Rasch and Attitude Scales: Explanatory Style

  • Shirley M. Yates
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 4)


Explanatory style was measured with the Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) in 243 students from Grades 3 to 9 on two occasions separated by almost three years. The CASQ was analysed with the Rasch model, with separate analyses also being carried out for the Composite Positive (CP) and Composite Negative (CN) subscales. Each of the three scales met the requirements of the Rasch model, and although there was some slight evidence of gender bias, particularly in CN, no grade level differences were found.

Key words

Rasch Explanatory Style Gender Bias Grade and Gender Differences 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

5. References

  1. Adams, R. J. & Khoo, S. K. (1993). Quest: The interactive test analysis system. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, L W. (1994). Attitude measures. In T. P. Husen and Postlethwaite, T, N. (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education. (Vol. 1, pp. 380–390). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  3. Curry, J. F. & Craighead, W. E. (1990). Attributional style and self-reported depression among adolescent inpatients. Child and Family Behaviour Therapy, 12, 89–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eisner, J. P. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Self-related cognition, learned helplessness, learned optimism, and human development. In T. Husen, & T. N. Postlethwaite, (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education. (second edition), (Vol. 9, pp. 5403–5407). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  5. Green, K. E. (1996). Applications of the Rasch model to evaluation of survey data quality. New Directions for Evaluation, 70, 81–92.Google Scholar
  6. Hambleton, R. K. (1989). Principles and selected applications of item response theory. Education measurement. (third edition), New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Hambleton, R. K. & Swaminathan, H. (1985). Item response theory: Principles and application. Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  8. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., Pollack, S. L. & Siegel, A. W. (1988). Attributional style and self-control behavior in depressed and nondepressed children and their parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 163–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kelderman, H., and Macready, G B. (1990). The use of uoglinear models for assessing differential item functioning across manifest and latent examinee groups. Journal of Educational Measurement, 27,(4), 307–327.Google Scholar
  10. Kline, P. (1993). Rasch scaling and other scales. The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Mahondas, R. (1996). Test equating, problems and solutions: Equating English test forms for the Indonesian Junior Secondary final examination administered in 1994. Unpublished Master of Education thesis. Flinders University of South Australia.Google Scholar
  12. McCauley, E., Mitchell, J. R., Burke, P. M. & Moss, S. (1988). Cognitive attributes of depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56, 903–908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Morrison, C. A. & Fitzpatrick, S. J. (1992). Direct and indirect equating: A comparison of four methods using the Rasch model. Measurement and Evaluation Center: The University of Texas at Austin. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 375152.Google Scholar
  14. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. & Girgus, J. S. (1995). Explanatory style and achievement, depression and gender differences in childhood and early adolescence. In G. McC. Buchanan, & M. E. P. Seligman, (Eds.), Explanatory style (pp. 57–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1986). Learned helplessness in children: A longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51. 435–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Sex differences in depression and explanatory style in children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A five year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101,(3), 405–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Osterlind, S. J. (1983). Test item bias. Sage University paper series on quantitative application in the social sciences, 07–001. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Panak, W. F. & Garber, J. (1992). Role of aggression, rejection, and attributions in the prediction of depression in children. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 145–165.Google Scholar
  20. Peterson, C., Maier, S. F. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanation as a risk factor in depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  24. Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). The optimistic child. Australia: Random House.Google Scholar
  25. Seligman, M. E. P., Peterson, C, Kaslow, N. J., Tanenbaum, R. L., Alloy, L. B. & Abramson, L. Y. (1984). Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 235–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Snyder, S. & Sheehan, R. (1992). Research methods The Rasch measurement model: An introduction. Journal of Early Intervention, 16,(1), 87–95.Google Scholar
  27. Stocking, M. L. (1994). Item response theory. In T. Husén, & N. T. Postlethwaite, (Eds.), The international encyclopaedia of education. (pp. 3051–3055). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Weiss, D. J. & Yoes, M. E. (1991). Item response theory. In R. K. Hambleton. and N. J. Zaal, (Eds.), Advances in education and psychological testing. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Wolf, R. M. (1994). Rating scales. In T. Husen & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education. (Second edition). (Vol. 8, pp. 4923–4930), Pergamon: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  30. Wright, B. D. (1988). Rasch measurement models. In J. P. Keeves (Ed.), Educational research, methodology and measurement: An international handbook. Oxtbrd: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  31. Wright, B. D. & Masters, G. (1982). Rating scales analysis. Chicago: MESA Press.Google Scholar
  32. Wright, B. D. & Stone, M. H. (1979). Best test design. Chicago: Mesa Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley M. Yates
    • 1
  1. 1.Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations