High Performance Liquid Chromatographic and Gas Chromatographic Methods for Lipid Analysis

  • K. N. Kilcawley


Free Fatty Acid Conjugate Linoleic Acid Steam Distillation Conjugate Linoleic Acid Isomer Butyl Ester 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akin, N., Aydemir, S., Koçak, C., Yildiz, M.C. 2003. Changes of free fatty acid contents and sensory properties of white pickled cheese during ripening. Food Chem. 80, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrikopoulos, N.K. 2002. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods in the analysis of triacylglycerol species and regiospecific isomers of oils and fats. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 42, 473–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks, W. 1991. Milk lipids. In, Utilizations of Milk Fat, Bulletin, 260, International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  4. Bills, D.D., Khatri, L.L., Day, E.A. 1963. Method for the determination of the free fatty acids of milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 46, 1342–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bütikofer, U. 1996. Collaborative study on the determination of free fatty acids in butter and cheese. FAM Information 325PW, Agroscope, Berne.Google Scholar
  6. Chavarri, F., Virto, M., Martin, C., Nájera, A., Santisteban, A., Barrón, L.J.R., De Renobales, M. 1997. Determination of free fatty acids in cheese: comparision of two analytical methods. J. Dairy Res. 64, 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christie, W.W. 1997. Analysis of fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. Lipid Technol. 9, 124–126.Google Scholar
  8. Christie, W.W. 2003a. Lipid Analysis, Isolation, Separation, Identification and Structural Analysis of Lipids. 3rd edn, The Oily Press, Bridgwater, England.Google Scholar
  9. Christie, W.W. 2003b. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid: An overview, In, Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol. 2 (J-L Sébédio, W.W Christie, R. Adlof, eds.), pp. 1–12, Amercian Oil Chemists Society Press, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  10. Contarini, G., Toppino, P.M. 1995. Lipolysis in Gorgonzola cheese during ripening. Int. Dairy J. 5, 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Contarini, G., Zucchetti, S., Amelotti, G., Toppino, P.M. 1988. Metodiche analitiche e gascromatografiche per la valutazione della frazione acidica libera nei prodotti lattierocesari. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse. 66, 561–567.Google Scholar
  12. Corsetti, A., Corbo, M.R., Albenzio, M., Di Cagno, R., Gobbetti, M., Fox, P.F. 2001. Microbiology and biochemistry of Caciovavallo Silano cheese. Ital. J. Food Sci. 13, 297–309.Google Scholar
  13. Cserháti, T., Forgács, E. 1999. Theory and practice of chromatography: In, chromatography in Food Science and Technology (T. Cserháti, E. Forgács, eds.), pp. 1–10, Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA.Google Scholar
  14. Curioni, P.M.G., Bosset, J.O. 2002. Key odorants in various cheese types as determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Int. Dairy J. 12, 959–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deeth, H.C., Fitz-Gerald, C.H., Snow, A.J, 1983. A gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of free fatty acids in milk and milk products. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 18, 13–20.Google Scholar
  16. de Leon-Gonzalez, L.P., Wendorff, W.L., Ingham, B.H., Jaeggi, J.J., Houck, K.B. 2000. Influence of salting procedure on the composition of Muenster-type cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 1396–1401.Google Scholar
  17. de Jong, C., Badings, H.T. 1990. Determination of free fatty acids in milk and cheese. Procedures for extraction, clean up and capillary gas chromatographic analysis. J. High Res. Chrom. 13, 94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Jong, C., Palma, K., Neeter, R. 1994. Sample preparation before capillary gas-chromatographic estimation of free fatty acids in fermented dairy products. Neth. Milk. Dairy J. 48, 151–156.Google Scholar
  19. de la Fuente, M.A., Fontecha, J., Juárez, M. 1993. Fatty acid composition of the triglyceride and free fatty acid fractions in different cows-, ewes-and goats-milk cheeses. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 196, 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elliott, J.M., de Haan, B., Parkin, K.L. 1989. An improved liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of free fatty acids in milk products. J. Dairy Sci. 72, 2478–2482.Google Scholar
  21. Freitas, A.C., Malcata, F.X. 1998. Lipolysis in Picante cheese: Influence of milk type and ripening time on free fatty acid profile. Lait 78, 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Friedich, J.E., Acree, T.E. 1998. Gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/O) of dairy products. Int. Dairy J. 8, 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia, H.S., Reyes, H.R., Malcata, F.X., Hill C.G., Jr, Amundson, C.H. 1990. Determination of the major free fatty acids in milkfat using a three-component mobile phase for HPLC analysis. Milchwissenschaft 45, 757–759.Google Scholar
  24. García-Ayuso, L.E., Luque De Castro, M.D. 1999. A comparative study between chromatography and other techniques for quantification of triglycerides and fatty acids in dairy products. Seminars Food Anal. 4, 39–52.Google Scholar
  25. Gray, I.K. 1975. The quantitative analysis of free fatty acids in dairy products. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 10, 158–161.Google Scholar
  26. Ha, J.K., Lindsay, R.C. 1990. Method for the quantitative analysis of volatile free and total branched-chain fatty acids in cheese and milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 73, 1988–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ha, J.K., Lindsay, R.C. 1991. Contributions of cow, sheep, and goat milks to characterizing branched-chain fatty acid and phenolic flavors in varietal cheeses. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3267–3274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harmon, A.D. 2002. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of aromas and flavors. In, Flavor, Fragrance and Odor Analysis (R. Marsili, ed.), pp. 75–106, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Hein, M., Isengard, H.D. 1997. Determination of underivated fatty acids by HPLC. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A. 204, 420–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horwood, J.F., Lloyd, G.T. 1980. A reliable gas chromatographic method for the determination of the lower free fatty acids in cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 35, 30–32.Google Scholar
  31. Innocente, N., Moret, S., Corradini, C., Conte, L.S. 2000. A rapid method for the quantitative determination of short-chain free volatile fatty acids from cheese. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48, 3321–3323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. IDF 1991. Determination of free fatty acids in milk and milk products. Bulletin, 265, International Dairy Federation, Brussels.Google Scholar
  33. International Standard, 2001. Milk and milk products—Extraction methods for lipids and liposoluble compounds. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, ISO 14156.Google Scholar
  34. International Standard, 2002a. Milk fat—Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, ISO 15884.Google Scholar
  35. International Standard, 2002b. Milk fat—Determination of the fatty acid composition by gasliquid chromatography. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, ISO 15885.Google Scholar
  36. Juárez, M., de la Fuente, M.A., Fontecha, J. 1992. Improved gas chromatographic method for the determination of the individual free fatty acids in cheese using a capillary column and a PTV injector. Chromatographia 33, 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kilara, A. 1985. Enzyme-modified lipid food ingredients. Process Biochem. 20(2), 35–45.Google Scholar
  38. Kilcawley, K.N., Wilkinson, M.G., Fox, F.P. 2001. A survey of lipolytic and glycolytic endproducts in commercial Cheddar enzyme-modified cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 66–73.Google Scholar
  39. Kosikowski, F.V. 1977. Cheese and Fermentated Milk Food, F.V. Kosikowski and Associates, Westport CT.Google Scholar
  40. Kotani, A., Kusu, F., Takamura, K. 2002. New electrochemical detection method in high-performance liquid chromatography for determining free fatty acids. Anal. Chim. Acta. 465, 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laakso, P. 2002. Mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 104, 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lu, C.Y., Wu, H.L., Chen, S.H., Kou, H.S., Wu, S.M. 2002. Simple and sensitive analysis of long-chain free fatty acids in milk by fluorogenic derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50, 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martín-Hernández, M.C., Alonso, L., Juárez, M., Fontecha, J. 1988. Gas chromatographic method for determining free fatty acids in cheese. Chromatographia 25, 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maurich, V., Zacchigna, M., Pitotti, A. 1991. p-Nitrophenyllaurate: a substrate for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of lipase activity. J. Chrom. 566, 453–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McNeill, G.P., Connolly, J.F. 1989. A method for the quantification of individual free fatty acids in cheese: Application to ripening of Cheddar-type cheeses. Irish J. Food Sci. Technol. 13, 119–128.Google Scholar
  46. McNeill, G.P., O’Donoghue, A., Connolly, J.F. 1986. Quantification and identification of flavour components leading to lipolytic rancidity in stored butter. Irish J. Food Sci. Technol. 10, 110.Google Scholar
  47. McSweeney, P.L.H, Sousa, M.J. 2000. Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: A review. Lait 80, 293–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nájera, A.I., Perea, S., Barcina, Y., de Renobles, M., Barron, L.J.R. 1999. A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing complex mixtures of triglycerides. Application to the fat fraction of an aged cheese. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76, 399–407.Google Scholar
  49. Needs, E.C., Ford, G.D., Owen, A.J., Tuckley, B., Anderson, M. 1983. A method for the quantitative determination of individual free fatty acids in milk by ion exchange resin adsorption and gas-liquid chromatography. J. Dairy Res. 50, 321–329.Google Scholar
  50. Nikolova-Damyanova, B. 1999. Quantitative thin-layer chromatography of triacylglycerols. Principles and application. J. Liquid Chrom. Related Techniques 22, 1513–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nieuwenhof, F.F. J., Hup, G. 1971. Gas chromatographic determination of free fatty acids in cheese. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 25, 175–182.Google Scholar
  52. Parliament, T.H., Kolor, M.G., Rizzo, D.J. 1982. Volatile components of Limburger cheese. J. Agr. Food Chem. 30, 1006–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parliament, T.H., McGorrin, R.J. 2000. Critical flavor compounds in dairy products. In, Flavor Chemistry: Industrial and Academic Research. (S.J. Risch, C-T. Ho, eds.), pp. 44–92, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 756, Amercian Chemical Society Books, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. Parodi, P.W. 1970. Fatty acid composition of Australian butter and milk fats. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 25, 200–205.Google Scholar
  55. Patel, M.T., Nagarajan, R., Kilara, A. 1996. Hydrolysis of milk fat by lipase in solvent-free phospholipid reverse micellar media. J. Food Sci. 61, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Poveda, J.M., Perez-Coello, M.S., Cabezas, L. 1999. Evolution of the free fatty acid fraction of Manchego cheese during ripening. Milchwissenschaft 54, 685–687.Google Scholar
  57. Reineccius, G. 2002. Instrumental methods of analysis. In, Food Flavour Technology. (A.J. Taylor, ed.), pp. 210–251, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.Google Scholar
  58. Reed, A.W., Deeth, H.C., Clegg, D.E. 1984. Liquid chromatographic method for quantitative determination of free fatty acids in butter. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 67, 718–721.Google Scholar
  59. Rood, D. 1999a. Injectors. In, A Practical Guide to the Care, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting of Capillary Gas Chromatographic Systems, 3rd edn. (D. Rood, ed.), pp. 102–155, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  60. Rood, D. 1999b. Detectors. In, A Practical Guide to the Care, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting of Capillary Gas Chromatographic Systems, 3rd edn (D. Rood, ed.), pp. 156–211, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  61. Sanches-Silva, A., Rodríquez-Bernaldo de Quirós, A., López-Hernández, J., Paseiro-Losada, P. 2004. Comparison between high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methods for fatty acid identification and quantification in potato crisps. J. Chromatogr. A. 1032, 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Singh, T.K, Drake, M.A., Cadwallader, K.R. 2003. Flavor of Cheddar cheese: A chemical and sensory prespective. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety. 2, 139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spangelo, A., Karijord, O., Svensen, A., Abrahamsen, R.K. 1986. Determination of individual free fatty acids in milk by strong anion-exchange resin and gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 69, 1787–1792.Google Scholar
  64. Stark, W., Urbach, G., Hamilton, J.S. 1976. Volatile compounds in butter oil. IV. Quantative estimation of free fatty acids and δ-lactones in butter oil by cold-finger molecular distillation. J. Dairy Res. 43, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tuomala, T., Kallio, H. 1996. Identification of free fatty acids and some other volatile flavour compounds from Swiss cheese using online supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 203, 236–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Veeraragavan, K. 1990. A simple and sensitive method for the estimation of microbial lipase activity. Anal. Biochem. 186, 301–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weiss, M.F., Martz, F.A., Lorenzen, C.L. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acid: historical context and implications. Professional Anim. Sci. 20(2), 127–135.Google Scholar
  68. Woo, A.H., Lindsay, R.C. 1982. Rapid method for quantitative analysis of individual free fatty acids in Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 65, 1102–1109.Google Scholar
  69. Woo, A.H., Lindsay, R.C. 1984. Concentrations of major free fatty acids and flavor development in Italian cheese varieties. J. Dairy Sci. 67, 960–968.Google Scholar
  70. Woo, A.H., Kollodge, S., Lindsay, R.C. 1984a. Modified techniques for improved gas chromatographic quantification of free fatty acids in dairy foods. J. Dairy Sci. 67, 1517–1520.Google Scholar
  71. Woo, A.H., Kollodge, S., Lindsay, R.C. 1984b. Quantification of major free fatty acids in several cheese varieties. J. Dairy Sci. 67, 874–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. N. Kilcawley
    • 1
  1. 1.Moorepark Food Research CentreTeagasc, Fermoy, Co.CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations