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Fracture, Aging and Disease in Bone and Teeth

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Abstract

Biological materials comprising mineralized tissues, such as bone and dentin in teeth, have hierarchical structures with characteristic length scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. In this presentation, in vitro fracture toughness and fatigue-crack propagation properties of dentin and human cortical bone are examined from a perspective of discerning how these properties depend upon such microstructural hierarchies. The motivation for this is that although there is substantial clinical interest in their fracture resistance, there is relatively little mechanistic information available on how bone and teeth derive their resistance to cracking and how this is affected by cyclic loads. Specifically, in vitro experiments are described that establish that the initiation of fracture is locally strain-controlled (Nalla et al. [1]) and that subsequent crack growth (characterized by resistance-curve behavior) is associated with a variety of extrinsic toughening (crack-tip shielding) mechanisms, most importantly crack bridging (from individual collagen fibrils and especially “uncracked ligaments”), macroscopic crack deflection and to a lesser extent diffuse microcracking (Fig. 1) (Kruzic et al. [2], Nalla et al. [3]).

Keywords

  • Fracture Toughness
  • Characteristic Length Scale
  • Mineralized Tissue
  • Mechanistic Information
  • Human Cortical Bone

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  • DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4972-2_11
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References

  1. Nalla, R.K., Kinney, J.H. and Ritchie, R.O., Nature Materials, vol. 2, 164–68, 2003.

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  2. Kruzic, J.J, Nalla, R.K, Kinney, J.H. and Ritchie, R.O., Biomaterials, vol. 24, 5209–21, 2003.

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  3. Nalla, R.K., Stölken, J.S., Kinney, J.H. and Ritchie, R.O., Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 38, 1517–25, 2005.

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  4. Nalla, R.K., Kruzic, J.J., Kinney, J.H. and Ritchie, R.O., Biomaterials, vol. 26, 2183–95, 2005.

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  5. Nalla, R.K., Kruzic, J.J., Kinney, J.H. and Ritchie, R.O., Bone, vol. 35, 1240–46, 2004.

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© 2006 Springer

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Ritchie, R.O., Nalla, R.K. (2006). Fracture, Aging and Disease in Bone and Teeth. In: Gdoutos, E.E. (eds) Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4972-2_11

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4972-2_11

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4020-4971-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4020-4972-9

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