Protection of workers and the public has been the main objective of actinide biology research since its beginning in early 1942. It was recognized even before the fission chain reaction was demonstrated that nearly all of the isotopes of the newly created elements heavier than radium would be radioactive and emit alpha particles, and that, if taken into the body, they would be as damaging in the tissues as radium (Stone, 1951). Biological research with the actinides concentrated on quantifying their uptake and retention in tissues after introduction into the body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection (biokinetics, metabolism); identifying the nature of the radiation and/or chemical damage in the tissues with the greatest initial uptake, concentration, and longest retention; defining the radiation dose-dependent relationships between toxicity and actinide intake to blood.


Plasma Clearance Citrate Complex Uranium Compound Trivalent Actinide Transplutonic Element 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia W. Durbin
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUSA

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