Hydrocracking is a versatile catalytic refining process that upgrades petroleum feedstocks by adding hydrogen, removing impurities, and cracking to a desired boiling range. Hydrocracking requires the conversion of a variety of types of molecules and is characterized by the fact that the products are of significantly lower molecular weight than the feed. Hydrocracking feeds can range from heavy vacuum gas oils and coker gas oils to atmospheric gas oils. Products usually range from heavy diesel to light naphtha. Hydrocrackers are designed for and run at a variety of conditions depending on many factors such as type of feed, desired cycle length, expected product slate but in general they will operate at the following range of conditions: liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV)—0.5 to 2.0, H2 circulation—5,000 to 10,000 SCFB (850–1,700 Nm3/m3), H2PP—1,500 to 2,000 psia (103–138 bars), and SOR temperatures ranging between 675°F and 725°F (357–385°C). Hydrocracking is particularly well suited to generating products that meet or exceed all of the present tough environmental regulations.
KeywordsAcid Site Hydrogen Partial Pressure Liquid Hourly Space Velocity Fresh Feed Amorphous Catalyst
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