Timing and Scale of Tsunamis Caused by the 1994 Rabaul Eruption, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
The timing and scale of the 1994 Rabaul tsunamis accompanying the eruption of Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes were estimated from the temporal and spatial distribution of tsunami deposits. The deposits are identified as sand layers or characteristic pumiceous sand layers (mixtures of pumice and sand) sandwiched by tephras from the two volcanoes. The tephras appear to play an important role in preserving the original structures of the tsunami deposits. According to chronological data from both tephra and tsunami deposits, the tsunamis were not generated by the first eruption of Vulcan volcano that occurred close to the coast, but major tsunamis were excited several times by larger pyroclastic flows and base surges during the climactic stage of the eruption. Tsunami run-up heights, estimated from distribution of the tsunami deposits, are about 8 m near Sulphur Creak and more than 3.5 m around western to southern shore of Matupit Island.
Key wordsTsunami run-up tsunami deposit pumiceous sand Rabaul eruption
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arculus, A. and Johnson, R. W., 1981, 1937 Rabaul eruptions, Papua New Guinea: Translations of contemporary accounts by German missionaries. Bur. Mineral. Res. Geol. Geophys., Australia, Rep. 229, BMR Microform MF 158, 78pp.Google Scholar
- Blong, R. J. and McKee, C. O., 1995, “The Rabaul eruption 1994: Destruction of a town”. Natural Hazards Research Center, Macquarie Univ., 52pp.Google Scholar
- Hokkaido Tsunami Survey Group, 1993, Tsunami devastates Japanese coastal regions. EOS Trans. AGU, 74, 417–432.Google Scholar
- Johnson, R. W. and Threlfall, N. A., 1985, "Volcano Town-the 1937–43 Rabaul Eruptions". Bathurst, N.S.W., Robert Brown and Assoc., 151pp.Google Scholar
- Latter, J. H., 1981, Tsunamis of volcanic origin: summary of causes, with particular reference to Krakatau, 1883. Bulletin of Volcanology, 44, 467–490.Google Scholar
- Nishimura, Y., 1997, Evaluation of phreatomagmatic eruptions by means of tsunamis of volcanic origin. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Vapor Explosions and Explosive Eruptions, 231–236.Google Scholar
- Nishimura, Y., Tanioka, Y. and Hirakawa, K., 2004, Beachside trace for moderate tsunami run-up: example from the 2003 Tokachi-oki Tsunami. Submitted to Zishin.(Jour. Seis. Soc. Japan), in Japanese with English abstract.Google Scholar
- Tanioka, Y., Nishimura, Y., Hirakawa, K., Imamura, F., Abe, I., Abe, Y., Shindou, K., Matsutomi, H., Takahashi, T., Imai, K., Jin, S., Onuma, Y., Murakami, T., Nagata, Y., Suzuka, A., Harada, K., Namegaya Y., Hasegawa, Y., Hayashi, Y., Nanayama, F., Kamataki, T., Kawata, K., Fukasawa, F., Koshimura, S., Hada, Y., Azumai, Y. and Hirata, K., 2004, Tsunami run-up heights of the 2003 Tokachioki earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 56, 359–365.Google Scholar