Clitic Clusters and Clitic Doubling
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Many function words in the Balkan Sprachbund languages are clitics. Except in Balkan Romani, most of the “clausal” clitics, notably the pronominal and auxiliary clitics, the negation marker, the subjunctive marker and occasionally monosyllabic adverbs, occur in clusters. The Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian clausal clitic clusters behave uniformly in all environments – in Serbo-Croatian we have phonologically enclitic second position clitics, and in Bulgarian phonologically enclitic, but syntactically preverbal clitics. The Macedonian, Romanian, Megleno-Romanian, Aromanian, Albanian and Modern Greek clausal clitic clusters are typically syntactically preverbal and phonologically proclitic, though in clauses in which V is instantiated by imperative verbs or present participles they occur postverbally and are enclitic. In Macedonian, Megleno-Romanian and Aromanian, in clauses with nominal predicates, the clausal clitic clusters are enclitic.
KeywordsDirect Object Definite Article Negation Marker Indirect Object Relative Pronoun
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