Imaging Local Dielectric and Mechanical Responses with Dynamic Heterodyned Electrostatic Force Microscopy
A scanning probe microscopy based technique has been developed for mapping variations in the polarizability of materials. A number of experiments illustrating the potential of this technique are presented. These include the image of a grating sample with alternating regions of materials with different dielectric constants. Next, the technique is used to study mechanical resonances and dynamics in microelectromechanical (MEM) structures. Finally, a stroboscopic image of an operating 434 MHz surface acoustic wave device shows that the instrument can detect dipoles at frequencies four orders of magnitude of the resonance frequency of the sensing cantilever. In this experiment the dipoles imaged result from the mechanical action of the surface acoustic wave on the piezoelectric substrate. The technique may be employed to produce images that display the local polarizability of materials as a function of frequency and we expect this technique to be useable at frequencies into the millimeter wave region.
Keywordsscanning probe microscopy electrostatic force microscopy polarization dynamics nanotechnology micro-electromechanical systems
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