Researching Applied Linguistics in Language Teacher Education

  • Nat Bartels
Part of the Educational Linguistics book series (EDUL, volume 4)


The purpose of this chapter was to explore the range of research methodologies which can be used to investigate questions about language teachers’ acquisition and use of KAL and which can serve as models for further research. However, as can be seen from the tables in this chapter, there are a number of data collection tools which have not be fully utilized for looking at teachers’ knowledge in our field such as Q methodology, critical incidents, think aloud protocols, stimulus tasks, sorting tasks, concept maps, and memory tasks. It is important that applied linguists begin to explore and evaluate how such data collection methods can be used to pursue our questions in the area of L2 teacher learning and knowledge use.


Teacher Education Preservice Teacher Educational Research Student Teacher Language Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alanen, R. (2003). A sociocultural approach to young language learners’ beliefs about language learning. In P. Kalaja & A. M. Barcelos (Eds.), New Approaches to Research on Beliefs about SLA. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  2. Allard, F. & Burnett, N. (1985). Skill in sport. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 294–312.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, L. (2002). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and the standards for Foreign Language Learning. Foreign Language Annals, 35(5), 518–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews, S. (1997). Metalinguistic awareness and teacher explanation. Language Awareness. 6(2/3), 145–161.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, S. (1999). ‘All these little name things’: A comparative study of language teachers’ explicit knowledge of grammar and grammatical terminology. Language Awareness, 8(3/4), 143–159.Google Scholar
  6. Antonek, J., McComick, D., & Donato, R. (1997). The student teacher portfolio as autobiography: Developing a professional identity. Modern Language Journal, 81, 15–25.Google Scholar
  7. Artzt, A. & Armour-Thomas, E. (1998). Mathematics teaching as problem-solving: A framework for studying teacher metacognition underlying instructional performance in mathematics. Instructional Science, 26(1/2), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, F. (1996). The role of collaborative dialogue in teacher education. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, K., Bergthold, B., Braunstein, B., Fleischman, N., Holbrook, M., Tuman, J., Waissbluth, X. & Zambo, L. (1996). The language learners’ autobiography: Examining the “apprenticeship of observation”. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bartels, N. (2003). How teachers and academics read research articles. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(7), 737–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behets, D. (1996). Comparison of visual information processing between preservice students and experienced physical education teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 16(1), 79–87.Google Scholar
  12. Beyerbach, B. (1988). Developing a technical vocabulary on teacher planning: Preservice teachers’ concept maps. Teaching & Teacher Education. 4(4), 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Block, D. (1997). Learning by listening to language learners. System, 25, 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1998). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods (3rd edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  15. Borg, S. (1998). Teachers’ pedagogical systems and grammar teaching: A qualitative study. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 9–38.Google Scholar
  16. Borg, S. (1999). The use of grammatical terminology in the second language classroom: A qualitative study of teachers’ practices and cognitions. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 95–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borko, H., Lalik, R., & Tomchin, E. (1987). Student teachers’ understandings of successful and unsuccessful teaching. Teaching & Teacher Education, 3(2), 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boscolo, P. & Cisotto, L. (1999). Instructional strategies for teaching to write: A Q-Sort analysis. Learning and Instruction, 9, 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boshuizen, H, Hobus, P., Custers, E. & Schmidt, H. (1992). Cognitive effects of practical experience. In D. Evans & V. Patel (Eds.), Advanced Models of Cognition for Medical Training and Practice. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Breen, M., Hird, B., Milton, M., Oliver, R. & Thwaite, A. (2001). Making Sense of Language Teaching: Teachers’ Principles and Classroom Practices. Applied Linguistics 22(4), 470–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brindley, R. & Schneider, J. (2002). Writing instruction or destruction: Lessons to he learned from fourth-grade teachers’ perspectives on teaching writing. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(4), 328–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bullough, R. (1989). First Year Teacher: A Case Study. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  23. Burns, A. (1992). Teacher beliefs and their influence on classroom practice. Prospect, 7(3), 56–66.Google Scholar
  24. Byra, M. & Karp, G. (2000). Data collection techniques employed in qualitative research in physical education teacher education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19, 246–266.Google Scholar
  25. Byra, M. & Sherman, M. (1993). Preactive and interactive decision-making tendencies of less and more experienced preservice teachers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 46–55.Google Scholar
  26. Cajkler, W. & Hislam, J. (2002). Trainee teachers’ grammatical knowledge: The tension between public expectation and individual competence. Language Awareness, 11(3), 161–177.Google Scholar
  27. Calderhead, J. & Robson, M. (1991). Images of teaching: Student teachers’ conceptions of classroom practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Calderhead, J. & Shorrock, S. (1997). Understanding Teacher Education: Case Studies in the Professional Development of Beginning Teachers. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  29. Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Peterson, P., Chiang, C., & Loef, M. (1989). Using knowledge of children’s mathematics thinking in classroom teaching: An experimental study. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 499–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carter, K., Cushing, K., Sabers, D., Stein, R. & Berliner, D. (1988). Expert-novice differences in perceiving and processing visual classroom information. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 25–31Google Scholar
  31. Carter, K., Sabers, D., Cushing, K., Pinnegar, S., & Berliner, D. (1987). Processing and using information about students: A study of expert, novice, and postuant teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education. 3(1), 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chase, W. & Simon, H. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen, A. & Ennis, C. (1995). Content knowledge transformation: An examination of the relationship between content knowledge and curricula. Teaching & Teacher Education, 11, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chi, M. & Bassok, M. (1989). Learning from examples via self-explanations. In L. Resnick (Ed.) Knowing, Learning and Instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Chi, M., Bassok, M., Lewis, M., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chi, M., Feltovich, P., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clandinin, D. & Connelly, F. (2000). Narrative Inquiry: Experience and Story in Qualitative Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Coelho, J. (2000). Student perceptions of physical education in a mandatory college program. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19(2), 222–245.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen, A. & Cavalcanti, M. (1990). Feedback on compositions: Teacher and student verbal reports. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second Language Writing; Research Insights fur the Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Converse, J. & Presser, S. (1986). Survey Questions: Handcrafting the Standardized Questionnaire, San Francisco: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Cooke, N. (1999). Knowledge elicitation. In F. Durso (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Cognition. Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Copeland, W. & D’Emidio-Caston, M. (1998). Indicators of development of practical theory in pre-service teacher education students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14(5), 513–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Copeland, W., Birmingham, C., Demeulle, L., Demidiocaston, M. & Natal, D. (1994). Making meaning in classrooms — An investigation of congnitive processes in aspiring teachers, experienced teachers, and their peers. American Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 166–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Corporaal, A. (1991). Repertory grid research into cognitions of prospective primary school teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education, 7(4), 315–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cortazzi, M, (1993). Narrative Analysis. Falmer PressGoogle Scholar
  46. Cortazzi, M. & Jin, L. (1999). Bridges to learning: Metaphors of teaching, learning and language. In L. Cameron and G. Low (Eds.), Researching and Applying Methaphor. Cambridge: CUPGoogle Scholar
  47. Cothran, D. & Ennis, C. (1998). Curricula of mutual worth: Comparisons of students’ and teachers’ curricular goals. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17, 307–326.Google Scholar
  48. Cumming, A. (1989). Student teachers’ conceptions of curriculum: Toward an understanding of language-teacher development. TESL Canada Journal, 7(1), 33–51.Google Scholar
  49. Davis, K. (1995). Qualitative theory and methods in applied linguistics research. TESOI, Quarterly, 29(3), 427–452.Google Scholar
  50. Day, R. (1990). Teacher observation in second language teacher education. In J. Richards & D. Nunan (Eds.), Second Language Teacher Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. de Groot, A. (1965). Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague: MoutonGoogle Scholar
  52. de Jong, O. (2000). The teacher trainer as researcher: Exploring the initial pedagogical content concerns of prospective science teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 23(2), 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Dillman, D. (1999). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method (2nd edition). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  55. Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  56. Duffy, G. & Roehler, L. (1986). Constraints on teacher change. Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), 55–58.Google Scholar
  57. Dunbar, K. (1995). How scientiests really reason: Scientific reasoning in real-world laboratories. In R. Sternberg & J. Davidson (Eds.), The Nature of Insight. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  58. Dunn, T. & Shriner, C. (1999). Deliberate practice in teaching: What teachers do for self-improvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(6), 631–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Egan, D. & Schwartz, E. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & Cognition, 7, 149–158.Google Scholar
