biotas in space and time, Integr. Comparative Biol. 43: 104–113.Google Scholar
  157. Waggoner, B., and Hagadorn, J. W., 2002, New fossils from terminal Neoproterozoic strata of Southern Nye County, Nevada, in: Proterozoic–Cambrian of the Great Basin and Beyond (F. A. Corsetti, ed.), pp. 87–96, SEPM Volume and Guidebook 93.Google Scholar
  158. Walter, M. R., Elphinstone, R., and Heys, G,R., 1989, Proterozoic and Early cambrian trace fossils from the Amadeus and Georgina Basins, Alcheringa 13: 209–256.Google Scholar
  159. Walter, M. R., Veevers, J. J., Calver, C. R., Gorjan, P., and Hill, A. C., 2000, Dating the 840–544 Ma Neoproterozoic interval by isotopes of strontium, carbon, and sulfur in seawater, and some interpreative models, Precambrian Res. 100: 371–433.Google Scholar
  160. Webby, B. D., 1970, Late Precambrian trace fossils from New South Wales, Lethaia 3: 79–109.Google Scholar
  161. Webby, B. D., 1984, Precambrian–Cambrian trace fossils from western New South Wales, Australian J. Earth Sci. 31: 427–427.Google Scholar
  162. Wu, X., and Li, Y., 1987, The discovery and significance of trace fossils from Sinian marine sediments in Xinjiang, Scientia Geol. Sinica 1987: 239–245.Google Scholar
  163. Xiao, S., and Dong, L., 2006, On the morphological and ecological history of Proterozoic macroalgae, in: Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology (S. Xiao and A. J. Kaufman, eds), pp. 56–90, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  164. Xiao, S., Yuan, X., Steiner, M., Knoll, A. H., 2002, Macroscopic carbonaceous compressions in a terminal Proterozoic shale: a systematic reassessment of the Miahoe biota, south China, J. Paleontol. 76: 347–376.Google Scholar
  165. Xing, Y., Ding, Q., Lin, W., Yan, Y., and Zhang, L., 1985, Metazoans and trace fossils, in: Late Precambrian Palaeontology of China (Xing Y. et al., eds.), pp. 182–192, Geological Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  166. Yang, S., and Zheng, Z., 1985, The Sinian traces fossils from Zhenmuguan Formation of Helashan Mountain, Ningxia, Earth Science (Wuhan) 10: 9–18.Google Scholar
  167. Yang, Z., Yin, J., and He, T., 1982, Early Cambrian trace fossils from the Emei-Ganluo region, Sichuan, and other localities, Geol. Rev. 28: 291–298.Google Scholar
  168. Yin, J., Li, D., and He, T., 1993, New discovery of trace fossils from the Sinian–Cambrian boundary beds in eastern Yunnan and its significance for global correlation, Acta Geol. Sinica 67: 146–157.Google Scholar
  169. Yochelson, E., and Fedonkin, M. A., 1997, The type specimens (Middle Cambrian) of the trace fossil Archaeonassa Fenton and Fenton, Can. J. Earth Sci. 34: 1210–1219.Google Scholar
  170. Young, F. G., 1972, Early Cambrian and older trace fossils from the Southern Cordillera of Canada, Can. J. Earth Sci. 9: 1–17.Google Scholar
  171. Zhang, L., 1986, A discovery and preliminary study of the late stage of late Gaojiashan biota from Sinian in Ningqiang county, Shaanxi, Bull. Xian Inst. Geol. Mineral Resources 13: 67–88.Google Scholar
  172. Zhu, M., 1997, Precambrian–Cambrian trace fossils from eastern Yunnan, China: implications for Cambrian explosion, Bull. Nat. Museum Natural Science (Taiwan) 10: 275–312.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sören Jensen
    • 1
  • Mary L. Droser
    • 2
  • James G. Gehling
    • 3
  1. 1.Área de Paleontología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de ExtremaduraE-06071 Badajoz
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.South Australian MuseumSouth TerraceAustralia

Personalised recommendations