Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses
New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Buchholz, U.J., Finke, S. & Conzelmann, K.K. 1999. Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter. Journal of Virology, 73: 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buchholz, U.J., Granzow, H., Schuldt, K., Whitehead, S.S., Murphy, B.R. & Collins, P.L. 2000. Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with glycoprotein gene substitutions from human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV): effects on host range and evaluation as a live-attenuated HRSV vaccine. Journal of Virology, 74: 1187–1199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawson, N.D., Stillman, E.A., Whitt, M.A. & Rose, J.K. 1995. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 92: 4477–4481.Google Scholar
- Mebatsion, T., Koolen, M.J., De Vaan, L.T., de Haas, N., Braber, M., Romer-Oberdorfer, A., van den Elzen, P. & van der Marel, P. 2002. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) marker vaccine: an immunodominant epitope on the nucleoprotein gene of NDV can be deleted or replaced by a foreign epitope. Journal of Virology, 76: 10138–10146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morimoto, K., McGettigan, J.P., Foley, H.D., Hooper, D.C., Dietzschold, B. & Schnell, M.J. 2001. Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines. Vaccine, 14: 3543–3551.Google Scholar
- Neumann, G., Watanabe, T., Ito, H., Watanabe, S., Goto, H., Gao, P., Hughes, M., Perez, D.R., Donis, R., Hoffmann, E., Hobom, G. & Kawaoka, Y. 1999. Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96: 9345–9350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Palese, P., Zheng, H., Engelhardt, O.G., Pleschka, S. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 1996. Negative-strand RNA viruses: genetic engineering and application. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93: 11354–11358.Google Scholar
- Roberts, A., Kretzschmar, E., Perkins, A.S., Forman, J., Price, R., Buonocore, L., Kawaoka, Y. & Rose, J.K. 1998. Vaccination with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin provides complete protection from influenza virus challenge. Journal of Virology, 72: 4704–4711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt, A.C., McAuliffe, J.M., Murphy, B.R. & Collins, P.L. 2001. Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (B/HPIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)G and F proteins can be used to achieve simultaneous mucosal immunization against RSV and HPIV3. Journal of Virology, 75: 4594–4603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt, U., Beyer, J., Polster, U., Gershwin, L.J. & Buchholz, U.J. 2002. Mucosal immunization with live recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and recombinant BRSV lacking the envelope glycoprotein G protects against challenge with wild-type BRSV. Journal of Virology, 76: 12355–12359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stope, M.B., Karger, A., Schmidt, U. & Buchholz, U.J. 2001. Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with attachment and fusion glycoproteins replaced by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins. Journal of Virology, 75: 9367–9377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swayne, D.E., Suarez, D.L., Schultz-Cherry, S., Tumpey, T.M., King, D.J., Nakaya, T., Palese, P. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 2003. Recombinant paramyxovirus type 1-avian influenza-H7 virus as a vaccine for protection of chickens against influenza and Newcastle disease. Avian Disease, 47: 1047–1050.Google Scholar
- Whelan, S.P., Ball, L.A., Barr, J.N. & Wertz, G.T. 1995. Efficient recovery of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus entirely from cDNA clones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 92: 8388–8392.Google Scholar