  60. Eick, C. & Reed, C. (2002). What makes an inquiry-oriented science teacher? The influence of learning histories on student teacher role identity and practice. Science Education, 86(3), 401–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Eisenstein Ebsworth, M. & Schweers, C. (1997). What researchers say and practitioners do: Perspectives on conscious grammar instruction in the ESL classroom. Applied Language Learning, 8(2), 237–260.Google Scholar
  62. Ericsson, K. A. & Simon, H. (1993). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data (revised edition). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ethell, R. & McMeniman, M. (2000). Unlocking the knowledge in action of an expert practitioner. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(2), 87–101.Google Scholar
  64. Færch, C. & Kasper, G. (1987). From product to process — Introspective methods in second language research. In C. Færch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Introspection in Second Language Research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  65. Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38(1), 47–65.Google Scholar
  66. Farrell, T. (2001). Concept maps to trace conceptual change in pre-service English teachers. RELC Journal, 32(2), 27–44.Google Scholar
  67. Ferguson, P. & Womack, S. (1993). The Impact of Subject Matter and Educational Coursework on Teaching Performance. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1). 55–63.Google Scholar
  68. Flanagan, J. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Flynn, S. (1994). Marriage for life: Theory, research, and practice. In J. Alatis (Ed.), GURT 1993: Educational Linguistics, Crosscultural Communication, and Global Interdependence. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Foddy, W. (1994). Constructing Questions for Interviews and Questionnaires: Theory and Practice in Social Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Foss, D. & Kleinsasser, R. (2001). Contrasting research perspectives: What the evidence yields. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 7(3), 271–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fowler, F. (1995). Improving Survey Questions: Design and Evaluation. San Francisco: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Freeman, D. & Johnson, K. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 397–417.Google Scholar
  74. Freeman, D. (1991). “To make the tacit explicit”: Teacher education, emerging discourse, and conceptions of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7, 439–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Freeman, D. (1993). Renaming experience/Reconstructing practice: Developing new understandings of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Eductation, 9(5/6), 485–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Freeman, D. (1994). The use of language data in the study of teachers’ knowledge. In I. Carlgren, G. Handal, & S. Vaage (Eds.), Teachers’ Minds and Actions. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  77. Freeman, D. (1996). The “unstudied problem”: Research on teacher learning. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Freeman, D. (1998). Doing Teacher Research. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  79. Freyhof, H., Gruber, H. & Ziegler, A. (1992). Expertise and hierarchical knowledge representation in chess. Psychological Research, 54, 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Garet, M., Porter, A., Desimone, L., Birman, B. & Yoon, K. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945.Google Scholar
  81. Gass, S. & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated Recall in Second Language Research. Mahwah: NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  82. Gatbonton, E. (1999). Investigating experienced ESL teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. Modern Language Journal, 83, 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gess-Newsome, J., & Lederman, N. (1993). Preservice biology teachers’ knowledge structures as a function of professional teacher education. Science Education, 77, 25–45.Google Scholar
  84. Gitlin, A., Barlow, L., Burbank, M., Kauchak, D. & Stevens, T. (1999). Pre-service teachers’ thinking on research: Implications for inquiry oriented teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15, 753–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Golombek, P. (1998). A study of language teachers’ personal practical knowledge. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 447–464.Google Scholar
  86. Gott, S., Hall, E., Pokorny, R., Dibble, E., Glaser, R. (1993). A naturalistic study of transfer: Adaptive Expertise in technical domains. In D. Detterman (Ed.), Transjer on Trial. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  87. Grossman, P. (1990). The Making of a Teacher: Teacher Knowledge & Teacher Education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  88. Grossman, P. (1991). What are we talking about anyway? Subject-matter knowledge of secondary English teachers. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Advances in Research on Teaching (vol. 2). JAI Press.Google Scholar
  89. Guerrero, M.C., & Villamil, O. S. (2002). Metaphorical conceptualizations of ESL teaching and learning. Language Teaching Research, 6(1), 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Guthrie, J. (1988). Locating information in documents: Examination of a cognitive model. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 178–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Guthrie, J., Britten, T. & Barker, K. (1991). Roles of document structure, cognitive strategy, and awareness in searching for information. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 300–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gutiérrez Almarza, G. (1996). Student foreign language teachers’ knowledge growth. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Halpern, A. & Bower, G. (1982). Musical expertise and melodic structure in memory for musical notation. American Journal of Psychology, 95, 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hauslein, P. Good, R. & Cummins, C. (1992). Biology content cognitive structure: From science student to science teacher. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 29(9), 939–964.Google Scholar
  95. Hershey, D., Walsh, D., Read, S., & Chulef, A. (1990). The effects of expertise on financial problem solving: Evidence for goal-directed, problem-solving scripts. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46, 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Holt-Reynolds, D. (1999). Good readers, good teachers? Subject matter expertise as a challenge in learning to teach. Harvard Educational Review, 69(1), 29–49.Google Scholar
  97. Hornberger, N. & Corson, D. (1999). Research Methods in Language and Education (volume 8 of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  98. Horwitz, E. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language Methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18, 333–340.Google Scholar
  99. Horwitz, E. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals. 18(4), 333–340.Google Scholar
  100. Hosenfeld, C. (2003). Are some beliefs of second language learners ‘emergent’ phenomena? In P. Kalaja & A. M. Barcelos (Eds.), New Approaches to Research on Beliefs about SLA. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  101. Housner, L. & Griffey, D. (1985). Teacher cognition: Differences in planning and interactive decision making between experienced and inexperienced teachers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56(1), 45–53.Google Scholar
  102. Hughes-Wilhelm, K. (1997). Sometimes kicking and screaming: Language teachers-in-training react to a collaborative learning model. Modern Language Journal, 81, 527–542.Google Scholar
  103. Jacobs, J. & Morita, E. (2002). Japanese and American teachers’ evaluations of videotaped mathematics lessons. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 33(3), 154–175.Google Scholar
  104. Johnson, K & Golombek, P. (2002). Teachers’ Narrative Inquiry as Professional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Johnson, K. (1992). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices during literacy instruction for non-native speakers of English. Journal of Reading Behavior, 24(1), 83–108.Google Scholar
  106. Johnson, K. (1994). The emerging beliefs and instructional practices of preservice English as a Second Language teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education. 10(4), 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Johnson, K. (1996). The vision vs. the reality: The tensions of the TESOL practicum. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Johnston, B. & Goettsch, K. (1999). In search of the knowledge base of language teaching: Explanations by experienced teachers. Canadian Modern Language Review. 56, 437–468.Google Scholar
  109. Johnston, M. (1994). Contrasts and similarities in case studies of teacher reflection and change. Curriculum Inquiry, 24(1), 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Jones, M. & Vesilind, E. (1996). Putting practice into theory: Changes in the organization of preservice teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 91–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Jones, M., Carter, G. & Rua, M. (1999). Children’s concepts: Tools for transforming science teachers’ knowledge. Science Education, 83(5), 545–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jones, M., Rua, M. & Carter, G. (1998). Science teachers’ conceptual growth within Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(9), 967–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kagan, D. & Tippins, D. (1991). How teachers’ classroom cases express their pedagogical beliefs. Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 281–291.Google Scholar
  114. Kagan, D. (1991). Laura and Jim and What They Taught Me about the Gap Between Educational Theory and Practice. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  115. Kagan, D. (1993). Contexts for the use of classroom cases. American Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 703–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kalaja, P. & Barcelos, A. M. (2003). New Approaches to Research on Beliefs about SLA. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  117. Kelchtermans, G. (1994). Biographical methods in the study of teachers’ professional development. In I. Carlgren, G. Handal, & S. Vaage (Eds.), Teachers’ Minds and Actions. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  118. Kelly, G. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  119. Kennedy, J. (1996). The role of teacher beliefs and attitudes in teacher behaviour. In G. Tinker Sachs, M. Brock, & R. Lo (Eds.), Directions in Second Language Teacher Education. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  120. Kennedy, M., Ball, D. & McDiarmid, G. (1993). A Study Package for Examining and Tracking Changes in Teachers’ Knowledge (Technical Series 93-1). East Lansing, MI: NCRTL.Google Scholar
  121. Kerekes, J. (2001). How can SLA theories and SLA researchers contribute to teachers’ practices? In B. Johnston & S. Irujo (Eds.), Research and Practice in Language Education: Voices from the Field. Minneapolis: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.Google Scholar
  122. Kramsch, C. (1983). Culture and constructs: Communicating attitudes and values in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals 16(6), 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lamb, M. (1 995). The consequences of INSET. ELT Journal, 49(1), 72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. LeCouteur, A. & Delfabbro, P. (2001). Repertoires of teaching and learning: A comparision of university teachers and students using Q methodology. Higher Education, 42, 205–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lederman, N. (1999). Teachers’ understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice: Factors that facilitate or impede the relationship. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(8), 916–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lehrer, R. & Franke, M. (1992). Applying personal construct psychology to the study of teachers’ knowledge of fractions. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 23,3, 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Leinhardt, G. & Smith, D. (1985). Expertise in mathematics instruction: Subject matter knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 247–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Leinhardt, G., Weidman, C. & Hammond, K. (1987). Instruction and integration of classroom routines by expert teachers. Curriculum Inquiry, 17(2), 135–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lesgold, A. (1984). Acquiring Expertise. In John Anderson & Stephen Kosslyn (Eds.), Tutorials in Learning and Memory. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  130. Levine, G. (2003). Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes about target language use, first language use, and anxiety: Report of a questionnaire study. Modern Language Journal, 87(3), 343–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Li, D. (1998). “It’s always more difficult than you plan and imagine”: Teachers’ perceived difficulties in introducing the communicative approach in South Korea. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 677–703.Google Scholar
  132. Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (1999). How Languages are Learned (Revised Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Llinares, S. (2000). Secondary school mathematics teacher’s professional knowledge: A case from the teaching the concept of function. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice. 6(1), 41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ma, B. & Luk, J. (1996). Instructive or destructive: Written instructions produced by ESL teacher trainees in Hong Kong. In G. Tinker Sachs, M. Brock, & R. Lo (Eds.), Directions in Second Language Teacher Education. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  135. MacDonald, M., Badger, R., & White, G. (2001). Changing values: What use are theories of language learning and teaching? Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(8), 949–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Macdonald, D. & Tinning, R. (1995). Physical educator education and the trend to proletarianization: A case study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 15, 98–118.Google Scholar
  137. MacDonald, M., Badger, R., & White, G. (2001). Changing values: What use are theories of language learning and teaching? Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(8), 949–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Markham, K., Mintzes, J. & Jones, M. (1994). The concept map as research and evaluation tool — Further evidence of validity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(1), 91–101.Google Scholar
  139. Maxwell, J. (1996). Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  140. McAllister, G. & Irvine, J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(4), 433–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McDonough, J. & McDonough, S. (1998). Research Methods for English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  142. McDonough, J. (1994). A teacher looks at teachers’ diaries. ELT Journal, 48(1), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McKeithen, K., Reitman, J., Rueter, H. & Hirtle, S. (1981). Knowledge organization and skill differences in computer programmers. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 307–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McKeown, B. & Thomas, D. (1988). Q Methodology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  145. Meijer, P., Verloop, N., & Beijaard, D. (1999). Exploring language teachers’ practical knowledge about teaching reading comprehension. Teachng and Teacher Education, 15(1), 59–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Meskill, C., Mossop, J., DiAngelo, S. & Pasquale, R. (2002). Expert and novice teachers talking technology: Precepts, concepts and misconcepts. Language Learning & Technology, 6(3), 46–57.Google Scholar
  147. Miles, M. & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  148. Morine-Dershimer, G. (1989). Preservice teachers’ conceptions of content and pedagogy: Measuring growth in reflective, pedagogical decision-making. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(5), 46–52.Google Scholar
  149. Morine-Dershimer, G. (1993). Tracing conceptual change in preservice teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education, 9(1), 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Morris, L. (1999). Applying linguistics: An analysis of grammatical explanations given by TESL undergraduates. In S. Hwang and A. Lommel (Eds.), Lacus Forum XXV. Fullerton, CA: LACUS.Google Scholar
