- Carbon Cycle
- Dissolve Inorganic Carbon
- Southern Oscillation Index
- Carbon Isotope Discrimination
- Terrestrial Biosphere
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Andres, R.J., G. Marland, T. Boden, and S. Bischof. 2000. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751–1991 and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution. In The carbon cycle, ed. T.M.L. Wigley and D.S. Schimel, 53–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Andronova, N.G., and M.E. Schlesinger. 2000. Causes of global temperature changes during the 19th and 20th centuries. Geophysical Research Letters 27:2137–40.
Aubinet, M., A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, C. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Grunwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini, T. Vesala. 2000. Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology. Advances in Ecological Research 30:113–75.
Bacastow, R.B. 1976. Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the southern oscillation. Nature 261:116–18.
Battle, M., M.L. Bender, P.P. Tans, J.W.C. White, J.T. Ellis, T. Conway, and R.J. Rancey. 2000. Global carbon sinks and their variability inferred from atmospheric O2 and δ13C. Science 287:2467–70.
Canadell, J., H.A. Mooney, D. Baldocchi, J.A. Berry, J.R. Ehleringer, C.B. Field, S.T. Gower, D. Hollinger, J. Hunt, R. Jackson, S. Running, G. Shaver, S.E. Trumbore, R. Valentini, and B.Y. Bond. 2000. Carbon metabolism of the terrestrial biosphere: a multi-technique approach for improved understanding. Ecosystems 3:115–30.
Climate Prediction Center. [date] Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. Website: www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices.
Craig, H. 1957. Isotopic standards for carbon and oxygen and correction factors for massspectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 12:133–49.
Crowley, P.J. 2000. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289:270–77.
Ehleringer, J.R., A.E. Hall, and G.D. Farquhar, eds. 1993. Stable isotopes and plant carbon/water relations. San Diego: Academic Press.
Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.M. Barnola, and V.I. Morgan. 1996. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn. Journal Geophys. Research—Atmospheres 101(D2):4115–28.
Falkowski, P., R.J. Scholes, E. Boyle, J. Canadell, D. Canfield, J. Elser, N. Gruber, K. Hibbard, P. Hogberg, S. Linder, F.T. Mackenzie, B. Moore, T. Pedersen, Y. Rosenthal, S. Seitzinger, V. Smetacek, and W. Steffen. 2000. The global carbon cycle: A test of our knowledge of earth as a system. Science 290:291–96.
Farquhar, G.D., J.R. Ehleringer, and K.T. Hubick. 1989. Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annual Review Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology 40:503–37.
Fessenden, J.E., and J.R. Ehleringer. 2003. Temporal variation in ä13C of ecosystem respiration in the Pacific Northwest: Links to moisture stress. Oecologia 136:129–36.
Francey, R.J., P.P. Tans, C.E. Allison, I.G. Enting, J.W.C. White, and M. Trolier. 1995. Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982. Nature 373:326–30.
Free, M., and A. Robock. 1999. Global warming in the context of the Little Ice Age. Journal of Geophysical Research 104:19,057–19,070.
Heimann, M., and C.D. Keeling. 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 2. Model description and simulated tracer experiments. In Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and Western Americas, Geophysical Monograph 55, ed. D.H. Peterson, 237–75. Washington D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Heimann, M., C.D. Keeling, and C.J. Tucker. 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 3. Seasonal cycle and synoptic time scale variations. In Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophysical Monograph 55, ed. D.H. Peterson, 277–303. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C.A. Johnson. 2001. Climate change 2001, the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell. 1996. Climate change 1995, the science of climate change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Houghton, R.A. 1999. The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850–1990. Tellus 51B:298–313.
Hunt, E.R., S.C. Piper, R. Nemani, C.D. Keeling, R.D. Otto, and S.W. Running. 1996. Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an ecosystem process model and three-dimensional atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:431–56.
Jones, P.D. 1994. Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993. Journal of Climate 7:1794–1802.
Karl, D.M., and A.F. Michaels. 1996. Tropical studies in oceanography. Deep-Sea Research 43:127–28.
Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.F. Carter, S.C. Piper, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W.G. Mook, and H. Roeloffzen. 1989a. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data. In Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophysical Monograph, 55, ed. D.H. Peterson, 165–236. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Keeling C.D., S.C. Piper, R.B. Bacastor, M. Wahlen, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, and H.A. Meijer. 2001. Exchanges of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000. I. Global aspects. SIO Reference Series, No. 01–06. San Diego: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Keeling, C.D., S.C. Piper, and M. Heimann. 1989b. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 4. Mean annual gradients and interannual variations. In Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas, Geophysical Monograph, 55, ed. D.H. Peterson, 305–63. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whorf, M. Wahlen, and J. Van der Plicht. 1995. Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature 375:666–70.
Keeling, R.F., and S.R Shertz. 1992. Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon cycle. Nature 358:723–27.
Lloyd, J., and G.D. Farquhar. 1994. C-13 discrimination during CO2 assimilation by the terrestrial biosphere. Oecologia 99:201–15.
Meehl, G.A. 1987. The annual cycle and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian ocean regions. Monthly Weather Review 115:27–50.
Mook, W.G., and P.M. Grootes. 1973. The measuring procedure and corrections for the high-precision mass-spectrometric analysis of isotopic abundance ratios, especially referring to carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics 12:273–98.
Mook, W.G., M. Koopmans, A.F. Carter, and C.D. Keeling. 1983. Seasonal, latitudinal and secular variations in the abundance and isotopic ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide: 1. Results from land stations. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:10915–33.
Needler, G.T. 1992. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Oceanus 35:74–77.
Ometto, J.P.H.B., L.B. Flanagan, L.A. Martinelli, M.Z. Moreira, N. Higuchi, and J.R. Ehleringer. 2002. Carbon isotope discrimination in forest and pasture ecosystems of the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Global Biogechemical Cycles 16 (December):article 1109.
Pataki, D.E., J.R. Ehleringer, L.B. Flanagan, D. Yakir, D.R. Bowling, C.J. Still, N. Buchmann, J.O. Kaplan, and J.A. Berry. 2003. The application and interpretation of Keeling plots in terrestrial carbon cycle research. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 (March):article 1022.
Piper, S.C., C.D. Keeling, M. Heimann, and E.F. Stewart. 2001. Exchanges of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000. II. A three-dimensional tracer inversion model to deduce regional fluxes. In SIO Reference Series, no. 01–07. San Diego: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Quay, P.S., B. Tilbrook, C.S. Wong. 1992. Oceanic uptake of fossil fuel CO2: Carbon-13 evidence. Science 256:74–79.
Rasmusson, E.M., and J.M. Wallace. 1983. Meteorological aspects of the El Niño/southern oscillation. Science 222:1195–1202.
Santer, B.D. et al. 1996. Detection of climate change and attribution of causes. In Climate Change 1995, ed. J.T. Houghton et al., 407–11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Siegenthaler, U., and H. Oeschger, H. 1987. Biospheric CO2 sources emissions during the past 200 years reconstructed by deconvolution of ice core data. Tellus 39B:140–54.
Slingo, J.M., and H. Annamalai. 2000. 1997: The El Niño of the century and the response of the Indian summer monsoon. Monthly Weather Review 12:1178–97.
Still, C.J., J.A. Berry, G.J. Collatz, and R.S. DeFries. 2003. Global distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation: Carbon cycle implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(January): article 1006.
Wigley, T.M.L., and D.S. Schimel. 2000. The carbon cycle. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Keeling, C.D. et al. (2005). Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 Exchange with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000: Observations and Carbon Cycle Implications. In: Baldwin, I., et al. A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Ecological Studies, vol 177. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-27048-5_5
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-0-387-22069-7
Online ISBN: 978-0-387-27048-7