Advertisement

Diseases of Minor Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits and their Management

Chapter

Abstract

In the present chapter diseases of aonla, bael, ber, custard apple, fig jackfruit, jamun, karonda, litchi, loquat, mulberry, passion fruit, phalsa, pineapple, pomegranate, and sapota have been furnished. These fruits are considered of minor importance in tropical and subtropical area because of their overall popularity, restricted area and awareness regarding their nutritive value. As such not much information has been available to readers on disease scenario and their management. Therefore, various diseases affecting them globally have been furnished in this chapter. In most of the cases anthrocnose, dieback, leaf spots, blight and fruit rots are quite common. While many diseases originate in the orchards, fruit rots may inititates from the field and may express in storage also in view of incipient infection. In other cases fruit rots may appear in storage due to lack of proper handling and storage. The amount of losses caused by fruit diseases is tremendous and has not yet been documented properly. The diseases can be controlled by taking integrated approach which involves right selection of variety, adoption of proper cultural practices, timely application of fungicides etc. Many post harvest disease which emanates from field can also be taken care of by pre-harvest spray of suitable fungicides. However post harvest fungicidal dip has to taken care to help health hazard. Detail methods of protection have been furnished in each crop.

Keywords

Powdery Mildew Cucumber Mosaic Virus Leaf Spot Passion Fruit Bordeaux Mixture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agarwal, G.P. and Sahni, V.P. 1964. Fungi causing disease at Jabalpur. Mycopath et Mycol. Applicata 22: 245–247.Google Scholar
  2. Ann, P.J., Lee, H.L. and Huang, T.C. 1999. Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease 83(8): 746–750.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous 1985. Proceeding of 3rd Workshop on Arid Zone Fruit Research held at Rahuri.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous 1988. Annual Report, Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains, Lucknow. pp. 74–92.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous 2000. Annual Report, 1999–2000. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (ICAR) Hessarghatta, Bangalore, pp. 40.Google Scholar
  6. Arya, A., Lal, B. Agarwal, R. and Srivastava, R.C. 1986. Some new fruit rot diseases — II: Symptomatology and host range. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 16(3): 265–269.Google Scholar
  7. Arya, A., Pandey, R.S. and Lal, B. 1987. Stem canker and die back disease of certain fruit trees. Acta Botanica Indica 15: 141–42.Google Scholar
  8. Awasthi, R.P., Tripathi, B.R. and Singh, A. 1975. Effect of foliar sprays of zinc on fruit drop and quality of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Punjab Horticultural Journal 15: 14–16.Google Scholar
  9. Banihashemi, Z. 1998. Etiology of pomegranate decline in Fars province of Iran. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 37(3): 127–132.Google Scholar
  10. Barbosa, C.J., Stenzel, N.M.C. and Jacomino, A.P. 1999. Occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in passion fruit in the state of Parana, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira 24(2): 193.Google Scholar
  11. Barekai-Golan, R. and Phillips, D.J. 1991. Post harvest treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables. Plant Disease, 75: 1085.Google Scholar
  12. Beardsley, J.W., Su, T.H., McEween, E.L. and Gerling, D. 1982. Field investigations on the interrelationships of the big-headed ant, the grey pineapple mealy bug, and the pineapple mealybug wilt disease in Hawaii. Proceedings Hawaii Entomological Society, 24: 51–67.Google Scholar
  13. Beriam, L.O.S., Malavolta, V.A., Jr., Rosato, Y.B. and Yano, T. 1998. Serology applied to the study of Xanthomonas campestris pv. passiflorae, a causative agent in bacteriosis of the passion fruit tree (Passiflora spp). Arquivos do Instituto Biologico (Sao Paulo), 65: 25–33.Google Scholar
  14. Bewaji, O. English, H. and Shick, F.J. 1977. Control of Alternaria surface rot of Kadota figs. Plant Disease Reporter, 61: 351–355.Google Scholar
  15. Bezerra, D.R., Lima, J.A.A. and Xavier Filho, J. 1995. Purification and characterization of an isolate of passion fruit woodiness potyvirus. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 20: 553–560.Google Scholar
  16. Bhargava, K.S. and Bist, N.S. 1962. Fruit tree virus disease investigation in Uttar Pradesh. Proceedings 4th Symposium on Virus Diseases of Fruits and Trees in Europe. Lyngby (1960), Tidsskr.-Planteavl, 65, Saemwnmor, pp. 196–203.Google Scholar
  17. Bhargava, S.N., Shukla, D.N. and Singh, A.P. 1977. Stalk-end rot of Aegle marmelos — a new disease. Indian Phytopathology, 30: 120–121.Google Scholar
  18. Bhargava, S.N., Pandey, R.S., Shukla, D.N. and Dwiwedi, D.K. 1982. New fruit rot of fig. National Academy of Science Letters, 5: 251.Google Scholar
  19. Biswas, S., Das, N.K., Qadri, S.M.H. and Saratchandra, B. 1995a. Evaluating different plant extracts against three major diseases of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 48: 342–346.Google Scholar
  20. Biswas, S., Mandal, S.K., Teoria, R.S., Nair, B.P. and Sengupta, K. 1995b. Intensity of mulberry powdery mildew in West Bengal with some measures to control. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 34: 114–117.Google Scholar
  21. Bora, S.S. 1994. Avocado rust — a new record from India. Progressive Horticulture, 26: 85–86.Google Scholar
  22. Borroto, E.G., Cintra, M., Gonzalez, J., Borroto, C. and Oramas, P. 1998. First report of a closterovirus-like particle associated with pineapple plants (Ananas cosmosus cv. Smooth Cayenne) affected with pineapple mealybug wilt in Cuba. Plant Disease, 82: 263.Google Scholar
  23. Boruah, P., Sarma, P.C. and Dutta, S. 1998. Incidence of Cercospora leaf spot disease of mulberry (Morus alba L.) in Upper Brahmputra Valley (Assam). Advances in Forestry Research in India, 18: 239–244.Google Scholar
  24. Bose, T.K. and Mitra, S.K. (eds) 1990. Fruits: Tropical and Subtropical. Naya Parkashan, Calcutta, 88 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, B.L., Scot, K.J. and Mayer, D.G. 1984. Control of ripe fruit rot of guava, Lyche and custard apple by post harvest prochloraz dip. Singapore Journal Primary Industries, 12: 40–44.Google Scholar
  26. Butler, E.J. and Bisby, G.R. 1931. The fungi of India. Imperial Council of Agricultural Research India, Science Monograph, I: 17,237 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Cardona, R., Carrasco, A. and Camino, J.M. 1994. New bacterial disease present in pineapple plantations in Lara State, Venezuela. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 7: 54–55.Google Scholar
  28. Carter, W. 1933. The pineapple mealybug, Pseudococcus brevipes and wilt of pineapple. Phytopathology, 23: 207–242.Google Scholar
  29. Castillo, N.M. and Granada, G.A. 1995. Studies on bacteriosis of passion fruit in the valley of Cauca: aetiology, hosts and control. Fitopatologia Columbiana 19(1): 55–61.Google Scholar
  30. Cedeno, L., Mohali, S. and Palacios-Pru, E. 1993. Anthracnose caused by 2 strains of Glomerella cingulata on fruits of passion fruit. Fitopatologia Venzolana, 6: 30–33.Google Scholar
  31. Cha, J.S., Pujol, C. and Kado, C.I. 1997a. Identification and characterization of a Pantoea citrea gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase that is essential for causing pink disease of pineapple. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63: 71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cha, J.S., Pujol, C., Ducusin, A.R., Macion, E.A., Hubbard, C.H. and Kado, C.I. 1997b. Studies on Pantoea citrea, the causal agent of pink disease of pineapple. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(7): 313–319.Google Scholar
  33. Chand, R. and Kishun, R. 1991. Studies on bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. punicae) of pomegranate. Indian Phytopathology, 44: 370–372.Google Scholar
  34. Chand, R., and Kishun, R. 1992. Transmission of nodal blights stain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. punicae. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10: 74–75.Google Scholar
  35. Chandra, S. and Tandon, R.N. 1965. Control of leaf spot of pomegranate with fungicides. Science and Culture, 31: 536.Google Scholar
  36. Chang, C.A., Chen, C.C., Deng, T.C. and Zettler, F.W. 1996. Characterization of passion fruit crinkle potyvirus — a newly found virus infecting passion fruit. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 38: 339–354.Google Scholar
  37. Chatterjee, S.N. and Raychaudhuri, S.P. 1963. Additional vectors of mulberry mosaic. Indian Phytopathology, 16: 243–244.Google Scholar
  38. Chatterjee, S.N. and Raychaudhuri, S.P. 1965. A note on aphid transmission of mosaic disease of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 18: 319–320.Google Scholar
  39. Chen, L.C., Lai, S.C., Lee, C.C., Chung, Y.W. and Ann, P. 1998. Effect of environmental factors on mycelial growth of Peronophythora litchii. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 7: 128–133.Google Scholar
  40. Cheng, G.Y. and Liu, J. M. 1994. A new technique treating jujube twig materials infected with witches’ broom disease for electron microscope examination. Plant Protection, 20: 36.Google Scholar
  41. Chern, L.L., Ann, P.J. and Young, H.R. 1998. Root and foot rot of loquat in Taiwan caused by Phytophthora. Plant Disease 82(6): 651–656.Google Scholar
  42. Chinnappa, B. 1968. A new species of Phaeophleospora affecting sapota. Current Science, 37: 566.Google Scholar
  43. Chinnappa, B. and Rao, V.G. 1970. A new species of Fusicoccum on Achras sapota. Science and Culture, 36: 295–296.Google Scholar
  44. Chona, B.L. and Munjal, R.L. 1955. Notes on miscellaneous Indian fungi-II. Indian Phytopathology, 8: 184–198.Google Scholar
  45. Chona, B.L. and Munjal, R.L. 1956. Notes on miscellaneous Indian fungi-III. Indian Phytopathology, 9: 53–66.Google Scholar
  46. Chona, B.L., Lall, G. and Munjal, R.L. 1959. Some Cercospora species from India. Indian Phytopathology, 12: 76–84.Google Scholar
  47. Chowdhury, S. 1945a. Ceratustomella disease of pineapple. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 15: 135.Google Scholar
  48. Chowdhury, S. 1945b. Heart or stem rot of pineapple. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 15: 139–140.Google Scholar
  49. Chowdhury, S. 1946. Wilt of pineapple. Current Science, 15: 82.Google Scholar
  50. Chowdhury, S. 1947. A Glomerella rot of nuna. Current Science, 16: 384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cohen, Y. and Coftey, M.D. 1986. Systemic fungicides and control of Oomycetes. Ann. Rev. Phytopathology, 24: 311.Google Scholar
  52. Costa Santa-Cecilia, L.V. and Chalfoun, S.M. 1998. Pests and diseases which affect pineapple. Informe Agropecuario (Belo Horizonte), 19: 40–57.Google Scholar
  53. Dai, Q. and Sun Z. H. 1995. Suppressive effects of N-triacontanol on symptoms of mulberry dwarf disease and on the causal phytoplasma. Plant Pathology, 44: 979–981.Google Scholar
  54. Damayanti, M., Susheela, K. and Sharma, G.J. 1996. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit rotting fungus Ceratocystis paradoxa. Cytobios, 86: 155–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Dar, G.H.Z. and Zargar, M.Y. 1986. Occurrence of Entomosporium maculantum Lev. on Loquat in India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16: 342.Google Scholar
  56. Darvis, J.M. 1992. Armillaria rot of litchi trees in South Africa. South African Litchi Growers Association Yearbook, 4: 2–4.Google Scholar
  57. Das, N.D., Rao, M.S. and Shankar, B.R.M. 1994. Efficacy of two new fungicides for the control of powdery mildew of ber and their compatibility with insecticides. Annals of Plant Pathology Science 2: 76–78.Google Scholar
  58. Dassanayake, E.M., Wickremasingha, D.L. and Perera, W.G.S. 1994. The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of pineapple wilt virus in pineapple (Ananas comosus). Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 31: 50–58.Google Scholar
  59. Desai, S.A. and Jamadar, M.M. 1997. Fungicides for the control of fig rust under field conditions. South Indian Horticulture 45: 70–71.Google Scholar
  60. Desai, S.A. 1998a. A note on the spray schedule for the control of powdery mildew of ber in Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11: 242–243.Google Scholar
  61. Desai, S.A. 1998b. Chemical control fig of rust. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11: 827–828.Google Scholar
  62. Edmonstone-Sammons, C.P. 1958. Some aspects of black spot in pineapple. South African Journal of Agriculture Science, 1: 111–120.Google Scholar
  63. Fotadar, R.K., Dhar, A. and Dandin, S.B. 1998. Screening of mulberry genotypes against major fungal diseases and insect pest under field conditions. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 37(1): 40–43.Google Scholar
  64. Francisco, N.E., Nakamura, K. and Oliveira, J.C. 1994. Influence of some factors on the mycelial growth, sporulation, and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of passion fruit anthracnose. Summa Phytopathologica, 20: 96–100.Google Scholar
  65. Frisullo, S., Cacciola, S.O. and Pane, A. 1997. Twig blight of loquat caused by Phytophthora cactorum. Informatore Fitopatologico, 47: 30–32.Google Scholar
  66. Gangwar, S.K., Sinha, P.S., Dutta, A.K., Singh, B.D. and Sinha, S.S. 1994. Incidence of disease and pests of mulberry in Chotanagpur (Bihar). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(4): 487–489.Google Scholar
  67. Garg, P.K. and Gupta, M.N. 1980. Some new fruit rot diseases of Carissa. Indian Phytopathology, 33: 481–482.Google Scholar
  68. Garud, B. 1968. An Anthracnose disease of pineapple in India. Plant Disease Reporter, 52: 436–437.Google Scholar
  69. Gella, R., Marin, J.A., Corrales, M.L., Toribio, F. 1997. Elimination of fig mosaic from fig shoot tip cultures by thermotherapy. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Fig, Izmin, Turkey, 24–28 June, 1997. (eds. Aksoy, U., Ferguson, L. and Hepakson, S.) Acta Horticulture, 480: 173–177.Google Scholar
  70. Giri, D., Banerjee, K., Laha, S.K. and Khatua, D.C. 1989. Some diseases of horticultural and field crops. Environment and Ecology, 7: 821–825.Google Scholar
  71. Goncalves-Gervasio, R. De C.R. and Santa-Cecilia, L.V.C. 1999. Foliar contents of phenolic compounds in pineapple as affected by wilt, cultivar and plant cycle. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 21: 232–234.Google Scholar
  72. Goncalves, E.R. and Rosato, Y.B. 2000. Genotypic characterization of Xanthomonad strains isolated from passion fruit plants (Passiflora spp.) and their relatedness to different Xanthomonas species. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50: 811–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gonzalez, M.S., Suarez, Z., Rosales, C. and Parra, D. 2000. Collar rot and wilt of yellow passion fruit in Venezuela. Plant Disease, 84: 103.Google Scholar
  74. Gonzalez, V., Ramallo, J., Ramallo, N.E.V. De., Ploper, L.D. and Torres Leal, G. 1998. Fig fruit rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora in fig crops in Tucuman, Argentina. Fitopatologia, 33: 228–231.Google Scholar
  75. Gopinath Nair, K.R. 1964. Some new records of fungi imperfecti from Bombay, Maharasthra. University Journal, Poona, 26: 109–111.Google Scholar
  76. Govindaiah, Gunasekhar, V., Gowda, P. and Thiagrajan, V. 1994. Field evaluation of fungicides against Phyllactinia corylea causing powdery mildew in mulberry (Morus alba L.). Indian Journal of Sericulture, 33: 160–162.Google Scholar
  77. Govindu, H.C. and Thirmalachar, M.S. 1964. Notes on some Indian Cercospore XI. Sydowia, 18: 18–22.Google Scholar
  78. Goyal, J.P., Desai, B.G., Bhatnagar, L.G. and Pathak, V.N. 1971. Fungal collection from Rajasthan State of India. Sydowia 25: 172–175.Google Scholar
  79. Gunasekhar, V. and Govindaiah 1994. Disease assessment keys for three major diseases of mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 33: 122–125.Google Scholar
  80. Gunasekhar, V., Govindaiah and Himantharaj, M.T. 1995. Efficacy of fungicides in controlling mulberry leaf rust caused by Cerotelium fici. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 34: 60–62.Google Scholar
  81. Gupta, D., Bhatia, R., Sharma, N.K., Chandel, J.S. and Sharma, R. 1997. Incidence and management of red rust of litchi in lower hills of Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 3: 70–74.Google Scholar
  82. Gupta, J.H. 1984. Germination of conidia of Oidium erysiphoides f sp. zizyphi causing powdery mildew of ber. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 14: 294.Google Scholar
  83. Gupta, J.H. 1986. Fungicidal control of phalsa rust. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16: 311.Google Scholar
  84. Gupta, J.H. 1992. Chemical control of algal rust of litchi caused by Cephaleuros virescens. Progressive Horticulture, 24: 109–110.Google Scholar
  85. Gupta, I.J. and Sehgal, S.P. 1974. A new Pestalotiopsis fruit rot of sapota from India. Indian Phytopathology, 27: 616.Google Scholar
  86. Gupta, J.H., Ram Nath and Srivastava, V.P. 1977. Chemical control of powdery mildew of ber. Progressive Horticulture, 9: 81–83.Google Scholar
  87. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1975a Diseases of fruits from Haryana. I. A New fruit rot of Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. Current Science, 44: 908.Google Scholar
  88. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1975b Two leaf spot disease of ber from Haryana. Current Science, 44: 248.Google Scholar
  89. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1977a Diseases of fruits from Haryana — a new leaf spot disease of ber. Current Science, 46: 37–238.Google Scholar
  90. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1977b Fruit rot diseases of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk). from Haryana. Indian Phytopathology, 30: 554–555.Google Scholar
  91. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1978. Occurrence of Alternaria leaf spot disease of (Zizyphus mauritian Lamk.) and its control. Abstract, Symposium Advancing Frontiers in Plant Biology, BHU, Varanasi, pp. 45.Google Scholar
  92. Gupta, P.C., Madaan, R.L. and Grover, R.K. 1978. Occurrence of powdery mildew of ber in Haryana and its control. Indian Phytopathology, 31: 440–443.Google Scholar
  93. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1979. Hansfordia pulvinata — A mycoparasite on Isariopsis indica var. zizyphi. Current Science, 48: 121–122.Google Scholar
  94. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1980. Varietal resistance against leaf spot of ber. HAU Journal of Research, 10: 75–76.Google Scholar
  95. Gupta, P.C., Madaan, R.L. and Chauhan, K.S. 1980. Varietal resistance of ber against Isariopsis mouldy leaf spot disease. Indian Phytopathology, 33: 140–141.Google Scholar
  96. Gupta, P.C., Madaan, R.L. and Yamadagni, R. 1984. Three rust fungi on fruit crops from Haryana. Indian Phytopathology, 37: 407.Google Scholar
  97. Gupta, P.C. and Madaan, R.L. 1985. Report on pathological aspects of fruit crops (1975–83). Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hisar, pp. 1–42.Google Scholar
  98. Gupta, V.P. 1999. On the occurrence of green mosaic disease on mulberry in India. Indian Phytopathology, 52: 154–155.Google Scholar
  99. Gupta, V.P., Tewari, S.K. and Datta, R.K. 1995. Surface ultrastructural studies on ingress and establishment of Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori on mulberry leaves. Journal of Phytopathology, 143: 415–418.Google Scholar
  100. Gupta, V.P., Govindaiah and Datta, R.K. 1996. Plant extracts: a non chemical approach to control Fusarium diseases of mulberry. Current Science, 71: 406–409.Google Scholar
  101. Gupta, V.P., Sharma, D.D., Govindaiah; and Chandrashekar, D.S. 1999. Soil solarization for the control of nursery disease in mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 38: 44–47.Google Scholar
  102. Hall, D.J. 1983. Fungicides for post harvest decay control in loquats. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 96: 366–367.Google Scholar
  103. Harsh, N.S.K., Tiwari, C.K. and Nath, V. 1989. Foliage diseases in forest nurseries and their control. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 5: 66–69.Google Scholar
  104. Hingorani, M.K. and Mehta, P.P. 1952. Bacterial leaf spot of pomegranate and its control. Indian Phytopathology, 5: 55–56.Google Scholar
  105. Hosomi, A. and Kusakari, S. 1995. Yeast associated with soft rot of fig fruit in Japan. Proceedings of the Kansai Plant Protection Society, 37: 9–10.Google Scholar
  106. Hu, J.S., Sether, D.M. and Ullman, D.E. 1995. Detection of pineapple closterovirus in pineapple plants and mealybugs using monoclonal antibodies. Phytopathology, 85: 1137.Google Scholar
  107. Hu, J.S., Sether, D.M., Lin, X.P., Wang, M., Zee, F. and Ullman, D.E. 1997. Use of tissue blotting immunoassay to examine the distribution of pineapple closterovirus in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 81: 1150–1154.Google Scholar
  108. Huang, P.U. and Scott, K.J. 1985. Control of rotting and browning of litchi fruits after harvest at ambient temperature in China. Tropical Horticulture, 62: 2–4.Google Scholar
  109. Illingworth, J.F. 1931. Preliminary report on evidence that mealybugs are an important factor in mealybug wilt. Journal of Economic Entomology, 31: 291–298.Google Scholar
  110. Im, H.B., La, Y.J., Lim, U.K., Chang, T.J., Shin, J.D. and Lee, S.H. 1985. Histopathological studies of witches broom infected jujube trees treated by oxytetracycline. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 1: 101–100.Google Scholar
  111. Iwai, H., Ohmori, T., Kurokawa, Y., Muta, T. and Arai, K. 1996. New record of passion fruit woodiness virus in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62: 459–465.Google Scholar
  112. Iwai, H., Sakai, J., Hanada, K. and Arai, K. 1997. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene and 3′-noncoding region of the passion fruit woodiness virus-amami ohshima isolate. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 63: 475–478.Google Scholar
  113. Jain, S.K., Saxena, A. and Saxena, S.B. 1981. Two new fruit rot diseases of Achras sapota. Indian Phytopathology, 34: 403.Google Scholar
  114. Jain, S.K., Saxena, A. and Saxena, S.B. 1983. A new leaf spot disease of Z. jujube Lamk. (Botryodiplodia theobromae on Z jujube). National Academy Science Letters, 5: 22.Google Scholar
  115. Jamaluddin, 1978. Cladosporium rot of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Proceedings of National Academy of Science, India, 43: 62.Google Scholar
  116. Jamaluddin, Tandon, M.P. and Tandon, R.N. 1975. A fruit rot of aonla caused by Phoma. Proceedings of National Academy of Science, India B., 45: 75–77.Google Scholar
  117. Jamaluddin, Tandon, M.P. and Tandon, R.N. 1979. The nature of some metabolic changes infected aonla fruit. Proceedings of National Academic Science, India, 49(B): 113–115.Google Scholar
  118. Jeyarajan, R. and Cheema, S.S. 1972. Screening of ber varieties for resistant to leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 29: 353.Google Scholar
  119. Jiang, Y.M., Cheng, F., Li, Y.B. and Liu, S.X. 1997a. A preliminary study on the biological control of post-harvest diseases of litchi fruit. Journal of Fruit Sciences, 14: 185–186.Google Scholar
  120. Jiang, Y.M., Liu, S.X., Chen, F., Li, Y.B. and Zhang, D.L. 1997b. The control of post harvest browning of litchi fruit by sodium bisulphite and hydrochloric acid. Tropical Science, 37: 189–192.Google Scholar
  121. Johnston, A. 1957. Pineapple fruit collapse. Malaysia Agricultural Journal, 40: 253–263.Google Scholar
  122. Joshi, I.J., Saxena, A. and Saksena, S.B. 1983. Two new soft rot diseases of loquat from India. Current Science, 52: 610.Google Scholar
  123. Kamiunten, H. 1995. Involvement of a plasmid in the expression of virulence in Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 61: 376–380.Google Scholar
  124. Kamthan, K.P., Misra, R. and Shukla, A.K. 1981. Nigrospora fruit rot of Emblica officinalis, a new disease record. Science and Culture, 47: 371–372.Google Scholar
  125. Kang, M.S. and Singh, I. 1991. Die back and leaf blight incited by Pestalotiopsis mangiferae (Henn.) Steyaert. Plant Disease Research, 6: 103–104.Google Scholar
  126. Kang, S., Di, D.P., Li, X.H., Peng, S.Q., Mao, Y.M. and Zhou, Z.Y. 1998. Identification of the pathogen of Chinese jujube brown cortex. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 28: 165–171.Google Scholar
  127. Kanwar, Z.S. 1976. A note on bacterial disease of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Haryana. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science, 5: 171–180.Google Scholar
  128. Kanwar, Z.S. and Thakur, D.P. 1972. Controlling post harvest soft rot of pomegranate fruits by treatment of pack of straw. Science and Culture, 38: 450–452.Google Scholar
  129. Kanwar, Z.S. and Thakur, D.P. 1973. Some new fungal rots of pomegranate in Haryana. Science and Culture, 39: 274–276.Google Scholar
  130. Kanwar, Z.S., Thakur, D.P. and Kadian, D.P. 1973. A note on effect of temperature and RH on the development of soft rot of pomegranate due to Rhizopus arrhizus. Indian Phytopathology, 26: 742–743.Google Scholar
  131. Kapur, S.P., Chema, S.P. and Singh, M.P. 1975. Occurrence and control of powdery mildew of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lame.) in Punjab. Journal of Research PAU, 12: 26–29.Google Scholar
  132. Khurana, S.M.P. and Singh, R.A. 1972. A note on flat limb of sapota in south India. Zeitschrift Pflanzenhrankheitin und Pflanzenschutz, 79: 310–312.Google Scholar
  133. Kim, C.J. 1965. Witches broom of jujube tree (Zizyphus jujube Mill. Var. inermis Reld). IX. Effect of low temperature in winter upon the appearance of symptoms. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 4: 7–10.Google Scholar
  134. Kitajima, E.W., Rezende, J.A.M., Rodrigues, J.C.V., Chiavegato, L.G., Piza Junior, C.T. and Morozini, W. 1997. Green spot of passion fruit, a possible viral disease associated with infestation by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 22: 555–559.Google Scholar
  135. Koga, K. 1999. Outbreaks of fruit rot on loquat and occurrence of benomyl fungicide low sensitivity strains of Pestalotiopsis eriobotrifolia and Pestalotiopsis neglecta, the causal fungi of loquat gray leaf spot, in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 45: 38–44.Google Scholar
  136. Kontaxis, D.G. 1977. Chemical control of pink disease of pineapple fruit in the Philippines (abstract). Proceedings of American Phytopathology Society, 4: 207–208.Google Scholar
  137. Kontaxis, D.G. and Hayward, A.C. 1978. The pathogen and symptomatology of pink disease of pineapple fruit in the Philippines. Plant Disease Reporter, 62: 446–450.Google Scholar
  138. Kore, S.S. and Bhide, V.P. 1977. New hosts for Curvularia lunata var. aeria. Indian Phytopathology, 30: 409.Google Scholar
  139. Kore, S.S. and Dhande, G.W. 1973. A new leaf spot of bel (Aegle marmelos Corr.) caused by Fusarium roseum Link from India. Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth Research Journal, 1: 223–224.Google Scholar
  140. Kruger, F., Rabie, E., Wesson, K. and Tustin, H. 1998. The fight against blackheart in ‘Queens’. Neltropika Bulletin, 304: 18–20.Google Scholar
  141. Kumar, A., Bhansali, R.R. and Arya, H.C. 1978. A note on the occurrence of powdery mildew of ber (Zizyphus spp.) in Indian arid zone. Annals Arid Zone, 17: 323–325.Google Scholar
  142. Kumar, P.M.P. and Vijayan, K. 1999. Effects of extracts of different plants on seed germination and seedling growth of mulberry Imorus indica L.). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4: 343–345.Google Scholar
  143. Kumar, S. and Tandon, M.P. 1978. A new fruit rot of Carissa. Indian Phytopathology, 31: 105.Google Scholar
  144. Kumar, S. and Tandon, M.P. 1982. A new fruit rot of Carissa. Current Science, 51: 1119.Google Scholar
  145. Kumar, V. and Patel, P.N. 1968. Symptoms and host range in a bacterial disease on Carissa carandas L. Indian Phytopathology, 21: 315–317.Google Scholar
  146. Kumar, V., Babu, A.M., Sharma, D.D. and Datta, R.K. 1998a. Penetration and infection process of Phyllactinia corylea on mulberry leaf causing powdery mildew-I. Asexual stage. Journal of Phytopathology, 146: 469–472.Google Scholar
  147. Kumar, V., Sharma, D.D., Babu, A.M. and Datta, R.K. 1998b. Studies on the hyphal interactions between a biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum and a mycopathogen Fusarium solani causing root rot disease in mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 37: 17–20.Google Scholar
  148. La, Y.J., Brown Jr. W.M. and Moon, D.S. 1977. Control of witches broom disease of jujube with oxytetracycline injection. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 15: 107–110.Google Scholar
  149. Lal, A. and Singh, R.P. 1953. Anthracnose disease of Carissa carandas Linn. caused by Coleototrichum inamdarii. Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 32: 54–63.Google Scholar
  150. Lal, B., Arya, A., Rai, R.N. and Tewari, D.K. 1982. A new soft rot of aonla caused by Phomopsis phyllanthi and its chemical control. National Academy of Science Letters, 5: 183–185.Google Scholar
  151. Lele, V.C. and Ram, A. 1969. Two new disease of loquat in India. Indian Phytopathology, 22: 502–504.Google Scholar
  152. Lele, V.C. and Butani, D.K. 1975. Trends in plant disease control in India with particular reference to fruit crops. Pesticides, 9: 75–95.Google Scholar
  153. Lim, W.H. 1978. Studies on the etiology, epidemiology, ecology and control of pineapple fruit collapse. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, England, 409 pp.Google Scholar
  154. Lim, W.H. 1983. Marbled fruit, a potentially serious disease of Hybrid I pineapples. MARDI Fruit Br. Info. Leaflet No. 15, 9 pp. (Mimeo.).Google Scholar
  155. Lim, W.H. 1985. Bacterial diseases of pineapple. In: “Review Tropical Plant Pathology”, Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, 2: 127–140.Google Scholar
  156. Lim, W.H. and Lowings, P.H. 1979. Pineapple fruit collapse in Peninsular Malaysia: symptoms and varietal susceptibility. Plant Disease Reporter, 63: 170–174.Google Scholar
  157. Lim, W.H. and Lowings, P.H. 1982. Some ecological aspects of the transmission of fruit collapse disease in pineapple. Acta Oecologica, 3: 71–77.Google Scholar
  158. Lim, W.H. and Lowings, P.H. 1983. Pathogenic of Erwinia chrysanthemi from pineapple with strains from other hosts. MARDI Research Bulletin, 11: 342–350.Google Scholar
  159. Lin, K.J. and Li, G.X. 1985. Observations on symptom development of jujube witch’s broom disease. Shanxi Fruit Trees, 19: 35–37.Google Scholar
  160. Linford, M.B. 1952. Pineapple diseases and pests in Mexico. FAO Planta Protection Bulletin, 1: 21–25.Google Scholar
  161. Liu, T.C., Huang, S.H. and Yang, L.J. 1991. Occurrence and control of loquat gray spot. Bulletin Taichung Agriculture Information Station, 30: 43–51.Google Scholar
  162. Liu, T.D. 1995. The occurrence of Pestalotiopsis eriobotryicola in loquat and effects on yield and quality of fruits. Bulletin of Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, 47: 59–66.Google Scholar
  163. Lodha, S. 1984. Wilt of jujube caused by Fusarium equiseti. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 31(2): 95.Google Scholar
  164. Lukose, C. and Singh, R.D. 1997. Climatic factors affecting the severity of pomegranate fruit rot. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 27: 48–50.Google Scholar
  165. Luo, H.H., and Zhong, S.Z. 1998. Effects of black-inhibitor for controlling black heart disease in pineapple. Journal of Guangxi Agricultural University, 17: 233–240.Google Scholar
  166. Mabagala, R.B. and Maerere, A.P. 1998. First report of pink fruit disease of pineapple in Tanzania. Fruits (Paris), 53: 235–240.Google Scholar
  167. Madaan, R.L. and Gupta, P.C. 1976. Diseases of fruits from Haryana-II. Two new leaf spot diseases of ber. Indian Phytopathology, 29: 328.Google Scholar
  168. Madaan, R.L. and Chand, J.N. 1985. Epidemiological studies on Alternaria leaf spot and fruit rot disease of ber. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15: 26–27.Google Scholar
  169. Madaan, R.L. and Gupta, P.C. 1985. A leaf spot disease of Aegle marmelos L. caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3: 239.Google Scholar
  170. Maheshwari, S.K. and Singh, S.B. 1999. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on development of powdery mildew of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.). Annals of Planta Protection Sciences, 7: 105–107.Google Scholar
  171. Maji, M.D., Qadri, S.M.H., Gangwar, S.K., Kumar, P. M.P. and Saatchandra, B. 1999. A new brown ring leaf spot disease of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 52: 203.Google Scholar
  172. Majumdar, V.L. and Singh, J. 1997. Management of Alternaria rot in pomegranate by chemicals. Golden Jubilee International Conference on “Integrated Plant Disease Management for Sustainable Agriculture”, November 10–15, 1997, New Delhi, Indian Phytopathological Society (Abstract), p. 322.Google Scholar
  173. Mallikarjunaradhya, A.V., Bhat, A.V., Gown, J.K., Rao, A.R.V., Ramana, K.V.R. and Narasimhan, P. 1979. Control of fungal stem end rot during transport of pineapple. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 16: 232–234.Google Scholar
  174. Manicom, B.K. 1995. Litchi dieback. Year Book — South Africa Litchi Growers Association, 7: 3–4.Google Scholar
  175. Marcano, D.A. De., Bravo, I.M. De., Gallardo, E. and Prays, R. 1993. Distribution and incidence of soft rot on pineapple in the municipality of Crespo in the state of Lara. FONAIAP Divulga, 10: 8–9.Google Scholar
  176. Martelleto, L.A.P., Castilho, A.M.C. and Goes, A. De 1998. Influence of incubation temperature on mycelial growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of Fusarium subglutinans, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in the pineapple plant. Summa Phytopathologica, 24: 242–246.Google Scholar
  177. Mazzani, C. 1994. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing a severe spotting and rot of pomegranate fruits in Venezuela. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 7(1): 28.Google Scholar
  178. McLauchan, R.L., Mitchell, G.E., Johnson, G.I., Nottingham, S.M. and Hammerton, K.M. 1992. Effect of disinfection dose of irradiation on the physiology of Taiso Lychee. Post harvest Biology and Technology, 1: 273–281.Google Scholar
  179. Mehta, P.R. 1940. Stem end rot and soft rot of pineapple in United Province. Current Science, 9: 330.Google Scholar
  180. Mehta, P.R. 1950. Some new diseases of plants of economic importance in Uttar Pradesh. Plant Protection Bulletin, New Delhi, 2: 50–51.Google Scholar
  181. Mehta, P.R. and Bose, S.R. 1947. A leaf spot disease of fig caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17: 219–221.Google Scholar
  182. Michailides, T.J., Morgan, D.P. and Subbarao, K.V. 1996. An old disease still a dilemma for California growers. Plant Disease, 80: 828–841.Google Scholar
  183. Milanes, V.P. and Herrera, I.L. 1994. Over wintering of Thielaviopsis paradoxa (de Seynes) Hohn on sugarcane and pineapple residues in a typical carbonated soil. Centro Azucar, 21: 66–72.Google Scholar
  184. Miriam, Z., Shula, M. and Frieda, K. 1999. Etiology and control measures of fire blight in Loquat. In: “Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Fire Blight, Kusadasi, Turkey, 12–15 October, 1998” (eds. Momol, M.T. and Saygili, H.). Acta Horticulturae, 489: 495–497.Google Scholar
  185. Mishra, A. and Shivpuri, A. 1983. Anthracnose — a new disease of aonla. Indian Phytopathology, 36: 406–407.Google Scholar
  186. Mishra, B., Prakash, O. and Misra, A.P. 1973. Gloeosporium eugeniae causing anthracnose disease on Syzygium cuminii Skeels from India. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 30: 448–450.Google Scholar
  187. Misra, A.K., Das, B.K. and Ahsan, M.M. 1994. A new record of Coniothyrium foedans on mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 47: 439.Google Scholar
  188. Misra, A.K. and Das, B.K. 1998. Incidence of powdery mildew disease in mulberry in Darjeeling hills as influenced by some abiotic factors. Indian Agriculturist, 42: 49–53.Google Scholar
  189. Misra, A.K. and Pandey, B.K. 2001. Diseases of litchi and their management. In: “Disease of Fruits and Vegetables and their management”. (ed. Thind, T.S). Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, pp. 150–153.Google Scholar
  190. Mitra, A. 1935. Investigations on the wound-paracitism of certain Fusaria. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5: 632–637.Google Scholar
  191. Mitter, J.N. and Tandon, R.N. 1930. The fungus flora of Allahabad. Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 9: 197.Google Scholar
  192. Moniz, L., Sabley, J.E. and More, W.D. 1964. A new bacterial canker of Carisa congesta in Maharashtra. Indian Phytopathology, 17: 256.Google Scholar
  193. Morita, A. 1991. Seasonal occurrence of loquat canker and analysis of its affecting factors. Proceeding of Association Plant Protection Kynshu, 37: 63–71.Google Scholar
  194. Morita, A. 1995. Occurrence of southern blight disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on loquat. Annals of the Phytopathology Society of Japan, 61: 197–201.Google Scholar
  195. Morita, A. 1997. Causal factors of Tate-boys, a new disease of loquat fruit. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 63: 44–50.Google Scholar
  196. Mourichon, X. 1983. Fruitlet core rot or leathery pocket of banana caused by Penicillium funiculosum. Fruits, 38: 601–609.Google Scholar
  197. Nagaich, B.B. and Vashisht, K.S. 1962. Mosaic disease of fig in Himachal Pradesh. Current Science, 31: 166–167.Google Scholar
  198. Navale, A.M., Padule, D.N. and Kaulgud, S.N. 1998. Efficacy of different fungicides against leaf and fruit spots of pomegranate in Mrig Bahar. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 23: 251–253.Google Scholar
  199. Nema, S. and Sharma, N.D. 1996. Phytophthora blight and damping-off of custard apple from India. Indian Phytopathology, 49: 407.Google Scholar
  200. Nitta, H., Imada, J., Kano, T., Nakamoto, K. and Ogasawara, S. 1995. Occurrence and causes of fig mosaic symptoms in Hiroshima Prefecture. Bulletin of the Hiroshima Prefectural Agriculture Research Centre, 62: 53–65.Google Scholar
  201. Nojima, H., Kiku, T., Kumamoto, D. 1995. Fruit rot of loquat in the Amami Islands. Proceedings of the Association of Plant Protection of Kyuschu, 41: 36–42.Google Scholar
  202. Novaes, Q.S. and Rezende, J.A.M. 1999. Possible use of indirect DAS-ELISA for screening of passion fruit tolerant to passion fruit woodiness virus. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 24: 76–79.Google Scholar
  203. Ou, Z.J., Deng, W.S. and Wu, C.T. 1999. Experiment of control of litchi downy mildew disease by using 80% mancozeb wetted powder. China Fruits, 3: 32.Google Scholar
  204. Pandey, B.N., Misra, U.S., Yadav, S., Pandey, R.R. and Dwivedi, R.S. 1986. A new leaf spot of ber (Zzyphus jujuba) from Rohilhand region of India. Acta Botanica Indica, 14: 236–242.Google Scholar
  205. Pandey, R.S., Bhargava, S.N., Shukla, D.N. and Khati, D.V.S. 1979. Control of Rhizopus rot of Jackfruit. Indian Phytopathology, 32: 479–480.Google Scholar
  206. Pandey, R.S., Khati, D.V.S., Shukla, D.N. and Bhargava, S.N. 1980a. A new Phoma rot of bael fruit. Indian Phytopathology, 33: 319.Google Scholar
  207. Pandey, R.S., Shukla, D.N., Khati, D.V.S. and Bhargava, S.N. 1980b. A new fruit rot of Phyllanthus emblica. Indian Phytopathology, 33: 491.Google Scholar
  208. Pandey, R.S., Bhargava, S.M., Shukla, D.N. and Dwivide, D.K. 1984. Two new fruit diseases of aonla caused by Alternaria species. International Journal of Tropical Plant Disease, 2: 79–80.Google Scholar
  209. Pandey, P.K., Singh, A.B., Nimbalkar, M.R. and Marathe, T.S. 1976. A witches’ broom disease of jujube from India. Plant Disease Reporter, 60: 301–303.Google Scholar
  210. Panwar, K.S. and Vyas, N.L. 1974. Cladisporium oxysporum causing fruit rot in pomegranate and ber. Indian Phytopathology, 27: 121–122.Google Scholar
  211. Pares, R.D., Gunn, L.V., Keskula, E.N., Martin, A.B. and Teakle, D.S. 1997. Occurrence of passifloroa latent carlavirus in cultivated and wild Passiflora species in Australia. Plant Disease, 81: 348–350.Google Scholar
  212. Parkash, V. and Jhooty, J.S. 1987. Epidemiology of powdery mildew of Ziziphus mauritiana caused by Microsphaera alphitoides f.sp. ziziphi. Indian Phytopathology, 40: 491–494.Google Scholar
  213. Parkash, V., Kaur, G.P. and Jhooty, J.S. 1988. Perpetuation of Microsphaera alphitoides f.sp. ziziphi causing powdery mildew of ber. Indian Phytopathology, 41: 141–143.Google Scholar
  214. Patel, M.K., Kamat, M.N. and Bhide, V.P. 1949. Fungi of Bombay. Supplement I. Indian Phytopathology, 2: 142–155.Google Scholar
  215. Patel, M.K., Allayyanavaramath, S.B. and Kulkarni, Y.S. 1953. Bacterial shot hole and fruit canker of Aegle mormelos Correa. Current Science, 22: 216–217.Google Scholar
  216. Patel, P.B. and Chauhan, H.L. 1993. Twig blight of sapota caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae — a new record. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23: 219.Google Scholar
  217. Patel, P.B. and Chauhan, H.L. 1997. Effect of different fungicides for the control of twig blight in sapota. Indian Phytopathological — Golden Jubilee International Conference on “Integrated Plant Disease Management for Sustainable Agriculture”, November 10–15, 1997, New Delhi (Abstract), p. 323.Google Scholar
  218. Pathak, V.N. 1980. Disease of fruit crops. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, 309 p.Google Scholar
  219. Pathak, V.N. and Desai, B.G. 1971. A new species of Microdiplodia on Nephelium litchi Camb. Sydowia, 24: 73–74.Google Scholar
  220. Pathak, V.N., Doshi, A. and Mathur, S. 1988. Management of diseases in tropical fruits. In: “Tree Protection” (eds. Gupta, V.K. and Sharma, N.K.) ISTS, Solan, pp. 62–67.Google Scholar
  221. Payak, M.M. 1953. Some new records of fungi from the Bombay State. Science and Culture, 18: 342–343.Google Scholar
  222. Perello, A.E. and Larren, S. 1999. First report of Pestalotiopsis guepini on loquat in Argentina. Plant Disease, 83: 695.Google Scholar
  223. Perez, M.C., Borras, O., Arzola Gonzalez, M. and Rodriguez, Y. 1994. Report of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans as a pathogen of pineapple in Cuba. Centro Agricola, 21: 88–90.Google Scholar
  224. Philip, T., Govindaiah, and Datta, R.K. 1994a. Sources of resistance in mulberry to leaf rust. Indian Phytopathology, 47: 201–202.Google Scholar
  225. Philip, T., Govindaiah, and Saramangala, H.S. 1994b. Two new host records in mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 47: 214.Google Scholar
  226. Philip, T., Gunasekhar, V., Govindaiah, and Datta, R.K. 1994c. Measures to control leaf-blight of mulberry. Indian Farming, 43: 9–10.Google Scholar
  227. Philip, T., Janardhan, L., Govindaiah, and Bajpai, A.K. 1994d. Black leaf spot disease of mulberry — first report. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 33: 186–187.Google Scholar
  228. Philip, T. and Govindaiah, 1995. Pestalotiopsis disseminata (Thum.) Steyaert — a new pathogen on mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 34: 159–160.Google Scholar
  229. Philip, T., Bajpai, A.K., Govindaiah, and Sarkar, A. 1995a. Screening of mulberry genotypes for resistance to Mycophaerella mori leaf spot. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 13: 199–204.Google Scholar
  230. Philip, T., Janardhan, L., Govindaiah,, Mallikarjuna, B., Mandal, K.C. and Bajpai, A.K. 1995b. Some observations on the incidence, associated microflora and control of root-rot disease of mulberry in south India. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 34: 137–139.Google Scholar
  231. Philip, T. and Govindaiah, 1996. Studies on the factors contributing for disease resistance in mulberry against Cercospora moricola. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 35: 39–42.Google Scholar
  232. Philip, T., Sarkar, A. and Govindaiah, 1996. Screening of some promising genotypes of mulberry for leaf spot and rust resistance. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 35: 158–159.Google Scholar
  233. Poltronieri, L.S., Trindade, D.R., Albuquerque, F.C. and Benchimol, R.L. 1999. Web blight (Thanatephorus cucumeris) of passion fruit in the state of Para, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 24: 92.Google Scholar
  234. Prakasam, V. and Subbaraja, K.T. 1994. Manage heart-rot of pineapplezzz. Indian Horticulture, 39: 14.Google Scholar
  235. Prakash, O., Singh, S.J. and Tewari, R.P. 1975. An anthracnose disease of Syzygium cuminii from India. Indian Phytopathology, 28: 267–268.Google Scholar
  236. Prasad, K.V., Yadav, B.R.D. and Sullia, S.B. 1997. Effect of mulching on severity of mulberry rust disease. Iran Agricultural Research, 16: 139–146.Google Scholar
  237. Prasad, N. and Verma, A.P. 1970. A new genus of moniliates from India. Indian Phytopathology, 23: 111–113.Google Scholar
  238. Prasad, S.S. 1962. Two new leaf spot disease of Nephelium litchi Camb. Current Science, 31: 293.Google Scholar
  239. Prasad, S.S. 1967. Leaf spot diseases of Nephelium litchi Camb. Indian Phytopathology, 20: 50–53.Google Scholar
  240. Prasad, S.S. and Bilgrami, R.S. 1969. Investigation on diseases of litchi-I. Phyllosphere mycoflora of Litchi chinensis in relation to fruit rot. Indian Phytopathology, 22: 507–510.Google Scholar
  241. Prasad, S.S. and Bilgrami, R.S. 1973a. Investigation on diseases of litchi-II. Influence of temperature and humidity on the decay of fruits caused by nine virulent pathogens. Indian Phytopathology, 26: 517–522.Google Scholar
  242. Prasad, S.S. and Bilgrami, R.S. 1973b. Investigation on diseases of litchi-III. Fruit rots and their control by post harvest treatments. Indian Phytopathology, 26: 523–527.Google Scholar
  243. Prasad, S.S. and Bilgrami, R.S. 1975. Investigation on diseases of litchi. VII — Antibiotics for control of Aspergillus fruit rot. Proceedings of National Academic Science India B, 45: 40–42.Google Scholar
  244. Prasada, R., Pathak, V.N., Goyal, J.P. and Sharma, H.C. 1971. Proceedings Second International Symposium Plant Pathology, New Delhi. Indian Phytopathological Society, New Delhi, pp. 145–146.Google Scholar
  245. Qadri, S.M.H., Gangwar, S.K., Kumar, P.M.P., Elangovan, C., Das, N.K., Maji, M.D. and Saratchandra, B. 1999. Assessment of cocoon crop loss due to leaf spot disease of mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture 38(1): 35–39.Google Scholar
  246. Radhakrishan, N.U., Ramabadran, R. and Jayaraj, J. 1995. Botrydiplodia root rot — a new diseases of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 48: 492.Google Scholar
  247. Rai, R.N. 1982. Pathological and physiological studies of certain fungi causing fruit rot disease. D.Phil Thesis University of Allahabad, 217 p.Google Scholar
  248. Rajendran, V. 1971. Leaf spot of sapota. Lal Bagh, 16: 21–22.Google Scholar
  249. Ramakrishnan, T.S. and Sundaram, N.V. 1954. Notes on some fungi from south India—III. Indian Phytopathology, 7: 61–68.Google Scholar
  250. Randhawa, G.S. and Singh, R.K.M. (eds) 1970. The Loquat in India, ICAR, New Delhi, 62 p.Google Scholar
  251. Rangaswamy, G., Seshadri, V.S. and Lucy Channamma, K.A. 1970. Fungi of India. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 193 p.Google Scholar
  252. Rani, U. and Verma, K.S. 2001. Field evaluation of different chemotherapeutants against black spot of pomegranate. Plant Disease Research, 16: 87–88.Google Scholar
  253. Rao, R.N. 1962. Some Cercospora species from Hyderabad. Indian Phytopathology, 15: 112–140.Google Scholar
  254. Rao, V.G. 1963. Some new records of folicolous fungi imperfecti from India. Bulletin Botanical Society College of Science, Nagpur, 42: 5–57.Google Scholar
  255. Rao, V.G. 1971. An account of fungus genus Alternaria Nees from India. Mycopath. Et. Mycol. Applicata, 43: 361–74.Google Scholar
  256. Rao, V.G. and Mhaskar, D.N. 1973. Rivista Di Patol, Veg. IX(iv): 131–137.Google Scholar
  257. Rathaiah, Y. and Pavgi, M.S. 1973. Fusarium semitectum mycoparasitic on Cercosporae. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 77: 278–281.Google Scholar
  258. Rathore, R.S. 1970. Further studies on bacterial leaf spot of Carissa carandas L. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Udaipur, Campus-Jobner.Google Scholar
  259. Rawal, R.D. 1993. Fungal diseases of tropical fruits. In: “Advances in Horticulture Vol. 3 Fruit crops” (eds. Chadha, K.L. and Pareek, O.P.). Malhotra Publication House, New Delhi, pp.Google Scholar
  260. Rawal, R.D. and Saxena, A.K. 1989. Evaluation of different fungicides against black leaf spot of ber. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 46: 413–414.Google Scholar
  261. Raychaudhuri, S.P., Chatterjee, S.N. and Dhar, H.K. 1961. Preliminary note on the recurrence of yellow-net vein disease of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 14: 94–95.Google Scholar
  262. Raychaudhuri, S.P., Chatterjee, S.N. and Dhar, H.K. 1962. A mosaic disease of mulberry. Indian Phytopathology, 15: 187–189.Google Scholar
  263. Raychaudhuri, S.P., Ganguli, B. and Basu, A.N. 1965. Further studies on the mosaic disease of mulberry. Plant Disease Reporter, 49: 981.Google Scholar
  264. Raychaudhuri, S.P., Ganguli, B. and Basu, A.N. 1966. Virus disease of mulberry in India. Plant Disease Proceedings Ist Symposium on Plant Pathology, pp. 274–277.Google Scholar
  265. Raychaudhuri, S.P. and Lele, V.C. 1970. Producing disease free planting materials of fruits. Indian Farming, 20: 11–14.Google Scholar
  266. Reddy, S.M. 1975. Some new leaf spot diseases caused by Hyphomycetes. Proceedings National Academy of Science, India, 45B: 97–100.Google Scholar
  267. Reddy, M.M., Rao, D.M. and Reddy, G.S. 1990. Preliminary field evaluation of some fungicides in the control of powdery mildew (Oidium erysiphoides Fr.) on ber in alfisol of arid zone of Andhra Pradesh. Madras Agricultural Journal, 77: 229–330.Google Scholar
  268. Reddy, M.M., Reddy, G.S. and Madhusudan, T. 1997. Evaluation of some ber (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) varieties and fungicides against powdery mildew. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 25: 19–26.Google Scholar
  269. Reddy, P.P. and Nagesh, M. 2000. Nematode diseases of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. In: “Diseases of Fruit Crops” (eds. Gupta, V.K. and Sharma, S.K.). Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, pp. 251–265.Google Scholar
  270. Rishi, N. and Raychaudhuri, S.P. 1981. Some studies on bushy stunt diseases of Grewia asiatica Linn. Mant. In: “Proceedings XVII IUFRO World Congress, Kyoto, Japan 1981. Pass”, pp. 347–350.Google Scholar
  271. Rocha, J. De. R. De S. and Oliveira, N.T. De. 1998a. Biocontrol of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose agent on passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), with Trichoderma koningii. Summa Phytopathologica, 24: 272–275.Google Scholar
  272. Rocha, J. De. R. De S. and Oliveira, N.T. De 1998b. In vitro antagonistic potential of Trichoderma spp. against Colletotrichum gloeoporioides agent of anthracnose in passion fruit (passiflora). Boletin Micrologico, 13: 103–110.Google Scholar
  273. Rocha, J. De R. De S., Oliveira, N.T. De and Menezes, M. 1998. Comparison of inoculation methods efficiency for evaluation of Colleltotrichum gloeosporioides isolates pathogenicity on passion fruits (Passiflora edulis). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 41: 145–153.Google Scholar
  274. Rohrbach, K.G. and Pfeiffer, J.B. 1976. The interaction of four bacteria causing pink disease of pineapple with several pineapple cultivars. Phytopathology, 66: 396–399.Google Scholar
  275. Rohrbach, K.G., Beardley, J.W., German, T.L., Reimer, N.J. and Sanford, W.G. 1988. Mealybug wilt, mealybugs and ants on pineapple. Plant Disease, 72: 558–565.Google Scholar
  276. Saha, L.R. 2002. Hand Book of Plant Diseases. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India, 302 p.Google Scholar
  277. Sahin, F., Kotan, R. and Donmeiz, M.F. 1999. First report of bacterial blight of mulberries caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Plant Disease, 83: 1176.Google Scholar
  278. Saini, S.S. and Uppal, H.S. 1981. Nitrogen nutrition of Cladosporium zizyphi the causal organism of leaf spot disease of ber. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 11: 263–65.Google Scholar
  279. Sanewski, G.M. and Giles, J. 1997. Blackheart resistance in three clones of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) in sub-tropical Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37: 459–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Sarbajha, K.K. 1989. New host records of some hyphomycetous fungi from Indian. Indian Phytopathology, 42(4): 600–601.Google Scholar
  281. Sato, T., Uematsu, S., Mizoguchi, H., Kiku, T. and Miura, T. 1997. Anthracnose of prairie gentian and loquat caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 63: 16–20.Google Scholar
  282. Sawant, I.S., Sawant, S.D. and Ganapthy, M.M. 1995. Collar rot of passion fruit caused by Rhizoctonia solani and its control. Indian Phytopathology, 48: 202–205.Google Scholar
  283. Saxena, A.K., Saksena, S.B. and Jain, S.K. 1981. Sclerotium rot of Grewia asiatica Linn. Mant. Science and Culture, 47: 440.Google Scholar
  284. Schutte, G.C., Botha, T. and Kotze, J.M. 1990. Post harvest control of decay and browning of litch fruit by fungicide dips and paper sheets impregnated with sodium metabisulphite. Litchi Year Book — South Africa Litchi Grower association, 3: 10–14.Google Scholar
  285. Serrano, F.B. 1934. Fruitlet black rot of pineapple in the Philippines. Philippines Journal of Science, 57: 29–62.Google Scholar
  286. Sether, D.M. and Hu, J.S. 1997. Transmission of pineapple closterovirus (PCV) by two species of mealybug. Phytopathology, 87 (Supplement): S 88.Google Scholar
  287. Setty, K.G.H. 1959. Blue mould of aonla fruits. Current Science, 27: 27–28.Google Scholar
  288. Sharma, D.D., Govindaiah, Katiyar, R.S., Das, P.K., Janardhan, L., Bajpai, A.K. and Choudhury, P.C. 1995. Effect of VA-mycorrhizal fungi on the incidence of major mulberry diseases. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 34: 34–37.Google Scholar
  289. Sharma, D.D., Govindaiah, Ghosh, A., Philip, T., Ambika, P.K. and Choudhury, P.C. 1996. Effect of seasons, spacings, host genotypes and fertilizer doses on the incidence of major foliar diseases in mulberry. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 35: 57–61.Google Scholar
  290. Sharma, M., Majumdar, U.L. and Mukesh, M. 1993. Some new post harvest diseases of ber fruits in India. Indian Phytopathology, 46: 415.Google Scholar
  291. Sharma, N.D. and Jain, A.C. 1981. Oidium grewiae sp. nov. and Phakopsora grewiae (Pat. & Har.) Cumm. — two new diseases of Grewia asiatica L. from Jabalpur. Current Science, 50: 133–134.Google Scholar
  292. Sharma, R.B., Roy, A.N. and Verma, R.K. 1979. A soft fruit rot of Aegle marmelos. Current Science, 48: 22–23.Google Scholar
  293. Sharma, R.B., Sinha, B.P. and Ray, A.N. 1981. Post harvest fruit rots of pomegranate. Indian Phytopathology, 34: 69–70.Google Scholar
  294. Sharma, R.L. 1998. Occurrence of dry rot of pomegranate in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research, 13: 175–176.Google Scholar
  295. Sherkar, B.V. and Utikar, P.G. 1982a. Beltraniella humicola — A new fruit spotting fungus on pomegranate. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12: 50.Google Scholar
  296. Sherkar, B.V. and Utikar, P.G. 1982b. Fusarium fusarioides — A new leaf spot disease of pomegranate. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12: 51.Google Scholar
  297. Shivapratap, H.R., Philip, T. and Sharma, D.D. 1996. In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma species against mulberry leaf spot pathogen, Cercospora moricola. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 35: 107–110.Google Scholar
  298. Shivpuri, A. and Mishra, A. 1982. Occurrence of Phoma sorghina on phalsa. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12: 83.Google Scholar
  299. Shreemali, J.N. 1972. Some new members of Sphaeropsidales from India. Indian Phytopathology, 25: 58–60.Google Scholar
  300. Singh, B.B. and Mukerjee, P. 1979. Pseudocercospora causing leaf blotch of Carissa carandas. Indian Phytopathology, 32: 468–470.Google Scholar
  301. Singh, D., Andotra, P.S. and Singh, D. 1989. Fungicidal control of Isariopsis leaf spot of ber. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 19: 105–106.Google Scholar
  302. Singh, G., Singh, R.N. and Bhandari, T.P.S. 1984. Ascochyta leaf spots on fig and hops in India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 14: 100.Google Scholar
  303. Singh, G. and Singh, R.N. 1986. Control of leaf spot disease of fig caused by Ascochyta caricae. Indian Phytopathology, 39: 462–463.Google Scholar
  304. Singh, H.P. and Sidhu, S.S. 1985. Control of ber powdery mildew, Indian Horticulture, 29: 27.Google Scholar
  305. Singh, R., Niwas, R., Singh, R. and Gupta, P.C. 1999. Prediction model for powdery mildew disease build up in ber based on weather parameters, Annals of Agri-Bio Research, 4: 11–15.Google Scholar
  306. Singh, S.B., Upadhyay, J. and Prasad, B. 1969. Dieback of loquat by Cytospora eriobotryae. Indian Phytopathology, 22: 525–526.Google Scholar
  307. Singh, S.B., Maheshwari, S.K. and Singh, P.N. 1995. Field evaluation of fungitoxicants against powdery mildew of ber, Annals of Plant Protection Science, 3: 168–169.Google Scholar
  308. Singh, S.J. 1972. A sclerotium wilt of pineapple from India, Sydowia. Annales Mycologiae, 26: 204–206.Google Scholar
  309. Singh, S.J. and Sastry, K.S.M. 1974. Wilt of pineapple — A new virus disease in India, Indian Phytopathology, 27: 298–303.Google Scholar
  310. Singh, S.J. and Sastry, K.S.M. 1975. Effect of different fertilizer and spacing on the incidence of pineapple wilt virus, Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 5: 156–160.Google Scholar
  311. Singh, S.P. and Singh, R.K. 1972. Studies on disease of mango and other fruit plants. Proceedings Third International Symposium on Subtropical Horticulture, Bangalore, 121 p.Google Scholar
  312. Singh, Y.P. and Sumbali, G. 2000. Ascorbic acid status and aflatoxin production in ripe fruits of jujube infected with Aspergillus flavus, Indian Phytopathology, 53: 38–41.Google Scholar
  313. Sinha, J.N. and Singh, A.P. 1995. Some new host records from India, Indian Phytopathology, 48: 111.Google Scholar
  314. Sohi, H.S., Jain, S.S., Sharma, S.L. and Verma, B.R. 1964. New records of plant diseases from Himachal Pradesh, Indian Phytopathology, 17: 42–45.Google Scholar
  315. Sohi, H.S. and Sridhar, T.S. 1972. Chemical control of leaf spot disease of sapota caused by Phaeophleospora indica. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 42: 1139–1142.Google Scholar
  316. Sohi, H.S. and Sridhar, T.S. 1973. Chemical control of leaf spot disease of sapota caused by Phaeophleospora indica, Indian Journal of Horticulture, 30: 553–557.Google Scholar
  317. Somasekhara, Y.M. 1999. New record of Ceratocystis fimbriata causing wilt of pomegranate in India, Plant Disease, 83: 400.Google Scholar
  318. Sood, A.K., Sharma, R.D. and Singh, B.M. 1987. Red rust-emerging threat to litchi cultivation in Kangra Valley of Himachal Pradesh, Indian Horticulture, 32: 19–20.Google Scholar
  319. Sridhar, T.S. 1975. Black rot of pineapple — a new record from south India, Current Science, 44: 869.Google Scholar
  320. Srikantaswamy, K., Govindaiah,., Reddy, M.M., Bajpai, A.K. and Raveesha, K.A. 1996. Effect f Cercospora moricola on the leaf quality in mulberry, Indian Journal of Sericulture, 35: 144–146.Google Scholar
  321. Srikantaswamy, K., Gupta, V.P., Gunasekhar, V. and Renukeswarappa, J.P. 1998. Evaluation of fungicidal control of leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases of mulberry at farmers’ fields. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 37: 159–162.Google Scholar
  322. Srikantaswamy, K., Gupta, V.P. and Renukeswarappa, J.P. 1999. Incidence, severity and yield loss due to leaf spot of mulberry caused by Cercospora moricola, Indian Journal of Sericulture, 38: 8–11.Google Scholar
  323. Srivastava, A.K. and Lal, B. 1997. Studies on biofungicidal properties of leaf extract of some plants, Indian Phytopathology, 50: 408–411.Google Scholar
  324. Srivastava, H.C. and Mehta, P.R. 1951. A new species of Cercospora on Grewia asiatica. Indian Phytopathology, 4: 67–70.Google Scholar
  325. Srivastava, M.P., Tandon, R.N., Bilgrami, K.S. and Ghosh, A.K. 1964. Studies on fungal diseases of some tropical fruits. I-A list of fungi isolated from fruits and fruit trees. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 50: 250–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Srivastava, M.P. and Tandon, R.N. 1971. Aspergillus rot of pomegranate, Indian Phytopathology, 24: 173.Google Scholar
  327. Srivastava, R.C. 1982. Fungi causing plant diseases at Jaunpur (U.P.), Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12: 244–246.Google Scholar
  328. Ssekyewa, C., Opio, A.F., Swinburne, T.R., Damme, P.L.J.Van and Abubakar, Z.M. 1999a. Sustainable management of collar rot disease of passion fruits in Uganda, International Journal of Pest Management, 45: 173–177.Google Scholar
  329. Ssekyewa, C., Swinburne, T.R., Damme, P.L.J.Van and Abubakar, Z.M. 1999b. Passion fruit collar rot disease occurrence in major growing districts of Uganda, Fruits (Paris), 54: 405–411.Google Scholar
  330. Subbarao, K.V. and Michailides, T.J. 1996. Development of phenological scales for figs and their relative susceptibilities to endosepsis and smut, Plant Disease, 80: 1015–1021.Google Scholar
  331. Suharban, M. and Rajan, K.M. 1993. A new blight of pineapple, Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 31: 126.Google Scholar
  332. Sumbali, G. 2000. Fungal diseases of Aonla, Ber and Guava. In: “Diseases of Fruit Crops” (eds. Gupta, V.K. and Sharma, S.K.). Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, pp. 28–35.Google Scholar
  333. Sundaram, N.V. 1961. Notes on some fungi from south India, Indian Phytopathology, 14: 202–209.Google Scholar
  334. Suriachandraselvan, M., Jayasekhar, M. and Aubu, S. 1993. Chemical control of bacterial leaf spot and fruit spot of pomegranate, South Indian Horticulture, 41: 228–229.Google Scholar
  335. Swart, D.H. 1990. The post harvest treatment of Madras Litchis, Litchi Year Book — South Africa Litchi Grower’s Association, 3: 21–22.Google Scholar
  336. Sydow, H. and Sydow, P. 1907. Fungi Indiae Orientalis Part II, Annals of Mycology, 5: 485–515.Google Scholar
  337. Tandon, I.N. 1961. Diplodia collar rot and root rot of loquat, Horticulture Advancement, 5: 115.Google Scholar
  338. Tandon, I.N. 1965. Sclerotium collar rot of loquat and its control, Indian Phytopathology 18: 240–245.Google Scholar
  339. Tandon, R.N. 1967. Final Technical report PL-480 Scheme (FG-1N-133). University of Allahabad.Google Scholar
  340. Tandon, R.N. and Bilgrami, K.S. 1957. Phyllosticta leaf spot of jackfruit in India. Proceedings of National Academy Science, India, 27: 204–209.Google Scholar
  341. Tandon, R.N. and Bilgrami, K.S. 1961. Some new leaf spot diseases, Current Science, 30: 348.Google Scholar
  342. Tandon, R.N. and Bhargava, S.N. 1962. Botryodiplodia rot of pineapple (Ananas camosusmerr). Current Science, 31: 344–345.Google Scholar
  343. Tandon, R.N. and Srivastava, M.P. 1964. Fruit rot of Emblica officinalis caused by Pestalotia cruenta in India, Current Science, 33: 86–87.Google Scholar
  344. Tandon, R.N. and Verma, A. 1964. Some new storage diseases of fruits and vegetables, Current Science, 33: 625–627.Google Scholar
  345. Tang, Y. 1996. Effect of waxing treatment on black-heart and storage quality of winter pine-apples stored at low temperature, Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 23: 371–372.Google Scholar
  346. Tang, Y.H., Win, T.H. and Liu, S.L. 1998. The occurrence of pomegranate canker disease and its control, China Fruits, 3: 36.Google Scholar
  347. Tay, T.H. 1974. Studies on the nutrition of Anamas comosus cv. Singapore Spanish on Malaysian peat. M.Sc. thesis, University of Singapore.Google Scholar
  348. Teotia, R.S. 1995. Black mildew — a new disease of mulberry (Morus alba), Indian Phytopathology, 48: 489.Google Scholar
  349. Tewari, D.K., Srivastava, R.C., Katiyar, N., Arora, S. and Lal, B. 1988. Post harvest diseases of fruits. Proceedings National Academy Sciences, India, 58(B): 345–346.Google Scholar
  350. Thankamma, L. 1983. Phytophthora species on eight indigenous host species in south India and their pathogenicity on rubber. Indian Phytopathology, 36: 17–23.Google Scholar
  351. Thind, S.K. and Kaur, N. 1998. Screening of promising ber varieties against powdery mildew and its control. Plant Disease Research 12: 194–196.Google Scholar
  352. Thirumalachar, M.J., Babbarao, D.V. and Ravindernath, V. 1950. Telia of rust on cultivated figs. Current Science, 19: 27–28.Google Scholar
  353. Thompson, A. 1937. Pineapple fruit rot in Malaya. A preliminary report on fruit rots of the Singapore canning pineapple. Malaya Agricultural Journal, 30: 407–420.Google Scholar
  354. Thomson, K.G., Dietzgen, R.G., Thomas, J.E. and Teakle, D.S. 1996. Detection of pineapple bacilliform virus using the polymerase chain reaction. Annals of Applied Biology, 129: 57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Trindade, D.R., Poltroneri, L.S., Albuquerque, F.C., Rezende, J.A.M., Novaes, Q. and Kitajima, E.W. 1999. Occurrence of the passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV) in the state of Para, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 24: 196.Google Scholar
  356. Tsai, J.N. and Hseih, W.H. 1998. Occurrence of litchi sour rot and characteristics of the pathogens Geotrichum candidum and G. ludwigii. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 7: 10–18.Google Scholar
  357. Tsai, J.N. and Hseih, W.H. 1999. A selective medium for the isolation of Geotrichum candidum and Geotrichum ludwigii from litchi and soil. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 8: 9–14.Google Scholar
  358. Tyagi, R.N.S. 1967. Morphological and taxonomical studies on the genus Ravenalia occurring in Rajasthan. Ph.D. thesis, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 120 p.Google Scholar
  359. Tyagi, R.N.S. and Pathak, V.K. 1987. Control of aonla (Emblica officinalis (Gaerth) rust (Ravenelia emblicae Syd.) through fungicides. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 17: 218–219.Google Scholar
  360. Ullasa, B.A. and Sohi, H.S. 1975. A new Phytophthora leaf blight and damping off disease of passion fruit from India. Current Science, 44: 593–594.Google Scholar
  361. Ullman, D.E., German, T.L., McIntosh, C.E. and Williams, D.D.F. 1991. Effect of heat treatment on a closterovirus like particles associated with mealybug wilt of pineapple. Plant Disease, 75: 859–861.Google Scholar
  362. Uppal, B.N., Patel, M.K. and Kamat, M.N. 1935. The fungi of Bombay B, 1–56. Bulletin Department of Rec. Agriculture, Bombay, 1934 viii+56 pp.Google Scholar
  363. Utikar, P.G., Lande, P.S. and More, B.B. 1976. Drechslera rostrata — a new pathogen of pomegranate. Indian Phytopathology, 29: 189.Google Scholar
  364. Vajna, L. 1999. Trunk-blight and canker of mulberry (Morus alba var. pendula) caused by Fusarium lateritium f. sp. mori. Novenyvedelem, 35: 619–622.Google Scholar
  365. Vajna, L. 2000. First report of trunk blight and canker of Morus alba var. pendula caused by Fusarium lateritium f. sp. mori in Hungary. Plant Disease, 84: 372.Google Scholar
  366. Vashisht, K.S. and Nagaich, B.B. 1965. Morus indica — an additional host of fig mosaic. Indian Phytopathology, 18: 135.Google Scholar
  367. Vashisht, K.S. and Nagaich, B.B. 1968. Aceria ficus (Colte) as vector of fig mosaic in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 30: 322.Google Scholar
  368. Vasudeva, R.S. 1960. Report of the Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Science Report, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi (1957–58), pp. 111–130.Google Scholar
  369. Verma, K.S. and Cheema, S.S. 1983. Tandonella leaf spot–a new disease of ber in Punjab. Current science, 52: 437.Google Scholar
  370. Verma, K.S. and Kapur, S.P. 1995. Some new disease records of fruits from Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 10: 64–65.Google Scholar
  371. Verma, K.S., Kumar S. and Kumar, S. 1995. Survival and dispersal of Isariopsis indica var. zizyphi causing mouldy leaf spot of ber. Indian Phytopathology, 48: 45–48.Google Scholar
  372. Verma, R.R., Lal, B. and Tripathi, K.C. 1982. Evaluation of some pomegranate varieties to the Anar borer and fruit rot in Garhwal hills. Indian Journal of Forestry, 6: 237–238.Google Scholar
  373. Verma, S., Gupta, S., Singh, R.V., Abidi, A.B., Verma, S. and Gupta, S. 1991. Changes in biochemical constituents of bael fruits infected with Aspergillus species. Indian Phytopathology, 44: 405–406.Google Scholar
  374. Veronica, C.Z. and Ximena, B.C. 1998. Epidemiological aspects of Botrytis cinerea in custard apple-tree (Annona cherimola Mill.). Boletin Micologico, 13: 85–91.Google Scholar
  375. Vidyasagar, G.M. and Rajasab, A.H. 1997. Predisposition of powdery mildew infected mulberry leaves to Phoma mororum infection (Phoma leaf spot). Indian Journal of Sericulture, 36: 65–66.Google Scholar
  376. Vinayak, A. and Mandhar, C.L. 1994. Cephaleuros infection on leaves of litchi plant. Research Bulletin of the Panjab University, Science, 44: 165–172.Google Scholar
  377. Wadia, K.D.R. and Manoharachary, C. 1979. The new post-harvest diseases of Carissa carandas L. fruits. Geobios, 6: 126–127.Google Scholar
  378. Wadia, K.D.R. and Manoharachary, C. 1982. New post-harvest diseases of jambolan fruits. Indian Phytopathology, 35: 707–708.Google Scholar
  379. Wakman, W., Teakle, D.S., Thomas, J.E. and Dietzgen, R.G. 1995. Presence of a clostero-like virus and a bacilliform virus in pineapple plants in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 46: 947–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Wang, X.L., Liu, M.J., Liu, L.J., Zheg, L.K., Zhou, J.Y. and Liu, P. 1999. Fluorescence microscopic diagnosis of Chinese jujube tree infected with phytoplasma. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University, 22: 46–49.Google Scholar
  381. Wani, D.D. and Thirumalachar, M.J. 1973. Control of anthracnose disease of figs by fungicides and antibiotic aureofungin. Hindustan Antibiotiotics Bulletin, 15: 79–80.Google Scholar
  382. Waraiteh, K.S. 1977. Additions to Pyrenomycetes fungi of India. Proceedings National Academy of Science, India, 46th Annual Session, p. 23.Google Scholar
  383. Wilson, K.L., Balakrishnan, S. and Nair, N.G. 1970. Leaf spot of sapota in Kerala. Science and Culture, 36: 109–110.Google Scholar
  384. Wong, L.S., Jacobi, K.K. and Giles, J.E. 1991. The influence of hot benomyl dips on the appearance of cool stored Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Scintie Horticulturae, 46: 245–251.Google Scholar
  385. Xu, P.D., Li, M. and Ke, C. 1999. Occurrence of virus diseases of Passiflora spp. and subgrouping of cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus in Fujian. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 26: 50–54.Google Scholar
  386. Xu, Y., Zheng, X.L., Zhao, G.Y. and Mao, Z.C. 1995. Pathogenetic studies on fruit shrink of jujube. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 10(Suppl.): 139–143.Google Scholar
  387. Yadav, A.S. 1963. Addition to the microfungi II. Indian Phytopathology, 16: 167–170.Google Scholar
  388. Yadav, G.R., Nirwan, R.S. and Prasad, B. 1980. Powdery mildew of ber in Uttar Pradesh and its control. Progressive Horticulture, 12: 27–32.Google Scholar
  389. Yadav, G.R., Prasad, B. and Upadhyay, J. 1984. Effect of post harvest treatment on storage rot of litchi fruits. Progressive Horticulture, 16: 351–352.Google Scholar
  390. Yoon, H.J., Kim, Y.T., Jin, K.S. and Park, I.G. 1994. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from branch rot of mulberry. RDA Journal of Agricultural Science Crop Protection, 36(2): 331–336.Google Scholar
  391. Yoshida, S. and Shirata, A. 1999a. Survival of Colletotrichum dematium in soil and infected mulberry leaves. Plant Disease, 83: 465–468.Google Scholar
  392. Yoshida, S. and Shirata, A. 1999b. The mulberry anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, overwinters on a mulberry tree. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 65: 274–280.Google Scholar
  393. Yoshida, S., Hiradate, S., Fujii, Y. and Shirata, A. 2000. Colletotrichum dematium produces phytotoxins in anthracnose lesions of mulberry leaves. Phytopathology, 90: 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Yu, S.Q., Fang, L.X.., Tang, W.Q. and Liu, J. F. 1995. Technology for controlling major pests on litchi. Guangdong Agricultural Science, 3: 38–40.Google Scholar
  395. Zhang, C.F. and Qi, P.K. 1994. Studies on pathogenic fungi on Achras sapotae L. in Guangdong Province. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 15: 31–36.Google Scholar
  396. Zhao, Z.J., Lin, Z.M. and Zhao, X.J. 2000. The jujube main disease in Shanxi province and its control. China Fruits, 1: 45.Google Scholar
  397. Zheng, J.X. and Huang, Y. 1997. Base rot disease of passion fruit and its control in Fujian. Journal of Fujian Academy of agricultural Sciences, 12: 40–43.Google Scholar
  398. Zheng, X.L., Qi, Q.S., Li, X.J. and Jiang, Z.J. 1996. Identification of pathogens of jujube fruit shrink disease and induction of their fruit body. Plant Protection, 22: 6–8.Google Scholar
  399. Zheng, X.L., Zhao, G.Y., Qi, Q.S., Hou, Q.S. and Li, P. 1998. Occurrence and symptoms of jujube fruit shrink. Plant Protection, 24: 17–19.Google Scholar
  400. Zhu, B.M., Chen, Z.Y., Zheng, D.X., Wang, S., Yu, B.W., Zhou, P.Z. and Jiang, X.Y. 1983. Preliminary studies on the pathogen of Chinese jujube mosaic diseases. Nature, 5: 77–78.Google Scholar
  401. Zhu, W.Y., Du, X.M., Guo, H.P., Zhao, Y. and He, X.H. 1996. Virus elimination and tissue culture of Jun Jujuba. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 23(20: 197–198.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deptt. of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisar, HaryanaIndia

Personalised recommendations