Advertisement

Diagnosis of Hepatitis D Virus Infection

  • Jaw-Ching Wu
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)

Abstract

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a small defective virus with a single stranded circular RNA of 1.7 kb in size1-3. Its hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) envelope is provided by the helper hepatitis B virus (HBV) for successfiil package and transmission of HDV4,5. The antigenomic strand of HDV encodes a single protein, hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of two molecular weight forms. The large form HDAg with a 19-amino acid extension at the C-terminus plays a key role in the package of HDV and suppresses viral replication in a trans-dominant negative manner, while the small form plays an essential role in trans-activating the replication of HDV RNA.2,3

Keywords

Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Hepatitis Delta Virus Restriction Fragment Length Poly Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Delta Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang KS, Choo KL, Weiner AJ et al. Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (£δ) viral genome. Science 1986; 323:508–512.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Modahl LE, Lai MMC. Hepatitis delta virus: The molecular basis of laboratory diagnosis. Critical Rev Clin Lab Sciences 2000; 37:45–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor JM. Replication of human hepatitis delta virus: Recent developments. Trends Microbiol 2003; 11:185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rizzetto M, Canese MG, Gerin JL et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus-associated delta antigen to chimpanzee. J Infect Dis 1980; 141:590–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu JC, Chen PJ, Kuo MYP et al. Production of hepatitis D virus and suppression of helper hepatitis B virus in a human hepatoma cell line. J Virol 1991; 65:1099–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu JC, Chen TZ, Huang YS et al. Natural history of hepatitis D viral superinfection-significance of viremia detected by polymerase chain reaction. Gastroenterology 1995; 108:796–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hadler SC, De Monzo M, Ponzetto A et al. Delta virus infection and severe hepatitis: An epidemic in Yucpa Indians of Venezuela. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100:339–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Govindarajan S, Chin KP, Redeker AG et al. Fulminant B viral hepatitis: Role of delta antigen. Gastroenterology 1984; 86:1417–1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu JC, Chen CH, Hou MC et al. Multiple viral infections as the most common cause of fulminant and subfulminant viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B: Application and limitations of polymerase chain reaction. Hepatology 1994; 19:836–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rizzetto M, Verme G, Recchia S et al. Chronic hepatitis in carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen, with intrahepatic expression of the delta antigen. An active and progressive disease unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:437–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Govindarajan S, De Cock KM, Redeker AG. Natural course of delta superinfection in chronic hepatitis B virus-infected patients: Histologic study with multiple liver biopsies. Gastroenterology 1986; 6:640–644.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu JC, Lee SD, Govindarajan S et al. Correlation of serum delta RNA with clinical course of acute delta virus superinfection in Taiwan: A longitudinal study. J Infect Dis 1990; 161:1116–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hadziyannis SJ, Hatzakis A, Paipaioannou C et al. Endemic hepatitis delta virus infection in a Greek community. Prog Clin Biol Res 1987; 234:181–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Casey JL, Brown TL, Colan EJ et al. A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern South America. Proc Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:9016–9020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Imazeki F, Omata M, Ohto M. Heterogeneity and evolution rates of delta virus RNA sequences. J Virol 1990; 64:5594–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu JC, Choo KB, Chen CM et al. Genotyping of hepatitis D virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism and its correlation with outcomes of hepatitis D. Lancet 1995; 346:939–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lucey MR, Graham DM, Martin P et al. Recurrence of hepatitis B and delta hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Gut 1992; 33:1390–1396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Argona M, Macagno S, Carreda F et al. Serological response to the hepatitis delta virus in hepatitis D. Lancet 1987; 1:478–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang YH, Wu JC, Sheng WY et al. Diagnostic value of anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibodies revisited: A study of total and IgM anti-HDV compared with detection of HDV-RNA by poly merase chain reaction. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 13:57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buti M, Esteban R, Jardi R et al. Clinical and serological outcome of acute delta infection. J Hepatol 1987; 5:50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoofnagle JH. Type D (Delta) hepatitis. JAMA 1989; 261:1321–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jardi R, Buti M, Rodriguez-Frias F et al. Clinical significance of two forms of IgM antibody to hepatitis delta virus. Hepatology 1991; 14:25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buti M, Esteban R, Esteban JI et al. Anti-HD IgM as a marker of chronic delta infection. J Hepatol 1987; 4:62–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Govindarajan S, Smedile A, Cock KMD et al. Study of reactivation of chronic hepatitis delta infection. J Hepatol 1989; 9:204–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Farci. P, Gerin JL, Aragona M et al. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the hepatitis delta virus. JAMA 1986; 255:1443–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Govindarajan S, Gupta S, Valinluck B et al. Correlation of IgM anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) to HDV RNA in sera of chronic HDV. Hepatology 1989; 10:34–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lau JYN, Smith HM, Chaggar K et al. Significance of IgM anti hepatitis D virus (HDV) in chronic HDV infection. J Med Virol 1991; 33:273–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jardi R, Buti M, Rodriguez F et al. Comparative analysis of serological markers of chronic delta infection: HDV RNA, serum HDAg and anti-HD IgM. J Virol Methods 1994; 50:59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smedile A, Rizzetto M, Denniston K et al. Type D hepatitis: The clinical significance of hepatitis D virus RNA in serum as detected by a hybridization-based assay. Hepatology 1986; 6:1297–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buti M, Esteban R, Roggendorf M et al. Hepatitis D virus RNA in acute delta infection: Serological profile and correlation with other markers of hepatitis D virus infection. Hepatology 1988; 8:1125–1129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smedile A, Bergmann KF, Baroudy BM et al. Riboprobe assay for HDV RNA: A sensitive method for the detection of the HDV genome in clinical serum sample. J Med Virol 1990; 30:20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tang JR, Cova L, Lamelin JP et al. Clinical relevance of the detection of hepatitis delta virus RNA in serum by RNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. J Hepatol 1994; 21:953–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Madejon A, Castillo I, Bartolome J et al. Detection of HDV-RNA by PCR in serum of patients with chronic HDV infection. J Hepatol 1990; 11:381–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jardi R. Buti M, Cotrina M et al. Determination of hepatitis delta virus RNA by polymerase chain reaction in acute and chronic delta infection. Hepatology 1995; 21:25–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Negro F, Bonino F, Bisceglie AD et al. Intrahepatic markers of hepatitis delta virus infection: Study by in situ hybridization. Hepatology 1989; 10:916–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Govindarajan S, Valinluck B, Peters RL. Relapse of acute B viral hepatitis: Role of delta agent. Gut 1996; 27:19–22.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shattock AG, Morgan BM. Sensitive enzyme immunoassasy for the detection of delta antigen and anti-delta, using serum as the delta antigen source. J Med Virol 1984; 13:73–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cariani E, Ravaggi A, Puoti M et al. Evaluation of hepatitis delta virus RNA levels during interferon therapy by analysis of polymerase chain reaction products with a nonradioisotopic hybridization assay. Hepatology 1992; 15:685–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wu JC, Li CS, Chen CL et al. Factors associated with viremia and elevated transaminase levels in asymptomatic hepatitis D virus-infected risk groups. J Med Virol 1994; 42:86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Farci P, Mandas A, Colana A et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. N Engl J Med 1994; 330:88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wu JC, Chen CM, Sheen IJ et al. Evidence of transmission of hepatitis D virus to spouses from sequence analysis of the viral genome. Hepatology 1995; 22:1656–1660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wu JC, Chiang TY, Sheen IJ. Characterization and Phylogenetic analysis of a novel hepatitis D virus group discovered by restriction fragment length polymorphism. J General Virol 1998;78:1105–1113.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee CM, Bih FY, Chao YC et al. Evolution of hepatitis delta virus RNA during chronic infection. Virology 1992; 188:265–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wu JC, Chiang TY, Shiue WK et al. Recombination of hepatitis D virus and its implications. Mol Biol Evol 1999; 16:1622–1632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rizzetto M, Canese MG, Arico S et al. Immunofluorescence detection of a new antigen/antibody system (delta-antidelta) associated with the hepatitis B virus in the liver and in the serum of HBsAg carriers. Gut 1977; 18:997–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Recchia S, Rizzii R, Acquaviva F. Immunoperoxidase staining of the HBV-associated delta antigen in paraffinated liver specimens. Pathologica 1981; 73:773–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stocklin E, Gudat F, Krey G et al. δ-antigen in hepatitis B: Immunohistology of frozen and paraffin-embedded liver biopsies and relation to HBV infection. Hepatology 1981; 1:238–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kanel GC, Govindarajan S, Peters RL. Chronic delta infection and liver biopsy changes in chronic active hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101:51–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kuo MYP, Chao M, Taylor J. Initiation of replication of the human hepatitis delta virus genome from cloned DNA: Role of delta antigen. J Virol 1989; 63:1945–1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Macnaughton TB, Gowans EJ, Jiber AR et al. Hepatitis delta virus RNA, protein synthesis and associated cytotoxicity in a stably transfected cell line. Virology 1990; 177:696–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu JC, Chen CL, Lee SD et al. Expression and localization of the small and large delta antigens during the replication cycle of hepatitis D virus. Hepatology 1992; 16:1120–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bichko VV, Taylor JM. Redistribution of the delta antigens in cells replicating the genome of hepatitis delta virus. J Virol 1996; 70:8064–8070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sherman M, Lieberman HM et al. Liver disease activity and hepatitis B virus replication in chronic delta antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. Hepatology 1985;5:544–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hsu SC, Syu WJ, Sheen IJ et al. Varied Assembly and RNA Editing Efficiencies between Geno types I and II Hepatitis D Virus and their Implications. Hepatology 2002; 35:665–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wu JC, Huang IA, Huang YS et al. Mixed genotypes infection of hepatitis D virus. J Med Virol 1999; 57:64–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hsu SC, Syu WJ, Ting LT et al. Immunohistochemical differentiation of hepatitis D virus genotypes. Hepatology 2000; 32:1111–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smedile A, Rosina F, Saracco G et al. Hepatitis B virus replication modulates pathogenesis of hepatitis D virus in chronic hepatitis D. Hepatology 1991; 13:413–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lai CL, Chien RN, Leung NW et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. Asian hepatitis lamivudine study group. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:61–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lau DT, Doo E, Par K et al. Lamivudine for chronic delta hepatitis. Hepatology 1999; 30:579–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaw-Ching Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Insitute of Clinical MedicineNational Yang-ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations