Postharvest Treatments of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus Unshiu Marc.) for the Improvement of Storage Life and Quality

  • Tomislav Jemriić
  • Nikola Pavičić


The described treatments enable an increase both in the quality and storage life of the satsuma mandarin. Storage of this citrus fruit does not receive sufficient attention, particularly when it comes to application of the described treatments. The result is a very short storage life of not more than a couple of weeks, and the inadequate quality of fruit. This causes price fluctuations and short consumption periods, which is not encouraging for production. There is no doubt that research needs to be initiated as soon as possible in order to determine the optimum storage conditions and necessary postharvest handling of the fruits. It would appear that heat treatment is the most promising method because of its easy application and CI control efficiency. HWD at 48–50 °C could be considered advantageous, whereas the use of higher temperatures could negatively affect the fruits because of their inadequate adaptation to heat.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alonso, J. M., J. Chammaro and A. Granell (1995). Evidence for the involvement of ethylene in the expression of specific RNAs during maturation of the orange, a non-climacteric fruit. Plant Molecular Biology 29: 385–390.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1999). Direct final rule for High Temperature Forced-Air Treatments for citrus. Federal Register 64: 37663–37665.Google Scholar
  3. Arras, G. and S. Arru (1999). Integrated control of post-harvest decay and induction of phytoalexins by Debaromyces hansenii. Advances in Horticultural Science 13: 76–81.Google Scholar
  4. Azuma, R., H. Kurata, M. Adachi and K. Shimokawa (1999). Degreening of Citrus Satsuma mandarin fruits via ethylene-induced soluble chlorophyllase. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 68: 558–562.Google Scholar
  5. Bakarić, P. (1983). Uzgoj mandarine unšiu. Stanica za južne kulture. Dubrovnik, pp. 9, 296–317.Google Scholar
  6. Bayindirli, L., G. Sumnu and K. Kamadan (1995). Effects of Semperfresh and Jonfresh fruit coatings on post-storage quality of’ satsuma’ mandarins. Journal of Processing and Preservation 19: 399–407.Google Scholar
  7. Beever, D. J. (1990). Mandarins. Export quality Satsumas need careful handling. Orchardist of New Zealand 63: 24–25.Google Scholar
  8. Ben-Yehoshua, S., S. P. Burg and R. Young (1985). Resistance of citrus fruit to mass transport of water wapour and other gases. Plant Physiology 79: 1048–1053.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Yehoshua, S., V. Rodov, S. Frishman and J. Peretz (1998). Modified-atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables: Reducing condensation of water in bell peppers and mangoes. Acta Horticulturae 464: 387–392.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, E. (1981). Methods of de greening Satsuma mandarin. Proceedings of International Society of Citriculture 2: 748–750.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, E., B. Shapiro, Y. Shalom and J. D. Klein (1994). Water loss: A non-destructive indicator of enhanced cell membrane permeability of chilling-injured fruit. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119: 983–986.Google Scholar
  12. D’Aquino, S., A. Piga, M. Agabbio and E. Tribulato (1996). Improvement of the post-harvest keeping quality of ‘Miho’ Satsuma fruits by heat, Semperfresh R, and film wrapping. Advances in Horticultural Science 10: 15–19.Google Scholar
  13. D’Aquino, S., A. Piga, A. Retretto and M. Agabbio (1997). Respiration Rate and In-package Gas Evolution of ‘Okitsu’ Satsuma Fruits Held in Shelf-life Condition. Proceedings of XIV International Congress for Plastics in Agriculture, Tel Aviv, Israel, pp. 626–632.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, F. S. and L. G. Albrigo (1998). Citrus. In J. Atherton and A. Rees (eds.), Crop Production Science in Horticulture Series. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 77–82, 202–224.Google Scholar
  15. Eaks, I. L. (1970). Respiratory response, ethylene production, and response to ethylene of citrus fruit during ontogeny. Plant Physiology 45: 334–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eckert, J. W. (1995). Post-harvest disease control: Experience with citrus fruit. Tree Post-harvest Journal 6: 9–12.Google Scholar
  17. Eckert, J. W. and I. L. Eaks (1988). Postharvest disorders and diseases of citrus fruit. In W. Reuther, E. C. Calavan and G. E. Carman (eds.), The citrus industry. University of California Press, California, USA, pp. 179–260.Google Scholar
  18. FAO (2001). FAO Yearbook-Production 53. FAO Statistics Series 156: 173–176.Google Scholar
  19. Fawcett, H. S. (1922). Packing house control of brown rot. Citrograph 7: 232–234.Google Scholar
  20. Ferguson, J. J. (1996). The Satsuma Tangerine, Fact Sheet HS 195. Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Garran, S. M., M. L. Ragone and D. E. Vazquez (1995). Quality of citrus fruits exported from Concordia, Argentina. Horticoltura Argentina 14: 36–43.Google Scholar
  22. Grierson, W., W. M. Miller and W. F. Wardowski (1978). Packingline Machinery for Florida Citrus Packinghouses. Bulletin 803, University of Florida, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Guerra, F., I. Izquierdo, O. Otero, M. Mazaira and L. Lecha (1988). Cold storage of tropical satsuma mandarin. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricoltura, Citricos y Otros Frutales 11: 45–51.Google Scholar
  24. Guy, C. (1999). The influence of temperature extremes on gene expression, genomic structure and the evolution of induced tolerance in plants. In H. Lerner (ed.), Plant responses to environmental stresses: From phytohormones to genome reorganisation. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, pp. 497–547.Google Scholar
  25. Hasegawa, Y. and M. Yano (1994). Khoansho (a physiological disorder of the rind) on the ‘Kiyomi’ tangor. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture 3: 1117–1120.Google Scholar
  26. Hasegawa, Y., M. Yano and Y. Iba (1991). The effects of high temperature pre-treatment on the storage of Citrus Fruit. In H. Bangyan and Y. Qian (eds.), Proceedings of the International Citrus Symposium. 5–8 Nov, 1990, International Academic Publishers, Guanghzou, China, pp. 736–739.Google Scholar
  27. Hasegawa, Y., M. Yano, Y. Iba, Y. Makita and M. Konakahara (1989). Factors deteriorating the quality of Satsuma mandarin (citrus Satsuma mandarin Marc.) fruit on the packing-house line and their improvement. Bulletin of the Fruit Research Station, Okitsu Branch 16: 29–40.Google Scholar
  28. Holmes, G. H. and J. W. Eckert (1992). Reduced sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum to imazalil, thiabendazole and o-phenylphenol. Phytopatology 82: 1062.Google Scholar
  29. Homma, Y., Y. Arimoto and T. Misato (1982). The control of Citrus storage disease by sodium bicarbonate formulation. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture: 823–825.Google Scholar
  30. Izumi, H., T. Ito and Y. Yoshida (1990). Changes in fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin during storage, after harvest from exterior and interior canopy of trees. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 58: 885–893.Google Scholar
  31. Kawada, K. and H. Kitagawa (1986). Effects on juice composition of post-harvest treatments for reducing acidity in citrus fruits. Technical Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University 38: 1–4.Google Scholar
  32. Kubo, Y., A. Inaba and R. Nakamura (1996a). Extinction point and critical oxygen concentration in various fruits and vegetables. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 65: 397–402.Google Scholar
  33. Kubo, Y., O. Hirata, A. Inaba and R. Nakamura (1996b). Respiration and ethylene production in fruits and vegetables held in carbon dioxide-enriched atmospheres — Effects of temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 65: 403–408 (In Japanese, Abstract, Current Contents Accession Number VG489-0023).Google Scholar
  34. Lafuente, M. T., M. A. Martinez-Tellez and L. Zacarias (1997). Abcisic acid in the response of ‘Fortune’ mandarins to chilling. Effect of maturity and high-temperature conditioning. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 73: 494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lawes, G. S. and L. Prasad (1999). Peel permeance and storage changes in internal atmosphere composition of surface coated mandarin. Acta Horticulturae 485: 249–254.Google Scholar
  36. Li, C., H. Long and J. Chen (1991). The storage effect of Satsuma wrapped in HS permeable film. H. Bangyan and Y. Qian (eds.), Proceedings of the International Citrus Symposium. 5–8 Nov, 1990, International Academic Publishers, Guanghzou, China, pp. 791–795.Google Scholar
  37. McDonald, R. E., W. R. Miller and T. G. McCollum (1991). Thiabendazole and imazalil applied at 53C reduce chilling injury and decay of grapefruit. HortScience 26: 397–399.Google Scholar
  38. Meir, S., S. Philosoph-Hadas, S. Lurie, S. Droby, M. Akerman, G. Zauberman, B. Shapiro, E. Cohen and Y. Fuchs (1996). Reduction of chilling injury in stored avocado, grapefruit and bell pepper by methyl jasmonate. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 870–874.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, W. R. and R. E. McDonald (1988). Short-term heat conditioning of grapefruit to Alleviate irradiation injury. Hort Science 33: 1224–1227.Google Scholar
  40. Murata, T. (1990). Relation of chilling stress to membrane permeability. In C. Y. Wang (ed.), Chilling injury of horticultural crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 201–209.Google Scholar
  41. Murata, T. (1997). Citrus. In S. Mitra (ed.), Post-harvest physiology and storage of tropical and subtropical fruits. CAB International, U.K., pp. 21–46.Google Scholar
  42. Nam, K. W., H. M. Kweon and N. H. Song (1993). Storage of Satsuma mandarin influenced by tiophanate-metyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of Korean Society for Horticultural Science 34: 279–284.Google Scholar
  43. Naohara, J. and M. Manabe (1994). Molecular mass and solubility changes in pectins during storage of Satsuma mandarin fruits (Citrus satsuma mandarin Marc.). Journal of Food Science 59: 578ff (Abstract, Current Contents Accession Number: NW348-0030).Google Scholar
  44. Nelson, P. M. and R. W. Wheeler (1981). Potassium sorbate in combination with benzimidazoles reduces resistance of Penicillium digitatum decay in Citrus. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture 2: 820–823.Google Scholar
  45. Ni, Z. R., R. M. Huang, and W. P. Gu (1987). Orange preservation by combined treatment of irradiation and preservatives. Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica 1: 21–28.Google Scholar
  46. Nordby, H. E. and R. E. McDonald (1995). Variations in chilling injury and epicuticular wax composition of white grapefruit with canopy position and fruit development during the season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43: 1828–1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ogaki, C., H. G. Wang and H. Gemma (1990). Physiological and biochemical characteristics and keeping qualities of temperate fruits during chilled storage. Acta Horticulturae 279: 541–558.Google Scholar
  48. Petracek, P. D., H. Dou and S. Pao (1998). The influence of applied waxes on post-harvest physiological behavior and pitting of grapefruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 14: 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Piga, A., S. D’Aquino and M. Agabbio (1998). Evolution of respiration rate, internal CO2 or O2 resistance to gas diffusion of anaerobic exposed and waxed ‘Miho’ Satsuma fruits during market life. Advances in Horticultural Science 12: 132–137.Google Scholar
  50. Rodov, V., S. Ben Yehoshua, R. Albagli and D. Q. Fang (1995). Reducing chilling injury and decay of stored citrus fruit by hot water dips. Postharvest Biology and Technology 5: 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schifmann-Nadel, M., E. Chalutz, E. J. Waks and M. Dagan (1975). Reduction of chilling injury in grapefruit by thiabendazole and benomyl during long-term storage. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 100: 270–272.Google Scholar
  52. Schirra, M., M. Agabbio, G. D’hallewin, M. Pala and R. Ruggiu (1997). Response of tarocco oranges to picking date, post-harvest hot water dips, and chilling storage temperature. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 3216–3220.Google Scholar
  53. Schirra, M. and S. Ben-Yehoshua (1999). Heat treatments: A possible new technology in citrus handling. Challenges and prospects, In M. Schirra (ed.), Advances in postharvest diseases and disorders. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India, pp. 133–147.Google Scholar
  54. Schirra, M., G. D’hallewin, P. Cabras, A. Angioni and V. L. Garau (1998). Seasonal susceptibility of tarocco oranges to chilling injury as affected by hot water and thiabendazole post-harvest dip treatments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 1177–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schirra, M. and M. Mulas (1995). ‘Fortune’ mandarin quality following pre-storage water dips and intermittent warming during cold storage. Hort Science 30: 560–561.Google Scholar
  56. Smilanick, J. L. and D. Sorenson (1999). Use of lime-sulfur solution for the control of post-harvest mold of citrus fruit. Subtropical Fruit News 7: 18–22.Google Scholar
  57. Spiegel-Roy, P. and E. E. Goldshmidt (1999). Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, p. 15.Google Scholar
  58. Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske, Statisticki godišnjaci Republike Hrvatske (1990–1998). Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  59. Tachibana, S. and S. Yahata (2001). Relationships between percentage leaf nitrogen and fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin before and after storage. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 70: 226–228.Google Scholar
  60. Tagaki, T., H. Mukai, T. Ichikawa and T. Suzuki (1994). Effects of temperature and sugar accumulation in fruits on color development of Satsuma mandarin. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 62: 725–731.Google Scholar
  61. Tusett, J. J., J. Garcia and C. Hinarejos (1988). Effect of Intermittent Degreening Method on Decay of Satsuma Mandarin. Proceedings of the 6th International Citrus Congress, Vol. 3, Middle East, Tel-Aviv, pp. 1461–1465.Google Scholar
  62. Usai, M., G. Sferlazzo, M. Agabbio and G. Arras (1997). Proposal of a quality index to evaluate the efficiency of citrus fruit cold-storage by using chemometric methods on analytical parameters of essential oils. Agricoltura Mediteranea 127: 49–55.Google Scholar
  63. Wang, R. K., X. Q. Hu, P. F. Shao, R. G. Zhu and S. X. Qi (1995). Screening experiment of chemicals for control of Satsuma mandarin fruit rot and juice loss during storage. China Citrus 24: 29–30.Google Scholar
  64. Yamauchi, N., Y. Akiyama, S. Kako and F. Hashinaga (1997). Chlorophyll degradation in Wase Satsuma mandarin (Citrus satsuma mandarin Marc.) fruit with on-tree maturation and ethylene treatment. Scientia Horticulturae 71: 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yuen, C. M. C. and N. O. Tridjaja (1995). Chilling injury development of ‘Tahitian ‘lime, ‘Emperor’ mandarin, ‘Marsh’ grapefruit and ‘Valencia’ orange. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 67: 335–339.Google Scholar
  66. Zhou, B. Y., Y. Y. Wang and B. J. Li (1991). Investigation on storage of loose-skin mandarin fruits sealed individually in plastic film. In H. Bangyan and Y. Qian (eds.), Proceedings of the International Citrus Symposium. 5–8 Nov, 1990, International Academic Publishers, Guanghzou, China, pp. 736–739.Google Scholar
  67. Zude, M. and B. Herold (2001). Potential der optischen spektralanalyse bei der Qualitätsbestimmung von Obst. Erwerbsobstbau 43: 161–166.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomislav Jemriić
    • 1
  • Nikola Pavičić
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of PomologyUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations