Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses

NSV reverse genetics
  • Teshome Mebatsion
Conference paper

Abstract

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baron, M.D. & Barrett, T. 1997. Rescue of rinderpest virus from cloned cDNA. Journal of Virology, 71: 1265–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bridgen, A. & Elliott, R.M. 1996. Rescue of a segmented negative-strand RNA virus entirely from cloned complementary DNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93: 15400–15404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biacchesi, S., Thoulouze, M.I., Bearzotti, M., Yu, Y.X. & Bremont, M. 2000. Recovery of NV knockout infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus expressing foreign genes. Journal of Virology, 74: 11247–11253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Biacchesi, S., Bearzotti, M., Bouguyon, E. & Bremont, M. 2002. Heterologous exchanges of the glycoprotein and the matrix protein in a Novirhabdovirus. Journal of Virology, 76: 2881–2889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchholz, U.J., Finke, S. & Conzelmann, K.K. 1999. Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter. Journal of Virology, 73: 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchholz, U.J., Granzow, H., Schuldt, K., Whitehead, S.S., Murphy, B.R. & Collins, P.L. 2000. Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with glycoprotein gene substitutions from human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV): effects on host range and evaluation as a live-attenuated HRSV vaccine. Journal of Virology, 74: 1187–1199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Conzelmann, K.K. 1998. Nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses: genetics and manipulation of viral genomes. Annual Review of Genetics, 32: 123–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Das, S.C., Baron, M.D. & Barrett, T. 2000. Recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous F and H proteins are required for virus viability. Journal of Virology, 74: 9039–9047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Flanagan, E.B., Zamparo, J.M., Ball, L.A., Rodriguez, L.L. & Wertz, G.W. 2001. Rearrangement of the genes of vesicular stomatitis virus eliminates clinical disease in the natural host: new strategy for vaccine development. Journal of Virology, 75: 6107–6114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fodor, E., Devenish, L., Engelhardt, O.G., Palese, P., Brownlee, G.G. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 1999. Rescue of influenza A virus from recombinant DNA. Journal of Virology, 73: 9679–9682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gassen, U., Collins, F.M., Duprex, W.P. & Rima, B.K. 2000. Establishment of a rescue system for canine distemper virus. Journal of Virology, 74: 10737–10744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodbourn, S., Didcock, L. & Randall, R.E. 2000. Interferons: cell signalling, immune modulation, antiviral response and virus countermeasures. Journal of General Virology, 81: 2341–2364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Haller, A.A., Miller, T., Mitiku, M. & Coelingh, K. 2000. Expression of the surface glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, a novel attenuated virus vaccine vector. Journal of Virology, 74: 11626–11635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoffmann, E., Neumann, G., Kawaoka, Y., Hobom, G. & Webster, R.G. 2000. A DNA transfection system for generation of influenza A virus from eight plasmids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97: 6108–6113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang, Z., Krishnamurthy, S., Panda, A. & Samal, S.K. 2003. Newcastle disease virus V protein is associated with viral pathogenesis and functions as an alpha interferon antagonist. Journal of Virology, 77: 8676–8685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kahn, J.S., Schnell, M.J., Buonocore, L. & Rose, J.K. 1999. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoproteins: RSV fusion protein can mediate infection and cell fusion. Virology, 254: 81–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Karger, A., Schmidt, U. & Buchholz, U.J. 2001. Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletions of the G or SH genes: G and F proteins bind heparin. Journal of General Virology, 82: 631–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Krishnamurthy, S., Huang, Z. & Samal, S.K. 2000. Recovery of a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: expression of a foreign gene results in growth retardation and attenuation. Virology, 278: 168–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawson, N.D., Stillman, E.A., Whitt, M.A. & Rose, J.K. 1995. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 92: 4477–4481.Google Scholar
  20. Marriott, A.C. & Easton, A.J. 1999. Reverse genetics of the Paramyxoviridae. Advances in Virus Research, 53: 321–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mebatsion, T. 2001. Extensive attenuation of rabies virus by simultaneously modifying the dynein light chain binding site in the P protein and replacing Arg333 in the G protein. Journal of Virology, 75: 11496–11502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mebatsion, T., Finke, S., Weiland, F. & Conzelmann, K.K. 1997. A CXCR4/CD4 pseudotype rhabdovirus that selectively infects HIV-1 envelope protein-expressing cells. Cell, 90: 841–847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mebatsion, T., Verstegen, S., De Vaan, L.T., Romer-Oberdorfer, A. & Schrier, C.C. 2001. A recombinant Newcastle disease virus with low-level V protein expression is immunogenic and lacks pathogenicity for chicken embryos. Journal of Virology, 75: 420–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mebatsion, T., Koolen, M.J., De Vaan, L.T., de Haas, N., Braber, M., Romer-Oberdorfer, A., van den Elzen, P. & van der Marel, P. 2002. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) marker vaccine: an immunodominant epitope on the nucleoprotein gene of NDV can be deleted or replaced by a foreign epitope. Journal of Virology, 76: 10138–10146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Morimoto, K., McGettigan, J.P., Foley, H.D., Hooper, D.C., Dietzschold, B. & Schnell, M.J. 2001. Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines. Vaccine, 14: 3543–3551.Google Scholar
  26. Nagai, Y. & Kato, A. 1999. Paramyxovirus reverse genetics is coming of age. Microbiology and Immunology, 43: 613–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakaya, T., Cross, J., Park, M.S., Nakaya, Y., Zheng, H., Sagrera, A., Villar, E., Garcia-Sastre, A. & Palese, P. 2001. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector. Journal of Virology, 75: 11868–11873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Neumann, G., Whitt, M.A. & Kawaoka, Y. 2002. A decade after the generation of a negative-sense RNA virus from cloned cDNA — what have we learned? Journal of General Virology, 83: 2635–2662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Neumann, G., Watanabe, T., Ito, H., Watanabe, S., Goto, H., Gao, P., Hughes, M., Perez, D.R., Donis, R., Hoffmann, E., Hobom, G. & Kawaoka, Y. 1999. Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 96: 9345–9350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Palese, P., Zheng, H., Engelhardt, O.G., Pleschka, S. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 1996. Negative-strand RNA viruses: genetic engineering and application. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93: 11354–11358.Google Scholar
  31. Peeters, B.P., de Leeuw, O.S., Koch, G. & Gielkens, A.L. 1999. Rescue of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: evidence that cleavability of the fusion protein is a major determinant for virulence. Journal of Virology, 73: 5001–5009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Peeters, B.P., de Leeuw, O.S., Verstegen, I., Koch, G. & Gielkens, A.L. 2001. Generation of a recombinant chimeric Newcastle disease virus vaccine that allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Vaccine, 19: 1616–1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Racaniello, V.R. & Baltimore, D. 1981. Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells. Science, 214: 916–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Roberts, A. & Rose, J.K. 1999. Redesign and genetic dissection of the rhabdoviruses. Advances in Virus Research, 53: 301–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roberts, A., Kretzschmar, E., Perkins, A.S., Forman, J., Price, R., Buonocore, L., Kawaoka, Y. & Rose, J.K. 1998. Vaccination with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin provides complete protection from influenza virus challenge. Journal of Virology, 72: 4704–4711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Romer-Oberdorfer, A., Mundt, E., Mebatsion, T., Buchholz, U.J. & Mettenleiter, T.C. 1999. Generation of recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus from cDNA. Journal of General Virology, 80: 2987–2995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rose, N.F., Marx, P.A., Luckay, A., Nixon, D.F., Moretto, W.J., Donahoe, S.M., Montefiori, D., Roberts, A., Buonacore, L. & Rose, J.K. 2001. An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants. Cell, 106: 539–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schlender, J., Bossert, B., Buchholz, U. & Conzelmann, K.K. 2000. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 cooperatively antagonize α/β interferon-induced antiviral response. Journal of Virology, 74: 8234–8242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schmidt, A.C., McAuliffe, J.M., Murphy, B.R. & Collins, P.L. 2001. Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (B/HPIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)G and F proteins can be used to achieve simultaneous mucosal immunization against RSV and HPIV3. Journal of Virology, 75: 4594–4603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt, U., Beyer, J., Polster, U., Gershwin, L.J. & Buchholz, U.J. 2002. Mucosal immunization with live recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and recombinant BRSV lacking the envelope glycoprotein G protects against challenge with wild-type BRSV. Journal of Virology, 76: 12355–12359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schnell, M.J., Mebatsion, T. & Conzelmann, K.K. 1994. Infectious rabies viruses from cloned cDNA. EMBO Journal, 13: 4195–4203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Schnell, M.J., Johnson, J.E., Buonocore, L. & Rose, J.K. 1997. Construction of a novel virus that targets HIV-1-infected cells and controls HIV-1 infection. Cell, 90: 849–857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Schnell, M.J., Foley, H.D., Siler, C.A., McGettigan, J.P., Dietzschold, B. & Pomerantz, R.J. 2000. Recombinant rabies virus as potential live-viral vaccines for HIV-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97: 3544–3549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stope, M.B., Karger, A., Schmidt, U. & Buchholz, U.J. 2001. Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with attachment and fusion glycoproteins replaced by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins. Journal of Virology, 75: 9367–9377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Swayne, D.E., Suarez, D.L., Schultz-Cherry, S., Tumpey, T.M., King, D.J., Nakaya, T., Palese, P. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 2003. Recombinant paramyxovirus type 1-avian influenza-H7 virus as a vaccine for protection of chickens against influenza and Newcastle disease. Avian Disease, 47: 1047–1050.Google Scholar
  46. Valarcher, J.F., Furze, J., Wyld, S., Cook, R., Conzelmann, K.K. & Taylor, G. 2003. Role of alpha/beta interferons in the attenuation and immunogenicity of recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial viruses lacking NS proteins. Journal of Virology, 77: 8426–8439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Walsh, E.P., Baron, M.D., Anderson, J. & Barrett, T. 2000. Development of a genetically marked recombinant rinderpest vaccine expressing green fluorescent protein. Journal of General Virology, 81: 709–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Wertz, G.W., Perepelitsa, V.P. & Ball, L.A. 1998. Gene arrangement attenuates expression and lethality of a nonsegmented strand RNA virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95: 3501–3506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Whelan, S.P., Ball, L.A., Barr, J.N. & Wertz, G.T. 1995. Efficient recovery of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus entirely from cDNA clones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 92: 8388–8392.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IAEA 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teshome Mebatsion
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and DevelopmentIntervet Inc.MillsboroUSA

Personalised recommendations