Nuts, oilseeds, and dried legumes
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Nuts are dry, one seeded fruit, which do not dehisce at maturity, and are usually enclosed by a rigid outer casing or shell. Most nuts grow on large shrubs or trees and are known as tree nuts. Tree nuts include almonds (Prunus amygdalus), hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), pistachios (Pistachia vera), Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), pecans (Carya illinoensis), coconuts (Cocos mucifera), and macadamia nuts (Macadamia ternifolia). Although not covered strictly by the botanical definition, walnuts (Juglans regia) are usually considered to be nuts. The only major nut not from trees is the peanut (Arachis hypogaea), known as “groundnut” in some countries. Botanically, the peanut is a legume, a member of the pea family, but it will be treated as a nut in this chapter. Illipe nuts (Shorea aptera and related species) contain 50–70% fat and are exported from Southeast Asia as a cocoa butter substitute.
KeywordsPeanut Butter Coconut Milk Cladosporium Cladosporioides Macrophomina Phaseolina Storage Fungus
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