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Patina — Atmosphere — Aroma

Towards an Aesthetics of Fine Differences

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Part of the Analecta Husserliana book series (ANHU,volume 92)

Keywords

  • Sensory Experience
  • Aesthetic Experience
  • Aesthetic Category
  • Gustatory Experience
  • Green Patina

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. See “la surface d’une profondeur” as definition of the visible in Merleau-Ponty’s Le Visible et l’Invisible, suivi de notes de travail (Paris: Gallimard, 1993), p. 180.

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  2. Immanuel Kant, Kritik der Urteilskraft, § 45.

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  3. Friedrich W. Heubach, “Das „Resopal“-Möbel oder Die Sinne nehmen nicht einfach die Dinge auf, sondern in ihnen auch eine Form an: Jedes gegenständliche Design ist immer auch ein Design der Sinnlichkeit”, in Das bedingte Leben. Theorie der psycho-logischen Gegenständlichkeit der Dinge. Ein Beitrag zur Psychologie des Alltags (2nd ed., München: Fink, 1996), pp. 126–133.

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  4. The interpretation of patina has obvious practical implications in the realm of art restoration. In this respect, let us remember that already Alois Riegl mentioned situations in which a monument’s “relative value” and its “value of age” collide (“Wesen und Entstehung des modernen Denkmalkultus”, in Kunstwerk oder Denkmal? Alois Riegls Schriften zur Denkmalpflege, ed. Ernst Bacher, Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau, 1995, p. 94).

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  5. The concept cristallisation is used by Merleau-Ponty for the process of concretising visibility (op. cit., 174 sq.), and the phenomenon itself is described here as a “pellicule de l’être” or as an “extrait spéculaire” (ibid., p. 309). However, Merleau-Ponty considers the aesthetic process as déhiscence, incompossibilité, fission, and éclatement (ibid., pp. 269, 309, etc.), whereas what I have called here poetical-concentration suggests quite the opposite.

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  6. “[...] l’être charnel, comme être des profondeurs [...] et présentation d’une certaine absence, est un prototype de l’être [...]” (ibid., p. 179).

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  7. See, for example, Kant about the “barbaric” taste, that finds pleasure in the “Beimischung der Reize und Rührungen” (ibid., § 13) and, for the critique of the social-historical roots of the antithesis between culture and vital pleasure in the 18th century aesthetics, Pierre Bourdieu, La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (Paris: Ed. de Minuit, 1979).

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  8. Hans-Georg Gadamer, Wahrheit und Methode (2nd ed., Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, [Paul Siebeck], 1965), p. 281.

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  9. Hermann Schmitz finds in Aristotle (De caelo B, 286a 26–28) support for his interpretation of joy as a “field of lightness” (Leichtigkeitsfeld) and opposes lightness, positively understood as the natural movement of materials upwards, to the force of gravitation in the physics (Der Gefühlsraum. System der Philosophie III. 2, Bonn: Bouvier, 1969, p. 116).

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  10. Juhani Pallasmaa, Hapticity and Time — Notes on Fragile Architecture, RIBA Discourse Lecture 1999, RIBA Architecture Gallery, London, Typoscript, p. 9.

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  11. Hubert Tellenbach, Geschmack und Atmosphäre. Medien menschlichen Elementarkontaktes (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1968), p. 47.

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  12. Schmitz, Ästhetische Andacht: Distanz in der Ergriffenheit,” in Der Leib, der Raum und die Gefühle (Ostfildern: Tertium, 1998) op. cit., pp. 53–58; Tellenbach, op. cit., pp. 59 sq. For example, according to Schmitz, an atmosphere can be described adequately only in the first person and is present solely for the person who feels it and only as long as he is aware of it.

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  13. The atmospheres are interpreted from a phenomenological perspective by Hermann Schmitz, Der Gefühlsraum... (ed. cit., p. XIV); Gernot Böhme, Aisthetik. Vorlesungen über ÄAsthetik als allgemeine Wahrnehmungslehre (München: Fink, 2001); idem, Für eine ökologische Naturästhetik (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1989 (3rd ed. 1999), especially p. 148 sq.; idem, Anmutungen: Über das Atmosphärische (Ostfildern: Tertium, 1998); idem, Atmosphäre: Essays zu einer neuen Ästhetik (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 11995, 3rd ed. 2000); Tellenbach, “Der Geschmack und das Atmosphärische” (op. cit., pp. 41–67); Michael Hauskeller, Atmosphären erleben. Philosophische Untersuchungen zur Sinneswahrnehmung (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1995), etc.

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  14. Marc Crunelle, “Geruchssinn und Architektur,” in Das Riechen. Von Nasen, Düften und Gestank, ed. U. Brandes, C. Neumann, Kunst-und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Schriftenreihe Forum, vol. 5 (Göttingen: Steidl, 1995), p. 173.

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  15. Marcel Proust, Le Côté des Guermantes. À la recherche du temps perdu III, ed. Thierry Laget, Brian G. Rogers (Paris: Gallimard, 1988), pp. 353 sq.

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  16. Emotions are usually circumscribed bodily in contrast, atmospheres designate generally for Schmitz feelings vaguely located in a wide space, being therefore similar to the climatic atmospheres (like weather) and to those related to seasons and moments of the day (Schmitz, op. cit., p. 98). Atmospheres are then classified as supra-personal, personal (i.e. related to persons), and religious (ibid., pp. 98–133).

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  17. Martin Heidegger, Gelassenheit (2nd ed., Pfullingen: Neske, 1960), p. 46.

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  18. Idem, Sein und Zeit (2nd ed., Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1986), § 29, p. 136.

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  19. “Dasein ist wesenhaft ent-fernend, es läßt als das Seiende, das es ist, je Seiendes in die Nähe begegnen.” (Ibid., § 23, p. 105.)

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  20. Ibid., § 27, pp. 126–130.

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  21. Personne was precisely the name given by Merleau-Ponty to the seer before his concrete manifestation in the world: “Le sujet percevant, comme être-à tacite, silencieux, [...] — le soi de la perception comme ‘personne’, au sens d’Ulysse, comme l’anonyme enfoui dans le monde et qui n’y a pas encore tracé son sillage. [...] Anonymat et geéneéralité. Cela veut dire: non pas un nichtiges Nichts, mais un ‘lac de non-être’, un certain néant enlisé dans une ouverture locale et temporelle [...]” (op. cit., p. 254).

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  22. Tellenbach, op. cit., p. 17.

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  23. About “resonanzgebundene Gefühle” see Schmitz, Asthetische Andacht: Distanz in der Ergriffenheit,” in Der Leib, der Raum und die Gefühle (Ostfildern: Tertium, 1998) op. cit., pp. 148–150.

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  24. Schmitz, “Ästhetische Andacht: Distanz in der Ergriffenheit,” in Der Leib, der Raum und die Gefühle (Ostfildern: Tertium, 1998), pp. 91–105.

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  25. For example, Levinas reformulates the principle of identity as “A a-oie” and interprets it as the process of “résonnance ou production de l’essence en guise d’œuvres d’art” (Autrement qu’être ou au-delà de l’essence, The Hague: Nijhoff, 1974, pp. 51 sq.).

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  26. Merleau-Ponty, op. cit., p. 262, etc.

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  27. “Die Befindlichkeit erschließt das Dasein in seiner Geworfenheit und zunächst und zumeist in der Weise der ausweichenden Abkehr” (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, § 29, ed. cit. p. 136).

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  28. Ibid.

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  29. Ibid., pp. 135–136

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  30. Wolfgang Welsch, “Das Ästhetische — eine Schlüsselkategorie unserer Zeit?”, in Die Aktualität des Ästhetischen, ed. W. Welsch (München: Fink, 1993), pp. 13–47; a revised and supplemented version of this study was then published under the title “Ästhetisierungsprozesse — Phänomene, Unterscheidungen, Perspektiven” in his volume Grenzgänge der Ästhetik (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1996), pp. 9–61.

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  31. An example is Joel C. Kuipers’ study on “Matters of Taste in Weyéwa,” where he analysed “natural” correspondences in a community from Sumba (Eastern Indonesia): as bitter or bland (from a ritual perspective: as prohibited or permitted) are regarded here women no less than fragrances, dishes, and periods of the agricultural cycle. The author concludes that this categorial pair does not function descriptively, but performatively. (In The Varieties of Sensory Experience. A Sourcebook in the Anthropology of the Senses, ed. David Howes, Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press, 1991, p. 122.)

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  32. See Schmitz, Asthetische Andacht: Distanz in der Ergriffenheit,” in Der Leib, der Raum und die Gefühle (Ostfildern: Tertium, 1998) op. cit., pp. 161 sq.

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  33. Schmitz himself warns that every distinction between feelings and bodily proprioception in describing moods remains “imprecise” (ibid., p. 152).

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  34. See Alexandre-Balthazar-Laurent Grimod de la Reyniére, Écrits gastronomiques, ed. Jean-Claude Bonnet (Paris: Union générale d’éditions, 1997); Michel Onfray, La raison gourmande. Philosophie du goüt (Paris: Grasset & Fasquelle, 1995); idem, Le ventre des philosophes. Critique de la raison diététique ([Paris:] Éd. Grasset & Fasquelle, 1989), etc.

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  35. Spoerri showed himself to be a talented “story-teller” about things already in his Tableaux-piéges and in Topographie aneécdoteé du hasard (Anekdoten zu einer Topographie des Zufalls, Hamburg: Edition Nautilus, 1998), and this narrating passion did not leave him until the series of collages containing objects found at the flea-market, produced in the last decade and entitled suggestively Histoires trouvées. Where Duchamp took out the objets trouvés from their practical, functional context, and invested them with new meanings by introducing them into a total different environment, Spoerri integrates his ready-mades together with the objects’ previous story in the new work of art and creates a surrealistic sort of heterogeneous “pluriverse,” in which objects tell incongruent stories.

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  36. Jean-Paul Sartre, La Nausée (Paris: Gallimard, 1948), p. 57.

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  37. Heinrich Rombach, “Das Phänomen Phänomen,” in Neuere Entwicklungen des Phänomenbegriffs, with contributions of H. Rombach, G. Funke, E. Avé-Lallemant, O. Pöggeler, K. Hartmann, B. Waldenfels (Freiburg, München: Alber, 1980), pp. 7–32.

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  38. See Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, vol. 16, München: dtv, 1991 [1st ed. 1905], p. 1103 sq., and Sybille Krämer, “Sinnlichkeit, Denken, Medien: Von der’ sinnlichkeit als Erkenntnisform’ zur’ sinnlichkeit als Performanz’,” in Der Sinn der Sinne, ed. Claudia Neumann, Kunst-und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Göttingen: Steidl, 1998), pp. 24–39.

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Diaconu, M. (2006). Patina — Atmosphere — Aroma. In: Tymieniecka, AT. (eds) Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of the Logos. Book Five. Analecta Husserliana, vol 92. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3744-9_11

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