Refugia within Refugia: Patterns of Phylogeographic Concordance in the Iberian Peninsula

  • Africa Gómez
  • David H. Lunt


The Iberian Peninsula was one of the most important Pleistocene glacial refugia in Europe. A number of recent studies have documented the phylogeography of Iberian taxa and their relationship to more widely distributed species that expanded from this southern European refugium. We use a comparative approach to review the literature that challenges the paradigm of Iberia as a single refuge during Pleistocene glacial maxima and instead supports the occurrence of several Iberian refugia for a range of flora and fauna. Some patterns of phylogeo-graphic concordance were found between the refugial areas identified by different case studies and these broadly overlapped with previously recognized areas of high endemism in the Iberian Peninsula. Such patterns help to illustrate the internal complexity of the Iberian Peninsula as a glacial refugium, and show that for many species, populations with a high degree of genetic structure have existed throughout the Pleistocene. Importantly, the occurrence of these ‘refugia-within-refugia’ may confound the interpretation of phylogeographic patterns of European species, and can misleadingly support the occurrence of northern refugia. We discuss these and other consequences, especially when a limited number of samples from the southern Euro-pean refugia are used.


comparative phylogeography phylogeography areas of endemism glacial refugia Pleistocene Ice Ages 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcobendas M, Dopazo H, Alberch P (1996) Geographic variation in allozymes of populations of Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia: Urodela) exhibiting distinct reproductive modes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9, 83-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandrino J, Froufe E, Arntzen JW, Ferrand N (2000) Genetic subdivision, glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization in the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela). Molecular Ecology 9, 771-781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexandrino J, Arntzen JW, Ferrand N (2002) Nested clade analysis and the genetic evidence for population expansion in the phylogeography of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela). Heredity 88, 66-74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alves MJ, Coelho H, Collares-Pereira MJ, Coelho MM (2001) Mitochondrial DNA variation in the highly endangered cyprinid fish Anaecypris hispanica: importance for conservation. Heredity 87, 463-473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreu A, Bea A, Braña F, Galán P, López Jurado LF, Pérez Mellado V, Pleguezuelos JM, Salvador A (1998) Reptiles. Fauna Iberica, vol. 10. CSIC, Madrid.Google Scholar
  6. Antunes A, Faria R, Weiss S, Alexandrino P (2001) Complex evolutionary history in the brown trout: insights on the recognition of conservation units. Conservation Genetics 2, 337-347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arbogast BS, Kenagy GJ (2001) Comparative phylogeography as an integrative approach to historical biogeography. Journal of Biogeography 28, 819-825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arntzen JW, García-París M (1995) Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain. Contributions to Zoology 65, 5-34.Google Scholar
  9. Avise JC (2000) Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Ball-Llosera NS, García-Marín JL, Pla C (2002) Managing fish populations under mosaic relationships. The case of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in peripheral Mediterranean populations. Conservation Genetics 3, 385-400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baňařescu P (1991) Zoogeography of Fresh Waters: Distribution and Dispersal of Freshwater Animals in North America and Eurasia. vol. 2. AULA-Verlag, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  12. Baquero RA, Tellería JL (2001) Species richness, rarity and endemicity of European mammals: a biogeographical approach. Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 29-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barbadillo LJ (1987) La Guia de Incafo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares y Canarias. Incafo, Spain.Google Scholar
  14. Beebee TJC, Rowe G (2000) Microsatellite analysis of natterjack toad Bufo calamita Laurenti populations: consequences of dispersal from a Pleistocene refugium. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69, 367-381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennett KD, Tzedakis PC, Willis KJ (1991) Quaternary refugia of north European trees. Journal of Biogeography 18, 103-115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernatchez L (2001) The evolutionary history of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) inferred from phylogeographic, nested clade, and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation. Evolution 55, 351-379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernatchez L, Wilson CC (1998) Comparative phylogeography of nearctic and palearctic fishes. Molecular Ecology 7, 431-452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biju-Duval C, Ennafaa H, Dennebouy N, Monnerot M, Mignotte F, Soriguer R, El Gaied A, El Hili A, Monoulou JC (1991) Mitochondrial DNA evolution in Lagomorphs: origin of systematic heteroplasmy and organization of diversity in European rabbits. Journal of Molecular Evolution 33, 92-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bilton DT, Mirol PM, Mascheretti S, Fredga K, Zima J, Searle JB (1998) Mediterranean Europe as an area of endemism for small mammals rather than a source for northwards postglacial colonization. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 265, 1219-1226.Google Scholar
  20. Branco M, Ferrand N, Monnerot M (2000) Phylogeography of the European rabbit (Oryc-tolagus cuniculus) in the Iberian Peninsula inferred from RFLP analysis of the cytochrome b gene. Heredity 85, 307-317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Branco M, Monnerot M, Ferrand N, Templeton AR (2002) Postglacial dispersal of the Euro-pean rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from nested clade and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA genetic variation. Evolution 56, 792-803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brito RM, Briolay J, Galtier N, Bouvet J, Coelho MM (1997) Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Leuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae) in Portuguese fresh waters, based on mito-chondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8, 435-442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burban C, Petit RJ, Carcreff E, Jactel H (1999) Rangewide variation of the maritime pine bast scale Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc. (Homoptera : Matsucoccidae) in relation to the genetic structure of its host. Molecular Ecology 8, 1593-1602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Callejas C, Ochando MD (2000) Recent radiation of Iberian Barbel fish (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from cytochrome b genes. The Journal of Heredity 91, 283-288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carmona JA, Domínguez J, Doadrio I (2000) Congruence between allozyme and cytochrome b gene sequence data in assessing genetic differentiation within the Iberian endemic Chon-drostoma lemingii (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Heredity 84, 721-732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciros-Pérez J, Gómez A, Serra M (2001) On the taxonomy of three sympatric sibling species of the Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) complex from Spain, with the description of B. iber-icus n. sp. Journal of Plankton Research 23, 1311-1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coelho MM, Bogutskaya NG, Rodrigues JA, Collares-Pereira MJ (1998) Leuciscus tor-galensis and L. aradensis, two new cyprinids from Portuguese fresh waters. Journal of Fish Biology 52, 937-950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Comes HP, Abbott RJ (1998) The relative importance of historical events and gene flow on the population structure of a Mediterranean ragwort, Senecio gallicus (Asteraceae). Evolution 52, 355-367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Comes HP, Abbott RJ (2000) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and quantitative trait analyses across a major phylogeographic break in the Mediterranean ragwort Senecio gallicus VILL. (Asteraceae). Molecular Ecology 9, 61-76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Comes HP, Kadereit JW (1998) The effect of quaternary climatic changes on plant distribution and evolution. Trends in Plant Science 3, 432-438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Consuegra S, De Leaniz CG, Serdio A, González-Morales M, Straus LG, Knox D, Ver-spoor E (2002) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Pleistocene and modern Atlantic salmon from the Iberian glacial refugium. Molecular Ecology 11, 2037-2048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper SJB, Hewitt GM (1993) Nuclear DNA sequence divergence between parapatric subspecies of the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Insect Molecular Biology 2, 185-194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper SJB, Ibrahim KM, Hewitt GM (1995) Postglacial expansion and genome subdivision in the European grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Molecular Ecology 4, 49-60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Doadrio I (1988) Delimitation of areas in the Iberian Peninsula on the basis of freshwater fishes. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 39, 113-128.Google Scholar
  35. Doadrio I, Carmona JA, Machordom A (2002) Haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relation-ships among the Iberian barbels (Barbus, Cyprinidae) reveal two evolutionary lineages. The Journal of Heredity 93, 140-147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dopazo H, Boto L, Alberch P (1998) Mitochondrial DNA variability in viviparous and ovoviviparous populations of the urodele Salamandra salamandra. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11, 365-378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dumolin-Lapègue S, Demesure B, Fineschi S, LeCorre V, Petit RJ (1997) Phylogeographic structure of white oaks throughout the European continent. Genetics 146, 1475-1487. Dumolin-Lapègue S, Kremer A, Petit RJ (1999) Are chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA variation species independent in oaks? Evolution 53, 1406-1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elvira B (1995) Conservation status of endemic freshwater fish in Spain. Biological Conservation 72, 129-136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferris C, King RA, Vainola R, Hewitt GM (1998) Chloroplast DNA recognizes three refu-gial sources of European oaks and suggests independent eastern and western immigrations to Finland. Heredity 80, 584-593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fonseca A, Arntzen JW, Crespo E, Ferrand N (2003) Regional differentiation in the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in Portugal: a picture from mitochondrial DNA. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 10, 83-89.Google Scholar
  41. Fumagalli L, Hausser J, Taberlet P, Gielly L, Stewart DT (1996) Phylogenetic structures of the Holarctic Sorex araneus group and its relationship with S. samniticus, as inferred from mtDNS sequences. Hereditas 125, 191-199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. García-Barros E, Gurrea P, Luciañez MJ, Cano JM, Munguira ML, Moreno JC, Sainz H, Sanz MJ, Simón JC (2002) Parsimony analysis of endemicity and its application to animal and plant geographical distributions in the Ibero-Balearic region (western Mediterranean). Journal of Biogeography 29, 109-124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. García-París M, Jockusch EL (1999) A mitochondrial DNA perspective on the evolution of Iberian Discoglossus (Amphibia: Anura). Journal of Zoology, London 248, 209-218.Google Scholar
  44. García-París M, Martínez-Solano I (2001) Nuevo status taxonómico para las poblaciones Ibero-Mediterraneas de Alytes obstetricans (Anura: Discoglossidae). Revista Española de Herpetologia 15, 99-113.Google Scholar
  45. García-París M, Herrero P, Martín C, Dorda J, Esteban M, Arano B (1993) Morphological characterization, cytogenetic analysis, and geographical distribution of the pygmy marbled newt Triturus marmoratus pygmaeus (Wolterstoff, 1905) (Caudata, Salamandridae). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 63, 3-14.Google Scholar
  46. García-París M, Alcobendas M, Alberch P (1998) Influence of the Guadalquivir River on mitochondrial DNA evolution of Salamandra salamandra (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Southern Spain. Copeia 1998, 173-176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. García-París M, Alcobendas M, Buckley D, Wake DB (2003) Dispersal of viviparity across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from discordance of genetic and morphological traits. Evolution 57, 129-143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gómez A, Carvalho GR, Lunt DH (2000) Phylogeography and regional endemism of a passively dispersing zooplankter: mitochondrial DNA variation in rotifer resting egg banks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 267, 2189-2197.Google Scholar
  49. Gómez A, Serra M, Carvalho GR, Lunt DH (2002) Speciation in ancient cryptic species complexes: evidence from the molecular phylogeny of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera). Evolution 56, 1431-1444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gómez-Campo C, Bermudez-de-Castro L, Cagiga MJ, Sanchez-Yelamo MD (1984) Endemism in the Iberian Peninsula. Webbia 38, 709-714.Google Scholar
  51. Gómez-Zurita J, Petitpierre E, Juan C (2000) Nested cladistic analysis, phylogeography and speciation in the Timarcha goettingensis complex (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Molecular Ecology 9, 557-570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Griswold CK, Baker AJ (2002) Time to most recent common ancestor and divergence times of populations of common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in Europe and North Africa: insights into Pleistocene refugia and current levels of migration. Evolution 56, 143-153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Grivet D, Petit RJ (2002) Phylogeography of the common ivy (Hedera sp.) in Europe: genetic differentiation through space and time. Molecular Ecology 11, 1351-1362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guicking D, Joger U, Wink M (2002) Molecular phylogeography of the Viperine snake (Natrix maura) and the Dice snake (Natrix tessellata): first results. Biota 3, 47-57.Google Scholar
  55. Guillaume GP, Heulin B, Arrayago MJ, Bea A, Brana F (2000) Refuge areas and suture zones in the Pyrenean and Cantabrian regions: geographic variation of the female MPI sex-linked alleles among oviparous populations of the lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. Eco-graphy 23, 3-10.Google Scholar
  56. Harris DJ, Sa-Sousa P (2001) Species distinction and relationships of the western Iberian Podarcis lizards (Reptilia, Lacertidae) based on morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Herpetological Journal 11, 129-136.Google Scholar
  57. Harris DJ, Sa-Sousa P (2002) Molecular phylogenetics of the Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis): is Podarcis hispanica a species complex? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23, 75-81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herrero P (1991) Polytypic chromosomal variation in Triturus boscai (Urodela, Salaman-dridae). Genetics Selection Evolution 23, 263-272.Google Scholar
  59. Hewitt GM (1993) After the ice: Parallelus meets Erythropus in the Pyrenees. In: Hybrid zones and the Evolutionary Process (ed. Harrison RG), pp. 140-164. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Google Scholar
  60. Hewitt GM (1996) Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 58, 247-276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hewitt GM (1999) Post-glacial re-colonization of European biota. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68, 87-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hewitt GM (2000) The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature 405, 907-913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hewitt GM (2001) Speciation, hybrid zones and phylogeography - or seeing genes in space and time. Molecular Ecology 10, 537-549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huntley B, Birks JDS (1983) An Atlas of Past and Present Pollen Maps for Europe: 0-13,000 years ago. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  65. Ibrahim KM, Nichols RA, Hewitt GM (1996) Spatial patterns of genetic variation generated by different forms of dispersal during range expansion. Heredity 77, 282-291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jaarola M, Searle JB (2002) Phylogeography of field voles (Microtus agrestis) in Eurasia inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Ecology 11, 2613-2621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jaarola M, Tegelstrom H (1995) Colonization history of North European Field Voles (Microtus agrestis) revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology 4, 299-310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. King RA, Ferris C (1998) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Molecular Ecology 7, 1151-1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Konnert M, Bergmann F (1995) The geographical distribution of genetic variation in silver fir (Abies alba, Pinaceae) in relation to its migration history. Plant Systematics and Evolution 196, 19-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lenk P, Fritz U, Joger U, Wink M (1999) Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus 1758). Molecular Ecology 8, 1911-1922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Leonard JA, Wayne RK, Cooper A (2000) Population genetics of Ice age brown bears. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 97, 1651-1654.Google Scholar
  72. Lumaret R, Mir C, Michaud H, Raynal V (2002) Phylogeographical variation of chloroplast DNA in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Molecular Ecology 11, 2327-2336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lunt DH, Ibrahim KM, Hewitt GM (1998) MtDNA phylogeography and postglacial patterns of subdivision in the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Heredity 80, 633-641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Machordom A, Doadrio I (2001) Evidence of a cenozoic Betic-Kabilian connection based on freshwater fish phylogeography (Luciobarbus, Cyprinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18, 252-263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Machordom A, Suárez J, Almodóvar A, Bautista JM (2000) Mitochondrial haplotype variation and phylogeography of Iberian brown trout populations. Molecular Ecology 9, 1325-1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mesquita N, Carvalho GR, Shaw P, Crespo E, Coelho MM (2001) River basin-related genetic structuring in an endangered fish species, Chondrostoma lusitanicum, based on mtDNA sequencing and RFLP analysis. Heredity 86, 253-264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Michaux JR, Libois R, Ramalhinho MG, Maurois C (1998) On the mtDNA restriction patterns variation of the Iberian wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Comparison with other west Mediterranean populations. Hereditas 129, 187-194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Michaux JR, Magnanou E, Paradis E, Nieberding C, Libois R (2003) Mitochondrial phy-logeography of the Woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in the Western Palearctic region. Molecular Ecology 12, 685-697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moreno Saiz JC, Castro Parga I, Sainz Ollero H (1998) Numerical analyses of distribution of Iberian and Balearic endemic monocotyledons. Journal of Biogeography 25, 179-194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Muir G, Fleming CC, Schlötterer C (2000) Species status of hybridizing oaks. Nature 405, 1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Olalde M, Herran A, Espinel S, Goicoechea PG (2002) White oaks phylogeography in the Iberian Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management 156, 89-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ortells R, Snell TW, Gómez A, Serra M (2000) Patterns of genetic differentiation in resting egg banks of a rotifer species complex in Spain. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 149, 529-551.Google Scholar
  83. Paulo OS, Dias C, Bruford MW, Jordan WC, Nichols RA (2001) The persistence of Pliocene populations through the Pleistocene climatic cycles: evidence from the phylogeography of an Iberian lizard. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268, 1625-1630.Google Scholar
  84. Paulo OS, Jordan WC, Bruford MW, Nichols RA (2002) Using nested clade analysis to assess the history of colonisation and the persistence of populations of an Iberian lizard. Molecular Ecology 11, 809-819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Perdices A, Carmona JA, Fernández-Delgado C, Doadrio I (2001) Nuclear and mitochon-drial data reveal high genetic divergence among Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the Iberian killifish Aphanius iberus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Heredity 87, 314-324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pérez-Suárez G, Palacios F, Boursot P (1994) Speciation and paraphyly in Western Mediterranean hares (Lepus castroviejoi, L. europaeus, L. granatensis and L. capensis) revealed by mitochondrial DNA phylogeny. Biochemical Genetics 32, 423-436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Petit RJ, Brewer S, Bordács S, Burg K, Cheddadi R, Coart E, Cottrell J, Czaikl UM, van Dam B, Deans JD, Espinel S, Fineschi S, Finkeldey R, Glaz I, Goicoechea PG, Jensen JS, König AO, Lowe AJ, Madsen SF, Mátyás G, Munro RC, Popescu F, Slade D, Tabbener H, deVries SGM, Ziegenhagen B, de Beaulieu J-L, Kremer A (2002) Identification of refugia and post-glacial colonisation routes of European white oaks based on chloroplast DNA and fossil pollen evidence. Forest Ecology and Management 156, 49-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Queney G, Ferrand N, Weiss S, Mougel F, Monnerot M (2001) Stationary distributions of microsatellite loci between divergent population groups of the European rabbit (Orycto-lagus cuniculus). Molecular Biology and Evolution 18, 2169-2178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rendell S, Ennos RA (2002) Chloroplast DNA diversity in Calluna vulgaris (heather) populations in Europe. Molecular Ecology 11, 69-78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ribera I (2000) Biogeography and conservation of Iberian water beetles. Biological Conservation 92, 131-150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ribera I, Blasco-Zumeta J (1998) Biogeographical links between steppe insects in the Mon-egros region (Aragon, Spain), the Eastern Mediterranean and Central Asia. Journal of Biogeography 25, 969-986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Riddle BR, Hafner DJ, Alexander LF, Jaeger JR (2000) Cryptic vicariance in the historical assembly of a Baja California Peninsular Desert biota. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 14438-14443.Google Scholar
  93. Rodríguez T, Trigo D, Díaz Cosín D (1997) Biogeographical zonation of the western Iberian peninsula on the basis of the distribution of earthworm species. Journal of Biogeography 24, 893-901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Salvador L, Alia R, Agundez R, Gil L (2000) Genetic variation and migration pathways of maritime pine (Pinus pinasterAit.) in the Iberian peninsula. Theoretical Applied Genetics 100, 89-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Santucci F, Emerson BC, Hewitt GM (1998) Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Euro-pean hedgehogs. Molecular Ecology 7, 1163-1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schneider CJ, Cunningham M, Moritz C (1998) Comparative phylogeography and the history of endemic vertebrates in the Wet tropics rainforests of Australia. Molecular Ecology 7, 487-498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Seddon JM, Santucci F, Reeve NJ, Hewitt GM (2001) DNA footprints of European hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus and E. concolor. Pleistocene refugia, postglacial expansion and colonization routes. Molecular Ecology 10, 2187-2198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sharbel TF, Haubold B, Mitchell-Olds T (2000) Genetic isolation by distance in Arabidopsis thaliana: biogeography and postglacial colonization of Europe. Molecular Ecology 9, 2109-2118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sinclair WT, Morman JD, Ennos RA (1999) The postglacial history of Scots pine (Pynus sylvestris L.) in western Europe: evidence from mitochondrial DNA variation. Molecular Ecology 8, 83-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Soranzo N, Alia R, Provan J, Powell W (2000) Patterns of variation at a mitochondrial sequence-tagged-site locus provides new insights into the postglacial history of European Pinus sylvestris populations. Molecular Ecology 9, 1205-1211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Steinfartz S, Veith M, Tautz D (2000) Mitochondrial sequence analysis of Salamandra taxa suggests old splits of major lineages and postglacial recolonizations of Central Europe from distinct source populations of Salamandra salamandra. Molecular Ecology 9, 397-410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stewart JR, Lister AM (2001) Cryptic northern refugia and the origins of the modern biota. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 608-613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Suárez J, Bautista JM, Almodóvar A, Machordom A (2001) Evolution of the mitochondrial control region in Palaearctic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations: the biogeographical role of the Iberian Peninsula. Heredity 87, 198-206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Surget-Groba Y, Heulin B, Guillaume GP, Thorpe RS, Kupriyanova L, Vogrin N, Maslak R, Mazzotti S, Venczel M, Ghira I, Odierna G, Leontyeva O, Monney JC, Smith N (2001) Intraspecific phylogeography of Lacerta vivipara and the evolution of viviparity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18, 449-459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Taberlet P (1998) Biodiversity at the intraspecific level: the comparative phylogeographic approach. Journal of Biotechnology 64, 91-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Taberlet P, Bouvet J (1994) Mitochondrial-DNA polymorphism, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 255, 195-200.Google Scholar
  107. Taberlet P, Fumagalli L, Hausser J (1994) Chromosomal versus mitochondrial DNA evolution: tracking the evolutionary history of the southwestern European populations of the Sorex araneus group (Mammalia, Insectivora). Evolution 48, 623-636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Taberlet P, Fumagalli L, Wust-Saucy AG, Cosson JF (1998) Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Molecular Ecology 7, 453-464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Utelli AB, Roy BA, Baltisberger M (1999) History can be more important than ‘pollination syndrome’in determining the genetic structure of plant populations: the case of Aconitum lycoctonum (Ranunculaceae). Heredity 82, 574-584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Van Dijk P, Bakx-Schotman T (1997) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography and cytotype geography in autopolyploid Plantago media. Molecular Ecology 6, 345-352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vargas JM, Real R, Guerrero JC (1998) Biogeographical regions of the Iberian Peninsula based on freshwater fish and amphibian distributions. Ecography 21, 371-382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vendramin GG, Anzidei M, Madaghiele A, Bucci G (1998) Distribution of genetic diversity in Pinus pinaster Ait. as revealed by chloroplast microsatellites. Theoretical Applied Genetics 97, 456-463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vernesi C, Pecchioli E, Caramelli D, Tiedermann R, Randi E, Bertorelle G (2002) The genetic structure of natural and reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations in the Alps and central Italy, with reference to the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Europe. Molecular Ecology 11, 1285-1297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Walker D, Avise JC (1998) Principles of phylogeography as illustrated by freshwater and terrestrial turtles in the southeastern United States. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29, 23-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallis GP, Arntzen JW (1989) Mitochondrial-DNA variation in the crested newt superspecies: limited cytoplasmic gene flow among species. Evolution 43, 88-104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weiss S, Antunes A, Schlötterer C, Alexandrino P (2000) Mitochondrial haplotype diversity among Portuguese brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations: relevance to the post-Pleis-tocene recolonization of northern Europe. Molecular Ecology 9, 691-698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zardoya R, Doadrio I (1998) Phylogenetic relationships of Iberian cyprinids: systematic and biogeographical implications. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 265, 1365-1372.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Africa Gómez
  • David H. Lunt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations