The Subventricular Zone Responds Dynamically to Mechanical Brain Injuries

  • Maria L.V. Dizon
  • Francis G. Szele

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Brain Injury Olfactory Bulb Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Subventricular Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alonso, G., Prieto, M., and Chauvet, N. (1999). Tangential migration of young neurons arising from the subventricular zone of adult rats is impaired by surgical lesions passing through their natural migratory pathway. J. Comp. Neurol. 405: 508–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Buylla, A., Herrera, D.G., and Wichterle, H. (2000). The subventricular zone: source of neuronal precursors for brain repair. Prog. Brain Res. 127: 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benraiss, A., Chmielnicki, E., Lerner, K., Roh, D., and Goldman, S.A. (2001). Adenoviral brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces both neostriatal and olfactory neuronal recruitment from endogenous progenitor cells in the adult forebrain. J. Neurosci. 21: 6718–6731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernier, P.J., Vinet, J., Cossette, M., and Parent, A. (2000). Characterization of the subventricular zone of the adult human brain: evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2. Neurosci. Res. 37: 67–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bramlett, H.M. and Dietrich, W.D. (2002). Quantitative structural changes in white and gray matter 1 year following traumatic brain injury in rats. Acta. Neuropathol. (Berl.) 103: 607–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruni, J.E., Del, Bigio, M.R., Clattenburg, R.E. (1985). Ependyma: normal and pathological. A review of the literature. Brain Res. 356: 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cammer, W. and Zhang, H. (1992). Carbonic anhydrase in distinct precursors of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the forebrains of neonatal and young rats. Brain Res. Dev Brain. Res. 67: 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carbonell, W.S., Maris, D.O., McCall, T., and Grady, M.S. (1998). Adaptation of the fluid percussion injury model to the mouse. J. Neurotrauma 15: 217–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Caroni, P. (1998) Neuro-regeneration: plasticity for repair and adaptation. Essays Biochem. 33: 53–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro, A.J., Tonder, N., Sunde, N.A., and Zimmer, J. (1987). Fetal cortical transplants in the cerebral hemisphere of newborn rats: a retrograde fluorescent analysis of connections. Exp. Brain Res. 66: 533–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro, A.J., Tonder, N., Sunde, N.A., and Zimmer, J. (1988). Fetal neocortical ransplants grafted to the cerebral cortex of newborn rats receive afferents from the basal forebrain, locus coeruleus and midline raphe. Exp. Brain Res. 69: 613–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, S., Pickard, J.D., and Harris, N.G. (2003a). Time course of cellular pathology after controlled cortical impact injury. Exp. Neurol. 182: 87–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, X.H., Iwata, A., Nonaka, M., Browne, K.D., and Smith, D.H. (2003b). Neurogenesis and glial proliferation persist for at least one year in the subventricular zone following brain trauma in rats. J. Neurotrauma 20: 623–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, Y. and Swanson, R.A. (2003). Astrocytes and brain injury. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23: 137–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chenn, A. and Walsh, C.A. (2002). Regulation of cerebral cortical size by control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors. Science 297: 365–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiquet-Ehrismann, R. and Chiquet, M. (2003). Tenascins: regulation and putative functions during pathological stress. J. Pathol. 200: 488–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chirumamilla, S., Sun, D., Bullock, M.R., and Colello, R.J. (2002). Traumatic brain injury induced cell proliferation in the adult mammalian central nervous system. J. Neurotrauma 19: 693–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corcoran, M.E., Urstad, H., McCaughran, J.A., Jr., and Wada, J.A. (1975). Frontal lobe and kindling in the rat. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 2: 501–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Craig, C.G., Tropepe, V., Morshead, C.M., Reynolds, B.A., Weiss, S., and van der Kooy, D. (1996). In vivo growth factor expansion of endogenous subependymal neural precursor cell populations in the adult mouse brain. J. Neurosci. 16: 2649–2658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Curtis, M.A., Penney, E.B., Pearson, A.G., van Roon-Mom, W.M.C., Butterworth, N.J., Dragunow, M., Connor, B., and Faull, R.L.M. (2003). Increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult human Huntington’s disease brain. PNAS 100: 9023–9027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deacon, R.M. and Rawlins, J.N. (1996). Effects of aspiration lesions of hippocampus or overlying neocortex on concurrent and configural object discriminations in rats. Behav. Brain Res. 77: 165–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deller, T. and Frotscher, M. (1997). Lesion-induced plasticity of central neurons: sprouting of single fibres in the rat hippocampus after unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion. Prog. Neurobiol. 53: 687–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doetsch, F., Garcia-Verdugo, J.M., and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1997). Cellular composition and three-dimensional organization of the subventricular germinal zone in the adult mammalian brain. J. Neurosci. 17: 5046–5061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Eriksson, P.S., Perfilieva, E., Bjork,-Eriksson, T., Alborn, A.M., Nordborg, C., Peterson, D.A., and Gage, F.H. (1998). Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus [see comments]. Nat. Med. 4: 1313–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eslinger, P.J., Damasio, A.R., and Van Hoesen, G.W. (1982). Olfactory dysfunction in man: anatomical and behavioral aspects. Brain Cogn. 1: 259–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farge, E. (2003) Mechanical induction of twist in the Drosophila foregut/stomodeal primordium. Curr. Biol. 13: 1365–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gates, M.A., Thomas, L.B., Howard, E.M., Laywell, E.D., Sajin, B., Faissner, A., Gotz, B., Silver, J., and Steindler, D.A. (1995). Cell and molecular analysis of the developing and adult mouse subventricular zone of the cerebral hemispheres. J. Comp. Neurol. 361: 249–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gheusi, G., Cremer, H., McLean, H., Chazal, G., Vincent, J.D., and Lledo, P.M. (2000). Importance of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb for odor discrimination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97: 1823–1828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Girman, S.V. and Golovina, I.L. (1988). [Electrophysiologic research on the afferent connections of embryonic neocortex allografts inserted into the projection zones of the cortex in adult rats]. Neirofiziologiia 20: 448–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Glassman, R.B. (1994). Behavioral effects of SI versus SII cortex ablations on tactile orientation-localization and postural reflexes of rats. Exp. Neurol. 125: 125–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goings, G., Wibisono, B., and Szele, F. (2002). Cerebral cortex lesions decrease the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive subventricular zone cells in mice. Neurosci. Lett. 329: 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goings, G., Sahni, V., and Szele, F. (2004). Migration patterns of subventricular zone cells in adult mice change after cerebral cortex injury. Brain Res, 996: 213–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Golden, J.A., Fields-Berry, S.C., and Cepko, C.L. (1995). Construction and characterization of a highly complex retroviral library for lineage analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92: 5704–5708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gomez-Pinilla, F. and Cotman, C.W. (1992). Transient lesion-induced increase of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptor in layer VIb (subplate cells) of the adult rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience 49: 771–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gotts, J.E. and Chesselet, M.F. (2002). Mechanisms of subventricular zone expansion following focal cortical ischemic lesions in adult rats. In: Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  36. Green, P., Rohling, M.L., Iverson, G.L., and Gervais, R.O. (2003). Relationships between olfactory discrimination and head injury severity. Brain Inj. 17: 479–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grinspan, J.B. and Franceschini, B. (1995). Platelet-derived growth factor is a survival factor for PSA-NCAM+ oligodendrocyte pre-progenitor cells. J. Neurosci. Res. 41: 540–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grodzinsky, A.J., Levenston, M.E., Jin, M., and Frank, E.H. (2000). Cartilage tissue remodeling in response to mechanical forces. Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2: 691–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grumet, M., Friedlander, D.R., and Sakurai, T. (1996). Functions of brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans during developments: Interactions with adhesion molecules. Perspect. Dev. Neurobiol. 3: 319–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hefti, F. (1986). Nerve growth factor promotes survival of septal cholinergic neurons after fimbrial transections. J. Neurosci. 6: 2155–2162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Holmin, S., Almqvist, P., Lendahl, U., and Mathiesen, T. (1997). Adult nestinexpressing subependymal cells differentiate to astrocytes in response to brain injury. Eur. J. Neurosci. 9: 65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hunter, K.E. and Hatten, M.E. (1995). Radial glial cell transformation to astrocytes is bidirectional: regulation by a diffusible factor in embryonic forebrain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92: 2061–2065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Husmann, K., Faissner, A., and Schachner, M. (1992). Tenascin promotes cerebellar granule cell migration and neurite outgrowth by different domains in the fibronectin type III repeats. J. Cell Biol. 116: 1475–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ingber, D.E. (1997). Tensegrity: the architectural basis of cellular mechanotransduction. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 59: 575–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ingber, D.E. (2002). Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology. Circ. Res. 91: 877–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ishikawa, R., Nishikori, K., and Furukawa, S. (1991). Appearance of nerve growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor with different time courses in the cavitylesioned cortex of the rat brain. Neurosci. Lett. 127: 70–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iwamoto, Y., Yamaki, T., Murakami, N., Umeda, M., Tanaka, C., Higuchi, T., Aoki, I., Naruse, S., and Ueda, S. (1997). Investigation of morphological change of lateral and midline fluid percussion injury in rats, using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery 40: 163–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacques, T.S., Relvas, J.B., Nishimura, S., Pytela, R., Edwards, G.M., Streuli, C.H., and ffrench-Constant, C. (1998). Neural precursor cell chain migration and division are regulated through different beta1 integrins. Development 125: 3167–3177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jankovski, A. and Sotelo, C. (1996). Subventricular zone-olfactory bulb migratory pathway in the adult mouse: Cellular composition and specificity as determined by heterochronic and heterotopic transplantation. J. Comp. Neurol. 371: 376–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jankovski, A., Garcia, C., Soriano, E., and Sotelo, C. (1998). Proliferation, migration and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells in the adult mouse subventricular zone surgically separated from its olfactory bulb. Eur. J. Neurosci. 10: 3853–3868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Joester, A. and Faissner, A. (2001). The structure and function of tenascins in the nervous system. Matrix Biol. 20: 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaplan, M.S., McNelly, N.A., and Hinds, J.W. (1985). Population dynamics of adult-formed granule neurons of the rat olfactory bulb. J. Comp. Neurol. 239: 117–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kartje, G.L., Schulz, M.K., Lopez-Yunez, A., Schnell, L., and Schwab, M.E. (1999). Corticostriatal plasticity is restricted by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors in the adult rat. Ann. Neurol. 45: 778–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keller, R., Davidson, L.A., and Shook, D.R. (2003). How we are shaped: The biomechanics of gastrulation. Differentiation 71: 171–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kern, R.C., Quinn, B., Rosseau, G., and Farbman, A.I. (2000). Post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction. Laryngoscope 110: 2106–2109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirschenbaum, B., Doetsch, F., Lois, C., Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1999). Adult subventricular zone neuronal precursors continue to proliferate and migrate in the absence of the olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci. 19: 2171–2180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kirschenbaum, B., Nedergaard, M., Preuss, A., Barami, K., Fraser, R.A., and Goldman, S.A. (1994). In vitro neuronal production and differentiation by precursor cells derived from the adult human forebrain. Cereb. Cortex 4: 576–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kolb, B., Reynolds, B., and Fantie, B. (1988). Frontal cortex grafts have opposite effects at different postoperative recovery times. Behav. Neural. Biol. 50: 193–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kornack, D.R. and Rakic, P. (2001). Cell proliferation without neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex. Science 294: 2127–2130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kuhn, H.G., Winkler, J., Kempermann, G., Thal, L.J., and Gage, F.H. (1997). Epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 have different effects on neural progenitors in the adult rat brain. J. Neurosci. 17: 5820–5829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kukekov, V.G., Laywell, E.D., Suslov, O., Davies, K., Scheffler, B., Thomas, L.B., O’Brien, T.F., Kusakabe, M., and Steindler, D.A. ((1999). Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar properties arise from two neurogenic regions of adult human brain. Exp. Neurol. 156: 333–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Le Gal La Salle, G., Rougon, G., and Valin, A. (1992). The embryonic form of neural cell surface molecule (E-NCAM) in the rat hippocampus and its reexpression on glial cells following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. J. Neurosci. 12: 872–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Leavitt, B.R., Hernit-Grant, C.S., and Macklis, J.D. (1999). Mature astrocytes transform into transitional radial glia within adult mouse neocortex that supports directed migration of transplanted immature neurons. Exp. Neurol. 157: 43–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levison, S.W. and Goldman, J.E. (1993). Both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes develop from progenitors in the subventricular zone of postnatal rat forebrain. Neuron 10: 201–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Levison, S.W., Chuang, C., Abramson, B.J., and Goldman, J.E. (1993). The migrational patterns and developmental fates of glial precursors in the rat subventricular zone are temporally regulated. Development 119: 611–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu, G. and Rao, Y. (2003). Neuronal migration from the forebrain to the olfactory bulb requires a new attractant persistent in the olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci. 23: 6651–6659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lois, C. and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1993). Proliferating subventricular zone cells in the adult mammalian forebrain can differentiate into neurons and glia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90: 2074–2077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lois, C. and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1994). Long-distance neuronal migration in the adult mammalian brain. Science 264: 1145–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lois, C., Garcia-Verdugo, J.M., and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1996). Chain migration of neuronal precursors. Science 271: 978–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McIntosh, T.K., Noble, L., Andrews, B., and Faden, A.I. (1987). Traumatic brain injury in the rat: characterization of a midline fluid-percussion model. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Trauma 4: 119–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mercier, F., Kitasako, J.T., and Hatton, G.I. (2002). Anatomy of the brain neurogenic zones revisited: fractones and the fibroblast/macrophage network. J. Comp. Neurol. 451: 170–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miragall, F., Kadmon, G., Faissner, A., Antonicek, H., and Schachner, M. (1990). Retention of J1/tenascin and the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in the adult olfactory bulb. J. Neurocytol. 19: 899–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mitro, A. and Palkovits, M. (1981). Morphology of the rat brain ventricles, ependyma, and periventricular structures. Bibl. Anat.: 1–110.Google Scholar
  74. Nait-Oumesmar, B., Decker, L., Lachapelle, F., Avellana-Adalid, V., Bachelin, C., and Van Evercooren, A.B. (1999). Progenitor cells of the adult mouse subventricular zone proliferate, migrate and differentiate into oligodendrocytes after demyelination. Eur. J. Neurosci 11: 4357–4366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Napieralski, J.A., Butler, A.K., and Chesselet, M.F. (1996). Anatomical and functional evidence for lesion-specific sprouting of corticostriatal input in the adult rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 373: 484–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ono, K., Tomasiewicz, H., Magnuson, T., and Rutishauser, U. (1994). N-CAM mutation inhibits tangential neuronal migration and is phenocopied by enzymatic removal of polysialic acid. Neuron 13: 595–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ostenfeld, T., Tai, Y.T., Martin, P., Deglon, N., Aebischer, P., and Svendsen, C.N. (2002). Neurospheres modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increase the survival of transplanted dopamine neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. 69:955–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Palmer, T.D., Markakis, E.A., Willhoite, A.R., Safar, F., and Gage, F.H. (1999). Fibroblast growth factor-2 activates a latent neurogenic program in neural stem cells from diverse regions of the adult CNS. J. Neurosci. 19: 8487–8497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pencea, V., Bingaman, K.D., Wiegand, S.J., and Luskin, M.B. (2001a). Infusion of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into the Lateral Ventricle of the Adult Rat Leads to New Neurons in the Parenchyma of the Striatum, Septum, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus. J. Neurosci. 21: 6706–6717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pencea, V., Bingaman, K.D., Freedman, L.J., and Luskin, M.B. (2001b). Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the neonatal and adult primate forebrain. Exp. Neurol. 172: 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Picard-Riera, N., Decker, L., Delarasse, C., Goude, K., Nait-Oumesmar, B., Liblau, R., Pham-Dinh, D., and Evercooren, A.B. (2002). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mobilizes neural progenitors from the subventricular zone to undergo oligodendrogenesis in adult mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99: 13211–13216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Poltorak, M., Herranz, A.S., Williams, J., Lauretti, L., and Freed, W.J. (1993). Effects of frontal cortical lesions on mouse striatum: reorganization of cell recognition molecule, glial fiber, and synaptic protein expression in the dorsomedial striatum. J. Neurosci. 13: 2217–2229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Prins, M.L. and Hovda, D.A. (2003). Developing experimental models to address traumatic brain injury in children. J. Neurotrauma 20: 123–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ramaswamy, S., Goings, G.E., Soderstrom, K.E., Szele, F.G., Kozlowski, D.A. (2005). Cellular proliferatin and migration following a controlled cortical impact in the mouse. Brain Res. 1053: 38–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reider, G. II., Groswasser, Z., Ommaya, A.K., Schwab, K., Pridgen, A., Brown, H.R., Cole, R., and Salazar, A.M. (2002). Quantitive imaging in late traumatic brain injury. Part I: Late imaging parameters in closed and penetrating head injuries. Brain Inj. 16: 517–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Reynolds, B.A. and Weiss, S. (1992). Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system [see comments]. Science 255: 1707–1710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Richards, L.J., Kilpatrick, T.J., and Bartlett, P.F. (1992). De novo generation of neuronal cells from the adult mouse brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89: 8591–8595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ridet, J.L., Malhotra, S.K., Privat, A., and Gage, F.H. (1997). Reactive astrocytes: cellular and molecular cues to biological function. Trends Neurosci. 20: 570–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rosen, J.B., Hitchcock, J.M., Miserendino, M.J., Falls, W.A., Campeau, S., and Davis, M. (1992). Lesions of the perirhinal cortex but not of the frontal, medial prefrontal, visual, or insular cortex block fear-potentiated startle using a visual conditioned stimulus. J. Neurosci. 12: 4624–4633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rousselot, P., Lois, C., and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1995). Embryonic (PSA) N-CAM reveals chains of migrating neuroblasts between the lateral ventricle and the olfactory bulb of adult mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 351: 51–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sarnat, H.B. (1995). Ependymal reactions to injury. A review. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 54: 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schallert, T., Leasure, J.L., and Kolb, B. (2000). Experience-associated structural events, subependymal cellular proliferative activity, and functional recovery after injury to the central nervous system. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20: 1513–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shipley, J.E., Rowland, N., and Antelman, S.M. (1980). Orbital or medial frontal cortical lesions have different effects on tail pressure-elicited oral behaviors in rats. Physiol. Behav. 24: 1091–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smart, I. (1961). The subependymal layer of the mouse brain and its cell production as shown by radioautography after thymidine-H3 injection. J. Comp. Neurol. 116: 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sorensen, J.C., Wanner-Olsen, H., Tonder, N., Danielsen, E., Castro, A.J., and Zimmer, J. (1990). Axotomized, adult basal forebrain neurons can innervate fetal frontal cortex grafts: a double fluorescent tracer study in the rat. Exp. Brain Res. 81: 545–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sundholm-Peters, N.L., Yang, H.K.C., Goings, G.E., Walker, A.S., Szele, F.G. (2004). Radial glia-like cells at the base of the lateral ventricles in adult mice. Journal of Neurocyt. 33: 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Szele, F.G. (1994). Plasticity in the striatum and subependymal layer of adult rats in response to cortical lesions. In: Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, p. 137.Google Scholar
  98. Szele, F.G. and Chesselet, M.F. (1996). Cortical lesions induce an increase in cell number and PSA-NCAM expression in the subventricular zone of adult rats. J. Comp. Neurol. 368: 439–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Szele, F.G., Alexander, C., and Chesselet, M.F. (1995) Expression of molecules associated with neuronal plasticity in the striatum after aspiration and thermocoagulatory lesions of the cerebral cortex in adult rats. J. Neurosci. 15: 4429–4448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Szele, F.G., Dowling, J.J., Gonzales, C., Theveniau, M., Rougon, G., and Chesselet, M.F. (1994). Pattern of expression of highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the developing and adult rat striatum. Neuroscience 60: 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thomas, L.B., Gates, M.A., and Steindler, D.A. (1996). Young neurons from the adult subependymal zone proliferate and migrate along an astrocyte, extracellular matrix-rich pathway. Glia 17: 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thurman, D.J. G.J. (1999). Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. JAMA 282: 954–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tzeng, S.F. and Wu, J.P. (1999). Responses of microglia and neural progenitors to mechanical brain injury. Neuroreport 10: 2287–2292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Valadka, A.B. (2000). Injury to the cranium. In: Mattox, K.L., Feliciano, D.V., and Moore, E.E. (eds.), Trauma, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 377–378.Google Scholar
  105. van Eden, C.G. and Rinkens, A. (1994). Lesion induced expression of low-affinity NGF binding protein (p75) immunoreactivity after neonatal and adult aspiration lesions of the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 82: 167–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Volpe, J.J. (1995). In: Neurology of the Newborn, 3rd edn. W.B. Saunders & Company, Philadelphia, pp. 431–445.Google Scholar
  107. Weickert, C.S., Webster, M.J., Colvin, S.M., Herman, M.M., Hyde, T.M., Weinberger, D.R., and Kleinman, J.E. (2000). Localization of epidermal growth fact orreceptors and putative neuro blasts in human subependymalzone. J. Comp. Neurol. 423:359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Weinstein, D.E., Burrola, P., and Kilpatrick, T.J. (1996). Increased proliferation of precursor cells in the adult rat brain after targeted lesioning. Brain Res. 743: 11–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wichterle, H., Garcia-Verdugo, J.M., and Alvarez-Buylla, A. (1997). Direct evidence for homotypic, glia-independent neuronal migration. Neuron 18: 779–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yousem, D.M., Geckle, R.J., Bilker, W.B., McKeown, D.A., and Doty, R.L. (1996). Post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction: MR and clinical evaluation. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 17: 1171–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zepeda, A., Montiel, T., and Brailowsky, S. (1999). Functional recovery from cortical hemiplegia in the rat: effects of a callosotomy. J. Neurotrauma 16: 267–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria L.V. Dizon
    • 1
  • Francis G. Szele
    • 1
  1. 1.CMIER Neurobiology Program, Children’s Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern University Chicago

Personalised recommendations