  151. Morris, L. (2002). Age and uptake in TESL training. Language Awareness. 11(3), 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Morris, P. (1984). Teachers’ attitudes towards a curriculum innovation: an East Asian study. Research in Education, 40, 75–85.Google Scholar
  153. Nathan, M. & Koedinger, K. (2000). An investigation of teachers’ beliefs of students’ algebra development. Cognition and Instruction, 18(2), 209–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Numrich, C. (1996). On becoming a language teacher: Insights from diary studies. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 131–151.Google Scholar
  155. Nunan, D. (1992). Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Olsen, J. & Biolsi, K. (1991). Techniques for representing expert knowledge. In K. A. Ericsson & J. Smith (Eds.), Towards a General Theory of Expertise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Olsin, J. (1996). Routines as organizing features in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 15, 319–337.Google Scholar
  158. Opewal, T. (1993). Preservice teachers’ thinking about classroom events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(2), 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Palfreyman, D. (1993). How I got it in my head: conceptual models of language and learning in native and non-native trainee EFL teachers. Language Awareness, 2(4), 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Parajes, M. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Clearing up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Parker, J. (1995). Secondary teachers’ views of effective teaching in physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14(2), 127–139.Google Scholar
  162. Patel, V. & Arocha, J. (1995). Methods in the study of clinical reasoning. In J. Higgs & M. Jones (Eds.), Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions. New York: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  163. Peacock, M. (1998). Beliefs about language learning and their relationship to proficiency.“ International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9, 247–265.Google Scholar
  164. Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service ESL teachers’ beliefs about second language learning: A longitudinal study. System, 29, 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pennington, M. & Richards, J. (1997). Reorienting the teaching universe: The experience of five first-year English teachers in Hong Kong. Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 149–178.Google Scholar
  166. Pennington, M. (1995). The teacher change cycle. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 705–718.Google Scholar
  167. Pennington, M. (1996). When input becomes intake: Tracing the sources of teachers’ attitude change. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Peterson, P. & Comeaux, M. (1987). Teachers’ schemata for classroom events: The mental scaffolding of teachers’ thinking during classroom instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3(4), 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Polettini, A. (2000). Mathematics teaching life histories in the study of teachers’ perceptions of change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(7), 765–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ramanthan, V., Davies, C., & Schleppegrell, M. (2001). A naturalistic inquiry into the cultures of two divergent MA-TESOL programs: Implications for TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 35(2), 279–305.Google Scholar
  171. Raymond, A. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teachers’ mathematics beliefs and teaching practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5), 550–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Richards, J., Li, B, and Tang, A. (1995). A comparison of pedagogical reasoning skills in novice and experienced ESL teachers. RELC Journal, 26(1)-24.Google Scholar
  173. Ronan, W., Anderson, C., & Talbert, T. (1976). A psychometric approach to job performance: Fire fighters. Public Personnel Management, 5(6), 409–413.Google Scholar
  174. Royer, J., Cisero, C., & Carlo, M. (1993). Techniques and procedures for assessing cognitive skills. Review of Educational Research, 63(2), 201–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sabers, D., Cushing, K. & Berliner, D. (1991). Differences among teachers in a task characterized by simultaneity, multidimesionality and immediacy. American Educational Research Journal, 28(1), 63–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Salant, P. & Dillman, D. (1994). How to Conduct Your Own Survey. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  177. Samway, K. (1994). But it’s hard to keep field notes while also teaching. TESOL Journal, 4(1), 47–48.Google Scholar
  178. Sato, K. & Kleinsasser, R. (1999). Communicative language teaching (CLT): Practical understandings. Modern Language Journal, 83(4), 494–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as Qualitative Research (2nd edition). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  180. Sendan, F. & Roberts, J. (1998). Orhan: A case study in the development of a student teacher’s personal theories. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 4(2), 229–244.Google Scholar
  181. Solas, J. (1993). Investigating teacher and student thinking about the process of teaching and learning using autobiography and repertory grid. Review of Educational Research, 62(2), 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Southerland, S. & Gess-Newsome, J. (1999). Preservice teachers’ views of inclusive science teaching as shaped by images of teaching, learning, and knowledge. Science Education, 83(2), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Stein, M., Baxter, J., & Leinhardt, G. (1990). Subject-matter knowledge and elementary instruction: A case from functions and graphing. American Educational Research Journal, 27(4), 639–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Strauss, S. (2001). Folk psychology, folk pedagogy, and their relations to subject matter knowledge. In B. Torff & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Understanding Teaching and the Intuitive Mind: Student and Teacher Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  185. Strauss, S. Ravid, D., Zelcer, H. & Berliner, D. (1999). Relations between teachers’ subject matter knowledge about written language and their mental models about children’s learning. In T. Nunes (Ed.), Learning to Read: An Integrated View from Research and Practice. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  186. Strauss, S., Ravid, D. & Magen, N. (1998). Relations between teachers’ subject matter knoweldge, teaching experience and their mental models of children’s minds and learning. Teaching & Teacher Education, 14(6), 579–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Strauss, S., Ravid, D., Zelcher, H. & Berliner, D. (1999). Relations between teachers’ subject matter knowledge about written language and their mental models about children’s learning. In T. Nunes (Ed.), Learning to Read: An Integrated View from Research and Practice. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  188. Sudman, S., Bradburn, N. & Schwarz, N. (1996). Thinking About Answers: The Application of Cognitive Processes to Survey Methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  189. Sutherland, D. & Dennick, R. (2002). Exploring culture, language, and the perception of the nature of science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Swanson, H. O’Connor, J. & Cooney, J. (1990). An information processing analysis of expert and novice teachers’ problem solving. American Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 533–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tamir, P. (1992). High school biology teachers’ image of subject matter: An exploratory study. The American Biology Teacher, 54, 212–217.Google Scholar
  192. Tatto, M. (1998). The influence of teacher education on teachers’ beliefs about purposes of education, roles, and practice. Journal of Teacher Education, 49(1), 66–77.Google Scholar
  193. Tillema, H. (1998). Stability and change in student teachers’ beliefs about teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 4(2), 217–228.Google Scholar
  194. Tjeerdsma, B. (1997). Comparison of teacher and student perspectives of tasks and feedback. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 16, 388–400.Google Scholar
  195. Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. & Rasinski, K. (2000). The Psychology of Survey Response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  196. Tsui, A. (1996). Learning how to teach ESL writing. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  197. Tyler, A. & Lardiere, D. (1996). Beyond consciousness raising: Re-examining the role of linguistics in langauge teacher training. In J. Alatis (Ed.), GURT 1996: Linguistics. Language Acquisition, and Language Variation. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  198. van Someren, M., Bernard, Y. & Sandberg, J. (1994). The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  199. Villamil, O. & de Guerrero, C. (1998). Assessing the impact of peer revision on L2 writing. Applied Linguistics, 19, 491–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. von Minden, A. & Walls, R. (1998). Charting the links between mathematical content and pedagogical concepts. Journal of Experimental Education, 66(4), 339–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wallace, M. (1996). Structured reflection: The role of the professional project in training ESL teachers. In D. Freeman & J. Richards (Eds.), Teacher Learning in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  202. Watts M, Alsop S, Gould G, Walsh A (1997). Prompting teachers’ constructive reflection: Pupils’ questions as critical incidents. International Journal of Science Education, 19(9), 1025–1037.Google Scholar
  203. Westerman, D. (1991). Expert and novice teacher decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 42(4), 292–305.Google Scholar
  204. Wilson, S. & Wineburg, S. (1988). Peering at history through different lenses: The role of disciplinary perspectives in teaching history. Teachers’ College Record, 89, 525–39.Google Scholar
  205. Wineburg, S. (1998). Reading Abraham Lincoln: An expert/expert study in the interpretation of historical texts. Cognitive Science, 22(3), 319–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Woods, D. (1996). Teacher Cognition in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  207. Woods, P. (1985). Conversations with teachers. British Educational Research Journal, 11(1), 13–26.Google Scholar
  208. Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., & Hooymayers, H. (1992). Do teachers distort the self-reports of their interpersonal behavior? Teaching & Teacher Education, 8(1), 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yaakobi, D. & Sharan, S. (1985). Teachers’ beliefs and practices: The discipline carries the message. Journal of Education for Teaching, 11(2), 187–199.Google Scholar
  210. Zeichner, K. & Tabachnick, R. (1981). Are the effects of teacher education ‘washed out’ by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 7–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nat Bartels
    • 1
  1. 1.Utah State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations