Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ÅAberg, A., Mitelman, F., Cantz, M. and Gehler, J.: Cardiac puncture of fetus with Hurler’s disease avoiding abortion of unaffected co-twin. Lancet 2:990–991, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. Abraham, J.M.: Intrauterine feto-fetal transfusion syndrome: clinical observations and speculations on pathogenesis. Clin. Pediatr. 6:405–410, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Abuhamad, A.Z., Mari, G., Copel, J.A., Cantwell, C.J. and Evans, A.T.: Umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms in monoamniotic twins with cord entanglement. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:674–677, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achiron, R., Rosen, N. and Zakut, H.: Pathophysiologic mechanism of hydramnios development in twin transfusion syndrome. J. Reprod. Med. 32:305–308, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adam, C., Allen, A.C. and Baskett, T.F.: Twin delivery: Influence of the presentation and method of delivery on the second twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165:23–27, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. Adams, K.M. and Nelson, J.L.: Microchimerism: an investigative frontier in autoimmunity and transplantation. JAMA 291:1127–1131, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aherne, W., Strong, S.J. and Corney, G.: The structure of the placenta in the twin transfusion syndrome. Biol. Neonat. 12:121–135, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahlfeld, F.: Beiträge zur Lehre von den Zwillingen. VI. Die Entstehung der Acardiaci. Arch. Gynäkol. 14:321–360, 1879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad, Q.N., Britten, E.J. and Byth, D.E.: Haploid soybeans a rare occurrence in twin seedlings. J. Hered. 68:67, 1977.Google Scholar
  10. Ahram, J.A., Toaff, M.E., Chandra, P., Laffey, P. and Chawla, H.S.: Successful outcome of a twin gestation in both horns of a bicornuate uterus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150:323–324, 1984.Google Scholar
  11. Akande, V. and Murphy, D.J.: Neurological sequelae in in-vitro fertilization babies. Lancet 360:718–719, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Akesson, H.O., Smith, G.F. and Thrybom, B.R.: Twinning and associated stillbirth in Sweden, 1871–1960. Hereditas 64:193–198, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Albert, A., Randall, R.V., Smith, R.A. and Johnson, C.E.: The urinary excretion of gonadotrophin as a function of age. In, Hormones and the Ageing rocess. E.T. Engle and G. Pincus, eds., Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 49–62. 1956.Google Scholar
  14. Albrecht, J.L. and Tomich, P.G.: The maternal and neonatal outcome of triplet gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174:1551–1556, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alderman, B.: Foetus acardius amorphus. Postgrad. Med. J. 49:102–105, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Alexander, J.M., Ramus, R., Cox, S.M. and Gilstrap, L.C.: Outcome of twin gestations with a single anomalous fetus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:849–852, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Al-Kouatly, H.B., Chasen, S.T., Kalish, R.B. and Chervenak, F.A.: Causes of thrombocytopenia in triplet gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 189:177–180, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Allan, W.C., Dransfield, D.A. and Kessler, D.L.: Cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Lancet 343:1048, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Allen, G.: A differential method for estimation of type frequencies in triplets and quadruplets. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 12:210–224, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Allen, G.: Twin research: Problems and prospects. Prog. Med. Genet. 4:242–269, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Allen, G.: Diagnostic efficiency of fingerprint and blood group differences in a series of twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 17:359–374, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Allen, G.: The non-decline in U.S. twin birth rates, 1964–1983. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:313–323, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Allen, G. and Hrubec, Z.: Twin concordance: a more general model. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 28:3–13, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Allen, G. and Hrubec, Z.: The monozygotic twinning rate: Is it really constant? Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:389–396, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Allen, M.S. and Turner, U.G.: Twin birth—identical or fraternal twins? Obstet. Gynecol. 37:538–542, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Allen, W.R. and Pashen, R.L.: Production of monozygotic (identical) horse twins by embryo micromanipulation. J. Reprod. Fertil. 71:607–613, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Al-Takroni, A.M., Medis, K.B.L., Reddy, I. and Agrawal, S.: Indomethacin for treatment of fetofetal transfusion syndrome. Ann. Saudi. Med. 15:284–285, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Altshuler, G. and Hyde, S.: Placental Pathology Case Book: a bidiscoid, monochorionic placenta. J. Perinatol. 13:492–493, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Amatuzio, J.C. and Gorlin, R.J.: Conjoined acardiac monsters. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 105:253–255, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Anderson, J.M. and Benirschke, K.: Fetal circulations in the placenta of Dasypus novemcinctus Linn. and their significance in tissue transplantation. Transplantation 1:306–310, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Anderson, R.L., Golbus, M.S., Curry, C.J.R., Callen, P.W. and Hastrup, W.H.: Central nervous system damage and other anomalies in surviving fetus following second trimester antenatal death of co-twin: report of four cases and literature review. Prenat. Diagn. 10:513–518, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Andrews, W.W., Leveno, K.J., Sherman, M.L., Mutz, J., Gilstrap, L.C. and Whalley, P.J.: Elective hospitalization in the management of twin pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 77:826–831, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Annas, G.J.: Conjoined twins—the limits of law at the limits of life. NEJM 344:1104–1108, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Anonymous: Quintuplet births. AMA News. Nov. 25:3, 1963a.Google Scholar
  35. Anonymous: Twin pregnancy. Lancet 2:79–80, 1963b.Google Scholar
  36. Anonymous: Mexico City octuplets succumb within 13 hours. Med. World News, March 31, 1967.Google Scholar
  37. Anonymous: Quintuplets. Br. Med. J. 1:534, 1968.Google Scholar
  38. Antoine, C., Young, B.K., Silverman, F., Greco, M.A. and Alvarez, S.P.: Sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern with vasa previa in twin pregnancy. J. Reprod. Med. 27:295–300, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Aquino, D.B., Timmons, C., Burns, D. and Lowichik, A.: Craniopagus parasiticus: a case illustrating its relationship to craniopagus conjoined twinning. Pediat. Pathol. Lab. Med. 17:939–944, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Arabin, B., Bos, R., Rijlaarsdam, R., Mohnhaupt, A. and van Eyck, J.: The onset of inter-human contacts: longitudinal ultrasound observations in early twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 8:166–173, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Arai, K., Soma, H. and Hokano, M.: Ultrastructure of human placental villi in abortion, premature birth and stillbirth. J. Clin. Electron Microsc. 10:5–6, 1977.Google Scholar
  42. Arey, L.B.: Chorionic fusion and augmented twinning in the human tube. Anat. Rec. 23:253–262, 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Arey, L.B.: Two embryologically important specimens of tubal twins. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 36:407–415, 1923a.Google Scholar
  44. Arey, L.B.: Tubal twins and tubal pregnancy. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 36:803–810, 1923b.Google Scholar
  45. Arias, F.: Delayed delivery of multifetal pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes in the second trimester. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170:1233–1237, 1994.Google Scholar
  46. Arias, F., Sunderji, S., Gimpelson, R. and Colton, E.: Treatment of acardiac twinning. Obstet. Gynecol. 91:818–821, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Arnold, C., McLean, F.H., Kramer, M.S. and Usher, R.H.: Respiratory distress syndrome in second-born versus first-born twins: a matched case-control analysis. NEJM 317:1121–1125, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Arts, N.F.T. and Lohman, A.H.M.: The vascular anatomy of monochorionic diamniotic twin placentas and the transfusion syndrome. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 3:85–93, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ash, K., Harman, C.R. and Gritter, H.: TRAP sequence-successful outcome with indomethacin treatment. Obstet. Gynecol. 76:960–962, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Atlay, R.D. and Pennington, G.W.: The use of clomiphene citrate and pituitary gonadotropin in successive pregnancies: the Sheffield quadruplets. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:402–407, 1971.Google Scholar
  51. Aubert, L.: Développement aigu d’un kyste de l’ovaire et grossesse quintuple chez une femme ayant reçu successivement des gonadotrophines sériques et chorioniques. Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) 21:176–182, 1960.Google Scholar
  52. Averback, P. and Wigglesworth, F.W.: Monochorionic, monoamniotic, double-battledore placenta with stillbirth and postpartum cerebellar syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 128:697–699, 1977.Google Scholar
  53. Averback, P. and Wigglesworth, F.W.: Congenital absence of the heart: observation of human funiculopagous twinning with insertio funiculi furcata, fusion, forking, and interpositio velamentosa. Teratology 17:143–150, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Azuma, C., Kamiura, S., Nobunaga, T., Negoro, T., Saji, F. and Tanizawa, O.: Zygosity determination of multiple pregnancy by deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:734–736, 1989.Google Scholar
  55. Babson, S.G. and Phillips, D.S.: Growth and development of twins dissimilar in size at birth. N. Engl. J. Med. 289:937–940, 1973. (see also the editorial: pp. 973–974 by J.B. Hardy).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Baergen, R.N., Boué, D.R. and Mannino, F.: Liveborn twin of an Extramembranous pregnancy. J. Perinatol. 15:510–513, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bajoria, R.: Abundant vascular anastomoses in monoamniotic vs. diamniotic monochorionic placentas. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179:788–793, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bajoria, R., Wigglesworth, J. and Fisk, N.M. Angioarchitecture of monochorionic placentas in relation to the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:856–863, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Bajoria, R., Hancock, M., Ward, S., D’Souza, S.W. and Sooranna, S.R.: Discordant amino acid profiles in monochorionic twins with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediatr. Res. 48:821–828, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Bajoria, R., Ward, S. and Chatterjee, R.: Natriuretic peptides in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction in the recipient fetus of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186:121–127, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Bajoria, R., Ward, S. and Chatterjee, R.: Brain natriuretic peptide and endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of polyhydramnios-oligohydramnios in monochorionic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 189:189–194, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Baker, V.V. and Doering, M.C.: Fetus papyraceus: an unreported congenital anomaly of the surviving infant. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143:234, 1982.Google Scholar
  63. Baldwin, V.J.: Pathology of Multiple Pregnancy. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  64. Baldwin, V.J. and Wittmann, B.K.: Pathology of intragestational intervention in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediatr. Pathol. 10:79–93, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Banchi, M.T.: Triplet pregnancy with second trimester abortion and delivery of twins at 35 weeks’ gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 63:728–730, 1984.Google Scholar
  66. Banek, C.S., Hecher, K., Hackeloer, B.J. and Bartmann, P.: Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after intrauterine laser treatment for severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 188:876–880, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Banfield, F., Dick, M., Behrendt, D.M., Rosenthal, A., Pescheria, A. and Scott, W.: Intracardial teratoma: a new and treatable cause of hydrops fetalis. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 134:1174–1175, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Bankole, M.A., Oduntan, S.A., Oluwasanmi, J.O., Itayemi, S.O. and Khwaja, S.: The conjoined twins of Warri, Ibadan. Arch. Surg. 104:294–301, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Bannykh, S.I., Bannykh, G.L., Mannino, F.L., Jones, K.L., Hansen, L., Benirschke, K. and Masliah, E.: Partial caudal duplication in a newborn associated with meningomyelocele and complex heart anomaly. Teratology 63:94–99, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Barr, M.: Twin growth profiles and identification of twin-twin transfusion in midgestation. In, Proceedings Greenwood Genetics Center, R.A. Saul and M.C. Phelan, eds. 15:151–152, 1996.Google Scholar
  71. Barrea, C., Alkazaleh, F., Ryan, G., McCrindle, B.W., Roberts, A., Bigras, J.-L., Barrett, J., Seaward, G.P., Smallhorn, J.F. and Hornberger, L.K.: Prenatal cardiovascular manifestations in the twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome recipients and the impact of therapeutic amnioreduction. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 192:892–902, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Barss, V.A.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy. In, Abstracts of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, Las Vegas, February 1988. [Cited with the author’s permission.]Google Scholar
  73. Barss, V.A., Benacerraf, B.R. and Frigoletto, F.D.: Ultrasonographic determination of chorion type in twin gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:779–783, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Barth, P.G. and Harten, J.J. van der: Parabiotic twin syndrome with topical isocortical disruption and gastroschisis. Acta Neuropathol. (Basel) 67:345–349, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Baschat, A.A., Muench, M.V., Mighty, H.E. and Harman, C.R.: Successful intrauterine management of severe feto-fetal transfusion in a monochorionic triplet pregnancy using bipolar umbilical cord coagulation. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. 18:397–400, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Basrur, P.K., Kosaka, S. and Kanagawa, H.: Blood cell chimerism and freemartinism in heterosexual bovine quadruplets. J. Hered. 61:15–18, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Bass, H.N., Oliver, J.B., Srinivasan, M., Petrucha, R., Ng, W. and Lee, J.O.S.: Persistently elevated AFP and AChE in amniotic fluid from a normal fetus following demise of its twin. Prenat. Diagn. 6:33–35, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Bauer, W.C. and Rosenberg, B.F.: Quantitative study of glomerular enlargement in children with tetralogy of Fallot: condition of glomerular enlargement without increase in renal mass. Amer. J. Pathol. 37:695–772, 1960.Google Scholar
  79. Bebbington, M.W. and Wittmann, B.K.: Fetal transfusion syndrome: antenatal factors predicting outcome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:913–915, 1989.Google Scholar
  80. Becker, A.H. and Glass, H.: The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 106:624–629, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Becker, A., Busjahn, A., Faulhaber, H.D., Bähring, S., Robertson, J., Schuster, H. and Luft, F.C.: Twin zygosity. Automated determination with microsatellites. J. Prod. Med. 42:260–266, 1997.Google Scholar
  82. Behr, B., Fisch, J.D., Racowsky, C., Miller, K., Pool, T.B. and Milki, A.A.: Blastocyst-ET and monozygotic twinning. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 17:349–351, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Beischer, N.A. and Fortune, D.W.: Double monsters. Obstet. Gynecol. 32:158–170, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Bejar, R., Vigliocco, G., Gramajo, H., Solana, C., Benirschke, K., Berry, C., Coen, R. and Resnik, R.: Antenatal origin of neurologic damage in newborn infants. Part II. Multiple gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162:1230–1236, 1990.Google Scholar
  85. Belfort, M.A., Moise, K.J., Kirshon, B. and Saade, G.: The use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography to diagnose umbilical cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168:601–604, 1993.Google Scholar
  86. Bell, D., Johansson, D., McLean, F.H. and Usher, R.H.: Birth asphyxia, trauma, and mortality in twins: has cesarean section improved outcome? Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154:235–239, 1986.Google Scholar
  87. Bender, H.G. and Brandt, G.: Morphologie und Morphometrie der Fünflings-Placenta. Arch. Gynäkol. 216:61–72, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Bendon, R.W.: Twin transfusion syndrome: Pathological studies of the monochorionic placenta in liveborn twins and of the perinatal autopsy in monochorionic twin pairs. Pediat. Pathol. Lab. Med. 15:363–376, 1995.Google Scholar
  89. Bendon, R.W. and Siddiqi, T.: Clinical pathological conference: acute twin-to-twin in utero transfusion. Pediatr. Pathol. 9:591–598, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Benelli, A.: Gravidanza trigemina con trasformazione papiracea di un feto. Clin. Ostetr. Gynecol. (Roma) 64:663–670, 1962.Google Scholar
  91. Benirschke, K.: Placental membranes in twins. Obstet. Gynecol. Survey 13:88–91, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Benirschke, K.: Nuclear sex of holoacardii amorphi. Obstet. Gynecol. 14:72–78, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Benirschke, K.: Twin placenta in perinatal mortality. N.Y. State J. Med. 61:1499–1508, 1961.Google Scholar
  94. Benirschke, K.: Discordance for genetic defects in monozygous twins: a pathogenetic concept. Acta Facult. Med. Zagreb. [Suppl.1] 18:15–24, 1970a.Google Scholar
  95. Benirschke, K.: Spontaneous chimerism in mammals: a critical review. Curr. Top. Pathol. 51:1–61, 1970b.Google Scholar
  96. Benirschke, K.: Chimerism, mosaicism and hybrids. In: Human Genetics, Proceedings Fourth International Congress Human Genetics, Paris, pp. 212–231, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1971.Google Scholar
  97. Benirschke, K.: The contribution of placental anastomoses to prenatal twin damage. Human Pathol. 23:1319–1320, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Benirschke, K.: Intrauterine death of a twin: Mechanisms, implications for surviving twin, and placental pathology. In, Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, W.B. Saunders, Co. 10:222–231, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Benirschke, K. and Driscoll, S.G.: The Pathology of the Human Placenta. Springer-Verlag, New York 1967.Google Scholar
  100. Benirschke, K. and Harper, V.D.R.: The acardiac anomaly. Teratology 15:311–316, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Benirschke, K. and Kim, C.K.: Multiple pregnancy. NEJM 288:1276–1284, 1329–1336, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Benirschke, K. and Layton, W.: An early twin blastocyst of the golden lion marmoset, Leontocebus rosalia L. Folia Primatol. 10:131–138, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Benirschke, K. and Masliah, E.: The placenta in multiple pregnancy: outstanding issues. Reprod. Fertil. 13:615–622, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Benirschke, K., Anderson, J.M. and Brownhill, L.E.: Marrow chimerism in marmosets. Science 138:513–515, 1962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Berbos, J.N., King, B.F. and Janusz, A.: Quintuple pregnancy: report of a case. JAMA 188:813–816, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Berg, C., Baschat, A.A., Geipel, A., Germer, U., Smrcek, J., Krapp, M. and Gembruch, U.: First trimester twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in a trichorionic quadruplet pregnancy—a diagnostic challenge. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 17:357–361, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Berg, J.M. and Kirman, B.H.: The mentally defective twin. Br. Med. J. 1:1911–1917, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Berg, K.A., Astemborski, J.A., Boughman, J.A. and Ferencz, C.: Congenital cardiovascular malformations in twins and triplets from a population-based study. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 143:1461–1463, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Bergman, P., Lundin, P. and Malmstrom, T.: Twin pregnancy with early blighted fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 18:348–351, 1961.Google Scholar
  110. Berkowitz, R.L., Lynch, L., Chitkara, U., Wilkins, I.A., Mehalek, K.E. and Alvarez, E.: Selective reduction of multifetal pregnancies in the first trimester. NEJM 318:1043–1047, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Berkowitz, R.L., Lynch, L., Lapinski, R. and Bergh, P.: Firsttrimester transabdominal multifetal pregnancy reduction: A report of two hundred completed cases. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:17–21, 1993.Google Scholar
  112. Berkowitz, R.L., Lynch, L., Stone, J. and Alvarez, M.: The current status of multifetal pregnancy reduction. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174:1265–1272, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Bermúdez, C., Becerra, C.H., Bornick, P.W., Allen, M.H., Arroyo, J. and Quintero, R.A.: Placental types and twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187:489–494, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Berry, D., Montgomery, L., Johnson, A., Saade, G. and Moise, K.: Amniotic septostomy for the treatment of the stuck twin sequence. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176:S19 (abstract 44), 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Berry, S.A., Johnson, D.E. and Thompson, T.R.: Agenesis of the penis, scrotal raphe, and anus in one of monoamniotic twins. Teratology 29:173–176, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Berry, S.M., Puder, K.S., Bottoms, S.F., Uckele, J.E., Romero, R. and Cotton, S.B.: Comparison of intrauterine hematologic and biochemical values between twin pairs with and without stuck twin syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:1403–1410, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Bertillon, M.: Des combinaisons de sexe dans les grossesses gémellaires (doubles ou triples), de leur cause et de leur caractère ethnique. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. 9:267–290, 1874.Google Scholar
  118. Bhargava, I., Chakravarty, A. and Raja, P.T.K.: An anatomical study of the fetal blood vessels on the chorial surface of the human placenta. III. Multiple pregnancies. Acta Anat. (Basel) 80:465–479, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Bhatnagar, K.P., Sharma, S.C. and Bisker, J.: The holoacardius: a correlative computerized tomographic, radiologic, and ultrasonographic investigation of a new case with review of literature. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 35:77–89, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Bhettay, E., Nelson, M.M. and Beighton, P.: Epidemic of conjoined twins in Southern Africa? Lancet 2:741–743, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Bieber, F.R., Nance, W.E., Morton, C.C., Brown, J.A., Redwine, F.O., Jordan, R.L. and Mohanakumar, T.: Genetic studies of an acardiac monster: evidence of polar body twinning in man. Science 213:775–777, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Bleisch, V.R.: Diagnosis of monochorionic twin placentation. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 42:277–284, 1964.Google Scholar
  123. Bleisch, V.R.: Placental circulation of human twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 91:862–869, 1965.Google Scholar
  124. Bleker, O.P. and Oosting, J.: Term and postterm twin gestations. Placental cause of perinatal mortality. J. Reprod. Med. 42:715–718, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Bleker, O.P., Breur, W. and Huidekoper, B.L.: A study of birth weight, placental weight and mortality of twins as compared to singletons. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 86:111–118, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Bleker, O.P., Oosting, J. and Hemrika, D.J.: On the cause of the retardation of fetal growth in multiple gestations. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 37:41–46, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Bleker, O.P., Wolf, H. and Oosting, J.: The placental cause of fetal growth retardation in twin gestations. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 44:103–106, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Blickstein, I.: The twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Review. Obstet. Gynecol. 76:714–722, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Blickstein, I.: Letter to the editor. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190:383–384, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Blickstein, I.: Estimation of iatrogenic monozygotic twinning rate following assisted reproduction: Pitfalls and caveats. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 192:365–368, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Blickstein, I., Verhoeven, H.C. and Keith, L.G.: Zygotic splitting after assisted reproduction. NEJM 340:738–739, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Blickstein, I., Jacques, D.L. and Keith, L.G.: A novel approach to intertriplet birth weight discordance. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 188:1026–1030, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Boklage, C.E.: On the timing of monozygotic twinning events. In, Twin Research 3. Part A: Twin Biology and Multiple Pregnancy. L. Gedda, P. Parisi and W.E. Nance, eds., pp. 155–165. Alan R. Liss, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  134. Boklage, G.E.: Race, zygosity, and mortality among twins: interaction of myth and method. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:275–288, 1987a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Boklage, C.E.: Twinning, nonrighthandedness, and fusion malformations: evidence for heritable causal elements held in common. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 28:67–84, 1987b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Bolaji, I.I., Mortimer, G., Meehan, F.P., England, S. and Greally, M.: Acardius in a triplet pregnancy: Cytogenetic and morphological profile. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 41:27–32, 1992. (Errata 41:365, 1992.)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Bolens, M., Lacourt, G. and Mottu, T.H.E.: Un nouveau cas de transfusion interfoetale: surcharge ventriculaire droite et hypocoagulabilité chez la jumelle pléthorique; atteinte neurologique chez la jumelle anémique. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 98:412–417, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Boulgakow, B.: Arrest of development of an embryo: a case of acephalus holoacardius showing arrest of development of all tissues in embryonic period. J. Anat. Physiol. 61:68–93, 1926.Google Scholar
  139. Boulot, P., Hedon, B., Deschamps, F., Laffargue, F., Viala, J.L., Humeau, C. and Arnal, F.: Anencephaly-like malformation in surviving twin after embryonic reduction. Lancet 335:1155–1156, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Boulot, P., Hedon, B., Pelliccia, G., Lefort, G., Deschamps, F., Arnal, F., Humeau, C., Laffargue, F. and Viala, J.L.: Multifetal pregnancy reduction: a consecutive series of 61 cases. Brit. J. Obstetr. Gynaecol. 100:63–68, 1993.Google Scholar
  141. Bowman, J.M.: Alloimmunization in twin pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153:7–13, 1985.Google Scholar
  142. Boyd, J.D. and Hamilton, W.J.: The Human Placenta. W. Heffer & Sons, Cambridge, 1970.Google Scholar
  143. Bracken, M.J.: Oral contraception and twinning: an epidemiologic study. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 133:432–434, 1979.Google Scholar
  144. Bressers, W.M.A., Eriksson, A.W., Konstense, P.J. and Parisi, P.: Increasing trend in the monozygotic twinning rate. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:397–408, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Brismar, B.: Dermatoglyphics of twins: a study based on a new systematics. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 17:375–380, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Bromley, B., Frigoletto, F.D., Estroff, J.A. and Benacerraf, B.R.: The natural history of oligohydramnios/polyhydramnios sequence in monochorionic diamniotic twins. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 2:317–320, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Brown, C.E.L. and Weinreb, J.C.: Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of growth retardation in a twin pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:987–988, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Brown, D.C. and Nelson, R.F.: Uterus didelphys and double vagina with delivery of a normal infant from each uterus. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 96:675–677, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Brown, D.L., Benson, C.B., Driscoll, S.G. and Doubilet, P.M.: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: sonographic findings. Radiology 170:61–63, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Bruner, J.P. and Rosemond, R.L.: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a subset of the twin oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios sequence. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:925–930, 1993.Google Scholar
  151. Bruner, J., Anderson, T. and Rosemond, R.: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: the real problem is poor placentation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:311 (abstract 183), 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Bryan, E. and Slavin, B.: Serum IgG levels in feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. Arch. Dis. Child. 49:908–910, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Buckler, J.M.H. and Robinson, A.: Matched development of a pair of monozygous twins of grossly different size at birth. Arch. Dis. Child. 49:472–76, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Bulla, M., von Lilien, T., Goecke, H., Roth, B., Ortmann, M. and Heising, J.: Renal and cerebral necrosis in survivor after in utero death of co-twin. Arch. Gynecol. 240:119–124, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Bulmer, M.G.: The familial incidence of twinning. Ann. Hum. Genet. 24:1–3, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Bulmer, M.G.: The Biology of Twinning in Man. Oxford University Press, London, 1970.Google Scholar
  157. Burn, J., Povey, S., Boyd, Y., Munro, E.A., West, L., Harper, K. and Thomas, D.: Duchenne muscular dystrophy in one of monozygotic twin girls. J. Med. Genet. 23:494–500, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Busjahn, A., Knoblauch, H., Faulhaber, H.-D., Aydin, A., Uhlmann, R., Tuomilehto, J., Kaprio, J., Jedrusik, P., Januszewicz, A., Strelau, J., Schuster, H., Luft, F.C. and Müller-Myshok, B.: A region on chromosome 3 is linked to dizygotic twinning. Nature Genet. 26:398–399, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Buxbaum, H. and Wachsman, D.V.: A case of acephalus holoacardius. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 36:1055–1057, 1938.Google Scholar
  160. Buzzard, I.M., Uchida, I.A., Norton, J.A. and Christian, J.C.: Birth weight and placental proximity in like-sexed twins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 35:318–323, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Cameron, A.H.: The Birmingham twin survey. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 61:229–234, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Camiel, M.R.: Fetus papyraceus with intrauterine sibling death. JAMA 202:247, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Campbell, D.M., MacGillivray, I. and Thompson, B.: Twin zygosity and pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2:97, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Campbell, S. and Dewhurst, C.J.: Quintuplet pregnancy diagnosed and assessed by ultrasonic compound scanning. Lancet 1:101–103, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Cannings, C.: A discussion of Weinberg’s rule on the zygosity of twins. Ann. Hum. Genet. 32:403–405, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Cantú, J.M., Diaz-Gallardo, M.Y., Barros-Núñez, P. and Figuera, L.E.: Heteroallelic monozygotic twins and triplets. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 77:166–167, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Cardwell, M.S., Caple, P. and Baker, L.C.: Triplet pregnancy on three separate days. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:448–449, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Carlson, N.J. and Towers, C.V.: Multiple gestation complicated by the death of one fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:685–689, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Carr, S.R., Aronson, M.P. and Coustan, D.R.: Survival rates of monoamniotic twins do not decrease after 30 weeks’ gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163:719–722, 1990.Google Scholar
  170. Carter, C.O.: Congenital defects. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 61:991–995, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Castilla, E.E., Lopez-Camelo, J.S., Orioli, I.M., Sanchez, O. and Paz, J.E.: The epidemiology of conjoined twins in Latin America. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 37:111–118, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Cederlöf, R., Friberg, L., Jonsson, E. and Kaij, L.: Studies on similarity diagnosis in twins with the aid of mailed questionnaires. Acta Genet. (Basel) 11:338–362, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Centerwall, W.R. and Benirschke, K.: An animal model for the XXY Klinefelter syndrome in man: tortoiseshell and calico male cats. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 36:1275–1280, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Chapman, K.: Monoamniotic twins. Lancet 2:1456, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Chasen, S.T., Al-Kouatly, H.B., Ballabh, P., Skupski, D.W. and Chervenak, F.A.: Outcomes of dichorionic triplet pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186:765–767, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Chauhan, S.P., Shields, D., Parker, D., Sanderson, M., Scardo, J. A. and Magann, E.F.: Detecting fetal growth restriction or discordant growth in twin gestations stratified by placental chorionicity. J. Reprod. Med. 49:279–284, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Chaurasia, B.D.: Abnormal umbilical vessels and systemic circulatory reversal in thoracopagus twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 24:261–268, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Cherouny, P.H., Hoskins, I.A., Johnson, T.R.B. and Niebyl, J.R.: Multiple pregnancy with late death of one fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 74:318–320, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Chervenak, F.A., Isaacson, G., Touloukian, R., Tortora, M., Berkowitz, R.L. and Hobbins, J.C.: Diagnosis and management of fetal teratomas. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:666–671, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Chescheir, N.C. and Seeds, J.W.: Polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios in twin gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:882–884, 1988a.Google Scholar
  181. Chescheir, N.C. and Seeds, J.W.: Spontaneous resolution of hypofibrinogenemia associated with death of a twin in utero: a case report. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:1183–1184, 1988b.Google Scholar
  182. Chitkara, U., Berkowitz, R.L., Wilkins, I.A., Lynch, L., Mehalek, K.E. and Alvarez, M.: Selective second-trimester termination of the anomalous fetus in twin pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:690–694, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Chmait, R. and Hull, A.: Placental Pathology Casebook. J. Perinatol. 21:150–152, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Chu, W., Chapman, J., Persons, D.L. and Fan, F.: Twin pregnancy with partial hydatidiform mole and coexisting fetus. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 128:1305–1306, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Chupin, D., Huy, N.N., Azan, M., Mauléon, P. and Ortavant, R.: Induction hormonale de naissance gémellaires: principales conséquences sur les performances zootechniques. Ann. Zootech. 25:79–94, 1976.Google Scholar
  186. Cincotta, R.B., Gray, P.H., Phythian, G., Rogers, Y.M. and Chan, F.Y.: Long term outcome of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 83:F171–176, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Clark, M. and Linell, E.A.: Case report: prenatal occlusion of the internal carotid artery. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 17:295–297, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Claudius, M.: Die Entwicklung der Herzlosen Migeburten. Schwers, Kiel, 1859.Google Scholar
  189. Cleary-Goldman, J., Morgan, M.A., Robinson, J.N., d’Alton, M.E. and Schulkin, J.: Multiple pregnancy: knowledge and practice patterns of obstetricians and gynecologists. Obstet. Gynecol. 104:232–237, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Coen, R.W. and Sutherland, J.M.: Placental vascular communications between twin fetuses. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 120:332, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Cohen, M., Kohl, S.G. and Rosenthal, A.H.: Fetal interlocking complicating twin gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 91:407–412, 1965.Google Scholar
  192. Coke, G.A., Baschat, A.A., Mighty, H.E. and Malinow, A.M.: Maternal cardiac arrest associated with attempted fetal injection of potassium chloride. Int. J. Obstet. Anesth. 13:287–290, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Colburn, D.W. and Pasquale, S.A.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy. J. Reprod. Med. 27:165–168, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Cole, L.J. and Craft, W.A.: An acephalic lamb monster in sheep. J. Hered. 36:29–32, 1945.Google Scholar
  195. Colgan, T.J. and Luk, S.C.: Umbilical-cord torsion, thrombosis, and intrauterine death of a twin fetus. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 106:101, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Collins, M.S. and Bleyl, J.A.: Seventy-one quadruplet pregnancies: management and outcome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162:1384–1392, 1990.Google Scholar
  197. Collins, R.N., Lerner, A.B. and McGuire, J.S.: The relationship of skin color to zygosity in twins. J. Invest. Dermatol. 47:78–82, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Conway, C.F.: Transfusion syndrome in multiple pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:745–751, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Cooperstock, M.S., Tummaru, R., Bakewell, J. and Schramm, W.: Twin birth weight discordance and risk of preterm birth. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 183:63–67, 2000.Google Scholar
  200. Cordero, L. and Johnson, J.R.: Mean arterial pressure in extremely low birth weight concordant and discordant twins during the first day of life. J. Perinatol. 22:526–534, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Cordero, L., Giannone, P.J. and Rich, J.T.: Mean arterial pressure in very low birth weight (801 to 1500 g) concordant and discordant twins during the first day of life. J. Perinatol. 23:545–551, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Coren, S.: Twinning is associated with an increased risk of lefthandedness and inverted writing hand posture. Early Hum. Devel. 40:23–27, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Corey, L.A., Harris, R.E., Kang, K.W., Christian, J.C. and Nance, W.E.: Variability of total cholesterol in monochorionic and dichorionic MZ twins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 27:28A, 1975.Google Scholar
  204. Corey, M.J., Miller, J.R., MacLean, R. and Chown, B.: A case of XX/XY mosaicism. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 19:378–387, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Corner, G.W.: The observed embryology of human single-ovum twins and other multiple births. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 70:933–951, 1955.Google Scholar
  206. Corney, G. and Aherne, W.: The placental transfusion syndrome in monozygous twins. Arch. Dis. Child. 40:264–270, 1965.Google Scholar
  207. Corney, G., Robson, E.B. and Strong, S.J.: Twin zygosity and placentation. Ann. Hum. Genet. 32:89–96, 1968.Google Scholar
  208. Corrin, B.: Glomerular size in polycythemia. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 82:534–535, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Costa, T., Lambert, M., Teshima, I., Ray, P.N., Richer, C.L. and Dallaire, L.: Monozygotic twins with 45X,46,XY mosaicism discordant for phenotypic sex. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 75:40–44, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Coulam, C.B.: First trimester diagnosis of acardiac twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:729, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Coulton, D., Hertig, A.T. and Long, W.N.: Monoamniotic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 54:119–123, 1947.Google Scholar
  212. Cousins, L., Benirschke, K., Porreco, R. and Resnik, R.: Placentomegaly due to fetal congestive failure in a pregnancy with a sacrococcygeal teratoma. J. Reprod. Med. 25:142–144, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Cox, W.L., Forestier, F., Capella-Pavlovsky, M. and Daffos, F.: Fetal blood sampling in twin pregnancies: prenatal diagnosis and management of 19 cases. Fetal Ther. 2:101–108, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Cragan, J.D., Martin, L., Waters, G.D. and Khoury, M.J.: Increased risk of small intestinal atresia among twins in the United States. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 148:733–739, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Craig, I.T.: Monoamniotic twins with double survival. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:202–205, 1957.Google Scholar
  216. Crombleholme, T.M., Robertson, F., Marx, G., Yarnell, R. and D’Alton, M.E.: Fetoscopic cord ligation to prevent neurologic injury in monozygous twins. Lancet 348:191, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Crookston, M.C., Tilley, C.A. and Crookston, J.H.: Human blood chimaera with seeming breakdown of immune tolerance. Lancet 2:1110–1112, 1970. (1:396, 1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Crossman, P.J. and Dickens, P.S.E.M.: Amorphus globosus in the mare. Vet. Rec. 95:22, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Crowther, C.A., Neilson, J.P., Verkuyl, D.A.A., Bannerman, C. and Ashurst, H.M.: Preterm labour in twin pregnancies: can it be prevented by hospital admission? Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 96:850–853, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Cruikshank, S.H. and Granados, J.L.: Increased amniotic acetylcholinesterase activity with a fetus papyraceus and aplasia cutis congenita. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:997–999, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Curtius, F.: Nachgeburtsbefunde bei Zwillingen und Ähnlichkeitsdiagnose. Arch. Gynäkol. 140:361–366, 1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Dahm, K.: Über zwei Beobachtungen von Akardie und zur Frage ihrer Genese. Zentralbl. Allg. Pathol. Pathol. Anat. 93:41–50, 1955.Google Scholar
  223. Dallapiccola, B., Stomeo, C., Ferranti, G., Di Lecci, A. and Purpura, M.: Discordant sex in one of three monozygotic triplets. J. Med. Genet. 22:6–11, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. D’Alton, M.E. and Dudley, D.K.: The ultrasonographic prediction of chorionicity in twin gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:557–561, 1989.Google Scholar
  225. D’Alton, M.E. and Simpson, L.L.: Syndromes in twins. Seminars in Perinatol. 19:375–386, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Daniel, Y., Schreiber, Y., Geva, E., Amit, A., Pausner, D., Kupferminc, M.J. and Lessing, J.B.: Do placentae of term singleton pregnancies obtained by assisted reproductive technologies differ from those of spontaneously conceived pregnancies? Human Reprod. 14:1107–1110, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Daniel, Y., Ochshorn, Y., Fait, G., Geva, E., Bar-Am, A. and Lessing, J.B.: Analysis of 104 twin pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technologies and 193 spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies. Fertil. Steril. 74:683–689, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Daniel, Y., Schreiber, L., Geva, E., Lessing, J.B., Bar-Am, A. and Amit, A.: Morphologic and histopathologic characteristics of placentas from twin pregnancies spontaneously conceived and from reduced and nonreduced assisted reproductive technologies. J. Reprod. Med. 46:735–742, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Danskin, F.H. and Neilson, J.P.: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: what are appropriate diagnostic criteria? Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:365–369, 1989.Google Scholar
  230. Davies, J., Chazen, E. and Nance, W.E.: Symmelia in one of monozygotic twins. Teratology 4:367–378, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Davies, M. and Norman, R.: Neurological sequelae in in-vitro fertilization babies. Lancet 360:718–719, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Daw, E.: Human placental lactogen and twin pregnancy. Lancet 2:299–300, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Dawkins, R.R., Marshall, T.L. and Rogers, M.S.: Prenatal gangrene in association with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:1055–1057, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Dawson, W.M. and Ainslie, W.H.: Twin pregnancy in a uterus didelphys: a case report. J. Med. Soc. N.J. 55:649, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Deacon, J.S., Machin, G.A., Martin, J.M.E., Nicholson, S., Nwanko, D.C. and Wintemute, R.: Investigation of acephalus. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 5:85–99, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. DeBaun, M.R., Niemitz, E.L. and Feinberg, A.P.: Association of in vitro fertilization with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and epigenetic alterations of LIT1 and H19. Amer. J. Human. Genet. 72:156–160, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. De la Chapelle, A., Schröder, J., Rantanen, P., Thomasson, B., Niemi, M., Tilikainen, A., Sanger, R. and Robson, E.B.: Early fusion of two human embryos? Ann. Hum. Genet. 38:63–75, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. De Leon, F.: Siamesische Zwillinge mit differenten Herzmimildungen. Virchows Arch. [A] 362:51–57, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. De Lia, J.E.: Surgery of the placenta and umbilical cord. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 39:607–625, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. De Lia, J.E. and Cruikshank, D.P.: Fetoscopic laser occlusion of chorioangiopagus in severe twin transfusion syndrome. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 38:218, 1989 (abstract).Google Scholar
  241. De Lia, J.E. and Worthington, D.: Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after intrauterine laser treatment for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Amer. J.. Obstetr. Gynecol. 190:1170–1172, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. De Lia, J.E., Emery, M.G., Sheafor, S.A. and Jennison, T.A.: Twin transfusion syndrome: successful in utero treatment with digoxin. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 23:197–201, 1985a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. De Lia, J.E., Rogers, J.G. and Dixon, J.A.: Treatment of placental vasculature with a neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser via fetoscopy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 151:1126–1127, 1985b.Google Scholar
  244. De Lia, J.E., Cukierski, M.A., Lundergan, D.K. and Kochenour, N.K.: Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser occlusion of rhesus placental vasculature via fetoscopy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:485–489, 1989.Google Scholar
  245. De Lia, J.E., Cruikshank, D.P. and Keye, W.R.: Fetoscopic neodymium: Yag laser occlusion of placental vessels in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:1046–1953, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. De Lia, J.E., Kuhlmann, R.S., Cruikshank, D.P. and O’Bee, L.R.: Current topic: placental surgery: a new frontier. Placenta 14:477–485, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. De Lia, J.E., Kuhlmann, R.S., Harstad, T.W. and Cruikshank, D.P.: Fetoscopic laser ablation of placental vessels in severe previable twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:1202–1211, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. De Lia, J.E., Kuhlmann, R.S. and Emery, M.G.: Maternal metabolic abnormalities in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome at mid-pregnancy. Twin Res. 3:113–117, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Delprado, W.J. and Baird, P.J.: Cephalothoracopagus syncephalus: a case report with previously unreported anatomical abnormalities and chromosomal analysis. Teratology 29:1–9, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. De Marco, P.G.: Feto-fetal transfusions in monozygotic twins: review of the literature and report of two cases. Clin. Pediatr. 3:709–713, 1964.Google Scholar
  251. Demmel, U.: Clinical aspects of congenital skin defects. Eur. J. Pediatr. 121:21–50, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Denbow, M.L., Blomley, M.J.K., Cosgrove, D.O. and Fisk, N.M.: Ultrasound microbubble contrast angiography in monochorionic twin fetuses. Lancet 349:773, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Denbow, M.L., Battin, M.R., Cowan, F., Azzopardi, D., Edwards, A.D. and Fisk, N.M.: Neonatal cranial ultrasonographic findings in preterm twins complicated by severe fetofetal transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 178:479–483, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Denbow, M.L., Cox, P., Taylor, M., Hammal, D.M. and Fisk, N. M.: Placental angioarchitecture in monochorionic twin pregnancies: relationship to fetal growth, fetofetal transfusion syndrome, and pregnancy outcome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 182:417–426, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Denbow, M.L., Taylor, M. and Fisk, N.M.: Derivation of rate of arterio-arterial anastomotic transfusion between monochorionic twin fetuses by Doppler waveform analysis. Placenta 25:664–670, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Dennis, L.G. and Winkler, C.L.: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: aggressive therapeutic amniocentesis. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:342–349, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Dennis, S.M. and Leipold, H.W.: Congenital cardiac defects in lambs. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 29:2337–2340, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. De Paepe, M.E., Stopa, E., Huang, C., Hansen, K. and Luks, F.I.: Renal tubular apoptosis in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediatr. Developm. Pathol. 6:215–225, 2003.Google Scholar
  259. De Paepe, M.E., Friedman, R.M., Poch, M., Hansen, K., Carr, S.R. and Luks, F.I.: Placental findings after laser ablation of communicating vessels in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediatr. Devel. Pathol. 7:159–165, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Derom, C., Bakker, E., Vlietninck, R., Derom, R., van den Berghe, H., Thiery, M. and Pearson, P.: Zygosity determination in newborn twins using DNA variants. J. Med. Genet. 22:279–282, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Derom, R., van den Berghe, H. and Thiery, M.: Increased monozygotic twinning rate after ovulation induction. Lancet 1:1236–1238, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Derom, R., van den Berghe, H. and Thiery, M.: Population-based study of sex proportion in monoamniotic twins. NEJM 319:119–120, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Derom, R., Boklage, C., Thiery, M. and van den Berghe, H.: Genotyping of macerated stillborn fetuses. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164:797–800, 1991.Google Scholar
  264. Dhont, M., Thiery, M. and Vandekerckhove, D.: Hormonal screening for detection of twin pregnancies. Lancet 2:861, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Diamond, J.M.: Variation in human testis size: ethnic differences. Nature 320:488–489, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Dicker, D., Peleg, D., Samuel, N., Feldberg, D. and Goldman, J.A.: Holoacardius: radiologic investigation. Early Hum. Devel. 9:59–65, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Dickey, R.P., Taylor, S.N., Lu, P.Y., Sartor, B.M., Storment, J.M., Rye, P.H., Pelletier, W.D., Zender, J.L. and Matulich, E.M.: Spontaneous reduction of multiple pregnancy: incidence and effect on outcome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186:77–83, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Dickinson, J.E.: Severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome: current management concepts. Aust. N.Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 35:1–16, 1995.Google Scholar
  269. Diddle, A.W. and Burford, T.H.: Study of set of quadruplets. Anat. Rec. 61:281–293, 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Diehl, W., Hecher, K., Zikulnig, L., Vetter, M. and Hackelöer, B.-J.: Placental vascular anastomoses visualized during fetoscopic laser surgery in severe mid-trimester twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Placenta: 22:876–881, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Dijk, B.A. van, Boomsma, D.I. and de Man, A.J.M.: Blood group chimerism in human multiple births is not rare. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61:264–268, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Dimmick, J.E., Hardwick, D.F. and Ho-Yuen, B.: A case of renal necrosis, and fibrosis in the immediate newborn period: association with the twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 122:345–347, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Dixon, A.F.: Human oocyte showing first polar body, and second polar body in metaphase. C. R. Assoc. Anat. 22:265–266, 1927.Google Scholar
  274. Donald, J.G.: Unusual twin pregnancy. Br. Med. J. ii:1330, 1964.Google Scholar
  275. Donnenfeld, A.E., Dunn, L.K. and Rose, N.C.: Discordant amniotic band sequence in monozygotic twins. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 20:685–694, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Donnenfeld, A.E., Glazerman, L.R., Cutillo, D.M., Librizzi, R.J. and Weiner, S.: Fetal exsanguination following intrauterine angiographic assessment and selective termination of a hydrocephalic, monozygotic co-twin. Prenat. Diagn. 9:301–308, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Dorros, G.: The prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation in one fetus of a twin gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 48:46s–48s, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Dreger, A.D.: One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2004.Google Scholar
  279. Driesch, H.: Entwicklungs-mechanische Studien. I. Der Werth der beiden ersten Furchungszellen in der Echinodermentwicklung: experimentelle Erzeugung von Theil-und Doppelbildungen. Z. Wiss. Zool. 53:160–184, 1891.Google Scholar
  280. Driggers, R.W., Blakemore, K.J., Bird, C., Ackerman, K.E. and Hutchins, G.M.: Pathogenesis of acardiac twinning: clues from an almost acardiac twin. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 17:185–187, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Drucker, P., Finkel, J. and Savel, L.E.: Sixty-five-day interval between the births of twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 80:761–762, 1960.Google Scholar
  282. Drut, R., Garcia, C. and Drut, R.M.: Poorly organized parasitic conjoined twins: Report of four cases. Pediatr. Pathol. 12:691–700, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Dubé, J., Dodds, L. and Armson, B.A.: Does chorionicity or zygosity predict adverse perinatal outcomes in twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186:579–583, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Dudley, D.K.L. and D’Alton, M.E.: Single fetal death in twin gestation. Semin. Perinatol. 10:65–72, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Duenhoelter, J.H.: Survival of twins after acute fetal hemorrhage from ruptured vasa previa. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:866–867, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Duffy, D.L., Montgomery, G.W., Hall, J., Mayne, C., Healey, S.C., Brown, J., Boomsma, D.I. and Martin, N.G.: Human twinning is not linked to the region of chromosome 4 syntenic with sheep twinning gene FecB. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 100:182–186, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Dunn, H.O. and Roberts, S.J.: Chromosome studies of an ovine acephalic-acardiac monster. Cornell Vet. 62:425–431, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Dunn, H.O., Lein, H. and Kenney, R.M.: The cytological sex of a bovine anidian (amorphous) twin monster. Cytogenetics 6:412–419, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Dunnihoo, D.R. and Harris, R.E.: The diagnosis of monoamniotic twinning by amniography. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96:894–895, 1966.Google Scholar
  290. Dunsford, I., Bowley, C.C., Hutchison, A.M., Thompson, J.S., Sanger, R. and Race, R.R.: A human blood group chimera. Br. Med. J. 2:81, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Durkin, M.V., Kaveggia, E.G., Pendleton, E., Neuhaeser, G. and Opitz, J.M.: Analysis of etiologic factors in cerebral palsy with severe mental retardation. I. Analysis of gestational, parturitional and neonatal data. Eur. J. Pediatr. 123:67–81, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Eastman, N.J., Kohl, S.G., Maisel, J.E. and Kavaler, F.: The obstetrical background of 753 cases of cerebral palsy. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 17:459–500, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Eberle, A.M., Levesque, D., Vintzileos, A.M., Tsapanos, V. and Salafia, C.M.: Placental pathology in discordant twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:931–935, 1993.Google Scholar
  294. Eddleman, K.A., Stone, J.L., Lynch, L. and Berkowitz, R.L.: Selective termination of anomalous fetuses in multifetal pregnancies: two hundred cases at a single center. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187:1168–1172, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Editorial: Eggs shared, given, and sold. Lancet 362:413, 2003.Google Scholar
  296. Edmonds, L.D. and Layde, P.M.: Conjoined twins in the United States. Teratology 25:301–308, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Edwards, J.: Season and rate of conception. Nature 142:357, 1938.Google Scholar
  298. Edwards, R.G., Mettler, L.E. and Walters, D.E.: Identical twins and in vitro fertilization. J. In Vitro Fertil. Embryo Transfer 3:114–117, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Einerh, Y. and Jacobsson, K.: Screening for early detection of twin pregnancies. Lancet 1:745, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Ellings, J.M., Newman, R.B., Hulsey, T.C., Bivins, H.A. and Keenan, A.: Reduction in very low birth weight deliveries and perinatal mortality in a specialized, multidisciplinary twin clinic. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:387–391.Google Scholar
  301. Elliott, J.P.: Amniocentesis for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Contemporary Ob/Gyn 30–42, August 1992.Google Scholar
  302. Elliott, J.P. and Radin, T.G.: Quadruplet pregnancy: contemporary management and outcome. Obstet. Gynecol. 80:421–424, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Elliott, J.P., Urig, M.A. and Clewell, W.H.: Aggressive therapeutic amniocentesis for treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 77:537–540, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Ellis, P.A.: Renal enlargement in chronic cor pulmonale. J. Clin. Pathol. 14:552–556, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. El-Sherbini, R.: Retention of an 8-month foetus in utero for two and a half years. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 70:514–516, 1963.Google Scholar
  306. Elston, R.C. and Boklage, C.E.: An examination of fundamental assumptions of the twin method. In, Twin Research: Psychology and Methodology, W.E. Nance, ed., pp. 189–199, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  307. Elwood, J.M.: Decline in dizygotic twinning. NEJM 289:486, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Elwood, J.M.: Maternal and environmental factors affecting twin births in Canadian cities. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 85:351–358, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Elwood, J.M.: The end of the drop in twinning rates? Lancet 1:470, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Emery, S.C., Vaux, K.K., Pretorius, D., Masliah, E. and Benirschke, K.: Acardiac twin with externalized intestine adherent to placenta: unusual manifestation of omphalocele. Pediat. Developm. Pathol. 7:81–85, 2004.Google Scholar
  311. Enbom, J.A.: Twin pregnancy with intrauterine death of one twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 152:424–429, 1985.Google Scholar
  312. Englert, Y., Imbert, M.C., van Rosendael, E., Belaisch, J., Segal, L., Feichtinger, W., Wilkin, P., Frydman, R. and Leroy, F.: Morphological anomalies in the placentae of IVF pregnancies: preliminary report of a multicentric study. Hum. Reprod. 2:155–157, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Entezami, M., Runkel, S., Sarioglu, N., Hese, S. and Weitzel, H.K.: Diagnostic dilemma with elevated level of α-fetoprotein in an undiagnosed twin pregnancy with a small discordant holoacardius acephalus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:466–468, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Erdmann, J., Nöthen, M.M., Stratmann, M., Fimmers, R., Franzek, E. and Propping, P.: The use of microsatellites in zygosity diagnosis of twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 42:45–51, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Eriksson, A.: Variations in the human twinning rate. Acta Genet. (Basel) 12:242–250, 1962.Google Scholar
  316. Eriksson, A.W.: Pituitary gonadotrophin and dizygotic twinning. Lancet 2:1298–1299, 1964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Esposito, A.: Singolare caso digravidanza trigemina con due feti mummeficati. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. (Roma) 75:537–544, 1963.Google Scholar
  318. Evans, M.I., Fletcher, J.C., Zador, I.E., Newton, B.W., Quigg, M.H. and Struyk, C.D.: Selective first-trimester termination in octuplet and quadruplet pregnancies: clinical and ethical issues. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:289–296, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Evans, M.I., Dommergues, M., Timor-Tritsch, I., Zador, I.E., Wapner, R.J., Lynch, L., Dumez, Y., Goldberg, J.D., Nicolaides, K.H., Johnson, M.P., Golbus, M.S., Boulot, P., Aknin, A.J., Monteagudo, A. and Berkovitz, R.L.: Transabdominal versus transcervical and transvaginal multifetal pregnancy reduction: international collaborative experience of more than one thousand cases. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170:902–909, 1994.Google Scholar
  320. Evans, M.I., Littmann, L., Louis, L.St., LeBlanc, L., Addis, J., Johnson, M.P. and Moghissi, K.S.: Evolving patterns of iatrogenic multifetal pregnancy generation: implications for aggressiveness of infertility treatments. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:1750–1755, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Exelby, P.R.: Sacrococcygeal teratomas in children. CA 22:202–208, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Falkner, F.: The smaller of twins and hypoglycaemia. Lancet 1:869, 1965.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Farquharson, D.F., Wittmann, B.K., Hansmann, M., Yuen, B. H.Y., Baldwin, V.J. and Lindahl, S.: Management of quintuplet pregnancy by selective embryocide. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:413–416, 1988.Google Scholar
  324. Farrell, A.G.W.: Twin pregnancy: a study of 1,000 cases. S. Afr. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2:35–41, 1964.Google Scholar
  325. Feichtinger, W., Breitenecker, G. and Fröhlich, H.: Prolongation of pregnancy and survival of twin B after loss of twin A at 21 weeks’ gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:891–893, 1989.Google Scholar
  326. Feige, A., Gille, J., v. Maillot, K. and Mulz, D.L.: Pränatale Diagnostik eines Steibbeinteratoms mit Hypertrophie der Plazenta. Geburtsh. Frauenheilk. 42:20–24, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Feingold, M., Cetrulo, C.L., Newton, E.R., Weiss, J., Shakr, C. and Shmoys, S.: Serial amniocenteses in the treatment of twin to twin transfusion complicated with acute hydramnios. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 35:107–113, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Feldman, D.M., Odibo, A., Campbell, W.A. and Rodis, J.F.: Iatrogenic monoamniotic twins as a complication of therapeutic amniocentesis. Obstet. Gynecol. 91:815–816, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Feldman, D.M., Borgida, A.F., Trymbulak, W.P., Barsoom, M.J., Sanders, M.M. and Rodis, J.F.: Clinical implications of velamentous cord insertion in triplet gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186:809–811, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Ferguson, W.F.: Perinatal mortality in multiple gestations: a review of perinatal deaths from 1609 multiple gestations. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:861–870, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Ferm, V.H.: Conjoined twinning in mammalian teratology. Arch. Environ. Health 19:353–357, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Ferm, V.H.: Cranio-dirachischisis totalis in cephalothoracopagus twins. Teratology 17:159–164, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Fernandez, M.: Beiträge zur Embryologie der Gürteltiere. I. Zur Keimblätterinversion und spezifischen Polyembryonie der Mulita (Tatusia hybrida Desm.) Morphol. Jahrb. 39:302–333, 1909.Google Scholar
  334. Fesslova, V., Villa, L., Nava, S., Mosca, F. and Nicolini, U.: Fetal and neonatal echocardiographic findings in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179:1056–1062, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Finberg, H.J.: The “twin peak” sign: reliable evidence of dichorionic twinning. J. Ultrasound Med. 11:571–577, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Fisher, J.E. and Siongco, A.: Case 3: complications from in utero death of a monozygous co-twin. Pediatr. Pathol. 9:765–771, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Fisk, N.M. and Galea, P.: Twin-twin transfusion—as good as it gets? NEJM 351:182–184, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Fisk, N.M., Ware, M., Stanier, P., Moore, G. and Bennett, P.: Molecular genetic etiology of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174:891–894, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Fisk, N.M., Tan, T.Y.T. and Taylor, M.J.O.: Re: Stage-based treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol.190:1491–1492, 1810–1811, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Fogel, B.J., Nitowsky, H.M. and Gruenwald, P.: Discordant abnormalities in monozygotic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:64–72, 1965.Google Scholar
  341. Foley, M.R., Clewell, W.H., Finberg, H.J. and Mills, M.D.: Use of Foley cordostat grasping device for selective ligation of the umbilical cord of an acardiac twin: a case report. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:212–214, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Forbes, D.A. and Natale, A.: Unilateral tubal triplet pregnancy: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 31:360–362, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Forman, R.C.: Twin pregnancy with one twin blighted. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 72:1180–1181, 1956.Google Scholar
  344. Forssell, O.H.: Zur Kenntnis des Amnionepithels in normalem und pathologischem Zustande. Arch. Gynäkol. 96:436–460, 1912.Google Scholar
  345. Foschini, M.P., Gabrielli, L., Dorji, T., Kos, M., Lazzarotto, T., Lanari, M. and Landini, M.P.: Vascular anastomoses in dichorionic diamniotic-fused placentas. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. 22:359–361, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Foster, R.T. and Allen, S.R.: Differential transmission of parvovirus B19 in a twin gestation: a case report. Twin Res. 7:412–414, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Fowler, M.G., Kleinman, J.C., Kiely, J.L. and Kessel, S.S.: Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165:L15–22, 1991.Google Scholar
  348. Fox, H. and Butler-Manuel, R.: A teratoma of the placenta. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 88:137–140, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Franke, H. and Estel, C.: Untersuchungen über die Ultrastruktur und Permeabilität des Amnions unter besonderer Berücksichtigung mikrofilamentärer und mikrotubulärer Strukturen. Arch. Gynecol. 225:319–338, 1978.Google Scholar
  350. Fraser, F.C.: The genetics of cleft lip and cleft palate. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 22:336–352, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Fraser, R.B., Liston, R.M., Thompson, D.L. and Wright, J.R.: Monoamniotic twins delivered liveborn with a forked umbilical cord. Pediat. Pathol. Lab. Med. 17:639–644, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Freedman, H.L., Tafeen, C.H. and Harris, H.: Conjoined thoracopagous twins: case report. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 84:1904–1909, 1962.Google Scholar
  353. French, C.A., Bieber, F.R., Bing, D.H. and Genest, D.R.: Twins, placentas, and genetics: acardiac twinning in a dichorionic, diamniotic, monozygotic twin gestation. Human Pathol. 29:1028–1031, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Fries, M.H., Goldstein, R.B., Kilpatrick, S.J., Golbus, M.S., Callen, P.W. and Filly, R.A.: The role of velamentous cord insertion in the etiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:569–574, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Frothingham, R.: A medical mystery. NEJM 337:1666, 1997; 338:266–267, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Frutiger, P.: Zum Problem der Akardie. Acta Anat. (Basel) 74:505–531, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Fujii, S., Ban, C., Okamura, H. and Nishimura, T.: Unilateral tubal quadruplet pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141:840–842, 1981.Google Scholar
  358. Fujikura, T. and Froehlich, L.A.: Twin placentation and zygosity. Obstet. Gynecol. 37:34–43, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Fujikura, T. and Froehlich, L.A.: Mental and motor development in monozygotic co-twins with dissimilar birth weights. Pediatrics 53:884–889, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Fujikura, T. and Wellings, S.R.: A teratoma-like mass on the placenta of a malformed infant. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89:824–825, 1964.Google Scholar
  361. Fusi, L., McParland, P., Fisk, N., Nicolini, U. and Wigglesworth, J.: Acute twin-twin transfusion: a possible mechanism for brain-damaged survivors after intrauterine death of a monochorionic twin. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:517–520, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Gabos, P.: Triplet pregnancy and cervical incompetence: a case report. Fertil. Steril. 23:940–942, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Gärtner, K. and Baunack, E.: Is the similarity of monozygotic twins due to genetic factors alone? Nature 292:646–647, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Gall, S.A.: Multiple Pregnancy and Delivery. Mosby, St. Louis, 1996.Google Scholar
  365. Galloway, S.M., McNatty, K.P., Cambridge, L.M., Laitinen, M. P.E., Juengel, J.L., Jokiranta, S., McLaren, R.J., Luiro, K., Dodds, K.G., Montgomery, G.W., Beattie, A.E., Davis, G.H. and Ritvos, O.: Mutations in an oocyte-derived growth factor gene (BMP15) cause increased ovulation rate and infertility in a dosage-sensitive manner. Nature Genet. 25:279–283, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Galton, F.: The history of twins as a criterion of the relative powers of nature, and nurture. J. Br. Anthropol. Inst. 5:391–406, 1875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Gamberdella, F.R. and Marrs, R.P.: Heterotopic pregnancy associated with assisted reproductive technology. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:1520–1524, 1989.Google Scholar
  368. Gardeil, F., Greene, R., NiScanaill, S. and Skinner, J.: Conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 92:716, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Garry, D., Lysikiewicz, A., Mays, J., Canterino, J. and Tejani, N.: Intra-amniotic pressure reduction in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J. Perinatol. 18:284–286, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Gärtner, K. and Baunack, E.: Is the similarity of monozygotic twins due to genetic factors alone? Nature 292:646–647, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Gavriil, P., Jauniaux, E. and Leroy, F.: Pathologic examination of placentas from singleton and twin pregnancies obtained after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Pediatr. Pathol. 13:453–462, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Gaziano, E., Gaziano, C. and Brandt, D.: Doppler velocimetry determined redistribution of fetal blood flow: correlation with growth restriction in diamniotic monochorionic and dizygotic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 178:1359–1367, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Gaziano, E.P., De Lia, J.E. and Kuhlman, R.S.: Diamnionic monochorionic twin gestations: an overview. J. Maternal-Fetal Med. 9:89–96, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Gengozian, N.: Male and female cell populations in the chimeric marmoset. In, Medical Primatology, pp. 926–938, Karger, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  375. Gengozian, N., Brewen, J.G., Preston, R.J. and Batson, J.S.: Presumptive evidence for the absence of functional germ cell chimerism in the marmoset. J. Med. Primatol. 9:9–27, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Gennser, G., Grennert, L., Kullander, S., Persson, P.H. and Wingerup, L.: Human placental lactogen in screening for multiple pregnancies. Lancet 1:274, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Gergely, R.Z., Eden, R., Schifrin, B.S. and Wade, M.E.: Antenatal diagnosis of congenital sacral teratoma. J. Reprod. Med. 24:229–231, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Gewolb, I.H., Freedman, R.M., Kleinman, C.S. and Hobbins, J. C.: Prenatal diagnosis of a human pseudoacardiac anomaly. Obstet. Gynecol. 61:657–662, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Gibbs, C.E., Boldt, J.W., Daly, J.W. and Morgan, H.C.: A quintuplet gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 16:464–468, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Gicquel, C., Gaston, V., Mandelbaum, J., Siffroi, J.-P., Flahault, A. and Le Bouc, Y.: Amer. J. Human Genet. 72:1338–1341, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Gilbert, E.F., Suzuki, H., Kimmel, D.L., Klingberg, W.G. and Lancaster, J.R.: A case of thoracopagus: conjoined twins. Teratology 6:197–200, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Gilbert, W.M., Davis, S.E., Kaplan, C., Pretorius, D., Merritt, T. A. and Benirschke, K.: Morbidity associated with prenatal disruption of the dividing membrane in twin gestations. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:623–630, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Giles, W., Trudinger, B., Cook, C. and Connelly, A.: Placental microvascular changes in twin pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery waveforms. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:556–559, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Gillim, D.L. and Hendricks, C.H.: Holoacardius: review of the literature and case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 2:647–653, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Giménez-Scherer, J.A. & Davies, B.R.: Malformations in acardiac twins are consistent with reversed blood flow: liver as a clue to their pathogenesis. Pediatr. Devel. Pathol. 6:520–530, 2003.Google Scholar
  386. Ginsberg, N.A., Applebaum, M., Rabin, S.A., Caffarelli, M.A., Kuuspalu, M., Daskal, J.L., Verlinsky, Y., Strom, C.M. and Barton, J.J.: Term birth after midtrimester hysterotomy and selective delivery of an acardiac twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167:33–37, 1992.Google Scholar
  387. Gittes, R.F.: Carcinoma of the prostate. NEJM 324:236–245, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Gleicher, N., Oleske, D.M., Tur-Kaspa, I., Vidali, A. and Karande, V.: Reducing the risk of high-order multiple pregnancy after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. NEJM 343:2–7, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Glinianaia, S.V., Pharoah, P.O., Wright, C., Rankin, J.M., Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Survey Steering Group: Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 86:F9–15, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Gonen, R., Heyman, E., Asztalos, E. and Milligan, J.E.: The outcome of triplet gestations complicated by fetal death. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:175–178, 1990a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Gonen, R., Heyman, E., Asztalos, E., Ohlsson, A., Pitson, L.C., Shennan, A.T. and Milligan, J.E.: The outcome of triplet, quadruplet, and quintuplet pregnancies managed in a perinatal unit: Obstetric, neonatal, and follow-up data. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162:454–459, 1990b.Google Scholar
  392. Gonen, Y., Blankier, J. and Casper, R.F.: Transvaginal ultrasound in selective embryo reduction for multiple pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:720–721, 1990c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Gonsoulin, W., Copeland, K.L., Carpenter, R.J., Hughes, M.R. and Elder, F.B.: Fetal blood sampling demonstrating chimerism in monozygotic twins discordant for sex and tissue karyotype (46, XY and 45, X). Prenat. Diagn. 10:25–28, 1990a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Gonsoulin, W., Moise, K.J., Kirshon, B., Cotton, D.B., Wheeler, J.M. and Carpenter, R.J.: Outcome of twin-twin transfusion diagnosed before 28 weeks of gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:214–216, 1990b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Goodno, J.A. and Gentry, W.: Coexistent interstitial and intra-uterine pregnancy: a case report. JAMA 179:295–296, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Goodship,. J., Carter, J. and Burn, J.: X-inactivation patterns in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 22:205–208, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Goplerud, C.P.: Monoamniotic twins with double survival: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:289–290, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Gould, S.J.: Living with connections: are Siamese twins one person or two? Natural Hist. 91:18–22, 1982.Google Scholar
  399. Grafe, M.R.: Antenatal cerebral necrosis in monochorionic twins. Pediatr. Pathol. 13:15–19, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Green, J.J. and Hobbins, J.C.: Abdominal ultrasound examination of the first-trimester fetus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:165–175, 1988.Google Scholar
  401. Green, Q.L., Jackson, J. and Miller, A.: Monoamniotic twins: report of a case with surviving normal infants. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 79:1082–1084, 1960.Google Scholar
  402. Greig, P.C., Veille, J.-C., Morgan, T. and Henderson, L.: The effect of presentation and mode of delivery on neonatal outcome in the second twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167:901–906, 1992.Google Scholar
  403. Grennert, L., Persson, P.-H., Gennser, G. and Kullander, S.: Ultrasound and human-placental-lactogen screening for early detection of twin pregnancies. Lancet 1:4–6, 1976a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Grennert, L., Persson, P.-H., Gennser, G., Kullander, S. and Thorell, J.: Hormonal screening for twin pregnancies. Lancet 2:1257–1258, 1976b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Gringras, P.: Identical differences. Lancet 353:562, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Grischke, E.M., Boos, R., Schmidt W. and Bastert, G.: Twin pregnancies with fetofetal transfusion syndrome. Z. Geburtsh. Perinatol. 194:17–21, 1990.Google Scholar
  407. Gruenwald, P.: Early human twins with peculiar relations to each other and the chorion. Anat. Rec. 83:267–279, 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Gruenwald, P.: Environmental influences on twins apparent at birth: a preliminary study. Biol. Neonat. 15:79–93, 1970.Google Scholar
  409. Gul, A., Aslan, H., Polat, I., Cebeci, A., Bulut, H., Sahin, O. and Ceylan, Y.: Natural history of 11 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome without intervention. Twin Res. 6:263–266, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Guttmacher, A.F.: An analysis of 521 cases of twin pregnancy. I. Differences in single ovum and double ovum twinning. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 34:76–84, 1937.Google Scholar
  411. Guttmacher, A.F.: The incidence of multiple births in man and some of the other unipara. Obstet. Gynecol. 2:22–35, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Hagay, Z.J., Mazor, M. and Leiberman, J.R.: Multiple pregnancy complicated by a single intrauterine fetal death. Obstet. Gynecol. 66:837–838, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Hall, J.G.: Twinning: mechanisms and genetic implications. Current Opinion in Genet. Devel. 6:343–347, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Hallgrimsson, J.T.: Sacro-coccygeal teratoma with acute hydramnios. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 60:517–518, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Halpin, T.F.: Human chorionic gonadotropin titers in twin pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106:317–318, 1970.Google Scholar
  416. Hamamy, H.A., Ajlouni, H.K. and Ajlouni, K.M.: Familial monozygotic twinning: Report of an extended multigeneration family. Twin Res. 7:219–222, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Hamasaki, S., Shirabe, S., Tsuda, R., Yoshimura, T., Nakamura, T. and Eguchi, K.: Discordant Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease in monozygotic twins. Lancet 352:1358–1359, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Hamblen, E.C., Baker, R.D. and Derieux, G.D.: Roentgenographic diagnosis and anatomic studies of a quintuple pregnancy. JAMA 109:10–12, 1937.Google Scholar
  419. Hamilton, W.J., Brown, D. and Spiers, B.G.: Another case of quadruplets. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 66:409–412, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Hamlett, G.W.: Polyembryony in the armadillo: genetic or physiological? Q. Rev. Biol. 8:348–358, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Haning, R.V., Seifer, D.B., Wheeler, C.A., Frishman, G.N., Silver, H. and Pierce, D.J.: Effects of fetal number and multifetal reduction on length of in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 87:964–968, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Hanna, J.H. and Hill, J.M.: Single intrauterine fetal demise in multiple gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 63:126–130, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Hanson, J.W.: Incidence of conjoined twinning. Lancet 2:1257, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Hargitai, B., Porter, H., Cziniel, M., Sheriff, A., Edmond, A., Golding, J. and Berry, P.J.: Cerebral palsy and the vanishing twin phenomenon: a histopathologic study. Pediatr. Devel. Pathol. 6:193–192 (abstract), 2003.Google Scholar
  425. Harlap, S., Shahar, S. and Baras, M.: Overripe ova and twinning. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 37:1206–1215, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Harper, R.G., Kenigsberg, K., Sia, C.G., Horn, D., Stern, D. and Bongiovi, V.: Xiphopagus conjoined twins: a 300-year review of the obstetric, morphopathologic, neonatal, and surgical parameters. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 137:617–629, 1980.Google Scholar
  427. Harris, D.W.: Letter to the editor. J. Reprod. Med. 27:39, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Hartemann, J., Peters, A., Dellestable, P., Duprez, A. and Touati, E.: Les transfusions foeto-foetales lors des grossesses biovulaires existent-elles? Gynecol. Obstet. (Paris) 62:663–668, 1963.Google Scholar
  429. Hashimoto, B., Caallen, P.W., Filly, R.A. and Laros, R.K.: Ultrasound evaluation of polyhydramnios and twin pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154:1069–1072, 1986.Google Scholar
  430. Hawrylyshyn, P.A., Barkin, M., Bernstein, A. and Papsin, F.R.: Twin pregnancies-a continuing perinatal challenge. Obstet. Gynecol. 59:463–466, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Healey, M.G.: Acardia: predictive risk factors for the co-twin’s survival. Teratology 50:205–213, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Healey, S.C., Kirk, K.M., Hyland, V.J., Munns, C.F., Henders, A.K., Batch, J.A., Heath, A.C., Martin, N.G. and Glass, I.A.: Height discordance in monozygotic females is not attributable to discordant inactivation of X-linked stature determining genes. Twin Res. 4:19–24, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Hecher, K., Jauniaux, E., Campbell, S., Deane, C. and Nicolaides, K.: Artery-to-artery anastomosis in monochorionic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171:570–572, 1994a.Google Scholar
  434. Hecher, K., Ville, Y. and Nicolaides, K.: Umbilical artery steal syndrome and distal gangrene in a case of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:862–865, 1994b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Hein, P.R., van Groeninhen, J.C. and Puts, J.J.G.: A case of acardiac anomaly in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a complication of monozygotic monochorial twinning. J. Med. Primatol. 14:133–142, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Hendricks, C.H.: Twinning in relation to birth weight, mortality, and congenital anomalies. Obstet. Gynecol. 27:47–53, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Hernandez-Johnstone, B. and Benirschke, K.: Monozygotic twins discordant for urinary tract anomalies and presenting as hydramnios. Obstet. Gynecol. 47:610–615, 1976.Google Scholar
  438. Herrlin, K.-M., Hauge, M. and Eriksson, S.A.: Finger print patterns in an unselected series of triplets. Hum. Hered. 20:336–355, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Hertzberg, B.S., Kurtz, A.B., Choi, H.Y, Kaczmarczyl, J.M., Warren, W., Wapner, R.J., Needleman, R.J., Baltarowich, O.H., Pasto, M.E., Rifkin, M.D., Pennell, R.G. and Goldberg, B.B.: Significance of membrane thickness in the sonographic evaluation of twin gestations. A.J.R. 148:151–153, 1987.Google Scholar
  440. Herzog, A.: Korrelieren die pathologisch-anatomischen Befunde an den Geschlechtsorganen von Rinderzwicken mit den quantitativen Relationen des Gonosomenchimärismus [XX/XY] in Blutzellen? Zuchthygiene 4:156–159, 1969.Google Scholar
  441. Herzog, A. and Rieck, G.W.: Chromosomenanomalie bei einem Acardius (Amorphus globosus). Zuchthygiene 4:57–60, 1969.Google Scholar
  442. Heyborne, K.D. and Porreco, R.P.: Selective fetocide reverses preeclampsia in discordant twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191:477–480, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Heyborne, K.D., Porreco, R.P., Garite, T.J., Phair, K. and Abril, D.: Improved perinatal survival of monoamniotic twins with intensive inpatient monitoring. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 192:96–101, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Hill, A.V.S. and Jeffreys, A.J.: Use of minisatellite DNA probes for determination of twin zygosity at birth. Lancet 2:1394–1395, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Hill, L.M., Krohn, M., Lazebnik, N., Tush, B., Boyles, D. and Ursiny, J.J.: The amniotic fluid index in normal twin pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 182:950–954, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Ho, S.K. and Wu, P.Y.K.: Perinatal factors and neonatal morbidity in twin pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122:979–987, 1975.Google Scholar
  447. Hobbins, J.C.: Selective reduction-a perinatal necessity? N. Engl. J. Med. 318:1062–1063, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Hobbs, C.A., Cleves, M.A. and Simmons, C.J.: Genetic epidemiology and congenital malformations. From chromosomes to the crib. Arch Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 156:315–320, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Hoch, Z., Peretz, B.A., Brandes, J.M. and Peretz, A.: Intraamniotic hypertonic saline treatment in a case of dizygotic twin pregnancy. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 10:156–160, 1972.Google Scholar
  450. Höfliger, H.: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Akardier. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilk. 116:629–644, 1974. [Extensive review]Google Scholar
  451. Hohenauer, L.: Prenatal nutrition and subsequent development. Lancet 1:644–645, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Holzgreve, W., Tercanli, S., Krings, W. and Schuierer, G.: A simpler technique for umbilical-cord blockade of an acardiac twin. NEJM 331:56–57, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Honoré, L.H.: Twinning in postpill spontaneous abortions. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135:700–700, 1979.Google Scholar
  454. Hoogendoorn, D.: Daling van het aantal meerlinggeboorten. Nederl. Tijdschr. Geneesk. 117:805–807, 1973.Google Scholar
  455. Horger, E.O. and McCarter, L.M.: Prenatal diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 134:228–229, 1979.Google Scholar
  456. Hrubec, Z. and Robinette, C.D.: The study of human twins in medical research. NEJM 310:435–441, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Hsu, J. and Gonda, M.A.: Monozygotic twin formation in mouse embryos in vitro. Science 209:605–606, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Hughes, H.E. and Miskin, M.: Congenital microcephaly due to vascular disruption: in utero documentation. Pediatrics 78:85–87, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Hurst, R.W. and Abbitt, P.L.: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia: complications of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Neurol. Res. 10:S62–S63, 1989.Google Scholar
  460. Hyrtl, J.: Die Blutgefäbe der Menschlichen Nachgeburt in normalen und abnormen Verhältnissen. Braumüller, Vienna, 1870.Google Scholar
  461. Imaizumi, Y.: Concordance and discordance of congenital hydrocephalus in 107 twin pairs in Japan. Teratology 40:1010–103, 1989a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Imaizumi, Y.: Stillbirth rate and weight at birth of quintuplets in Japan. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 38:65–69, 1989b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Imaizumi, Y.: A comparative study of twinning and triplet rates in 17 countries, 1972–1996. Acta Genet. Med. Gemell. 47:101–114, 1998.Google Scholar
  464. Imaizumi, Y. and Inouye, E.: Analysis of multiple birth rates in Japan. III. Secular trend, maternal age effect and geographical variation in triplet rates. Jpn. J. Hum. Genet. 25:73–81, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Ingalls, T.H.: Conjoined twins in zebra fish. Arch. Environ. Health 19:344–352, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Inouye, E.: Frequency of multiple birth in three cities of Japan. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 9:317–320, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Isaacs, H. Jr.: Tumors of the Fetus and Infant. An Atlas. Springer-Verlag, N.Y., 2002.Google Scholar
  468. Ishiguro, T.: Alpha-fetoprotein in twin pregnancy. Lancet 2:1214, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Ishii, K., Chmait, R.H., Martinez, J.M., Nakata, M. and Quintero, R.A.: Ultrasound assessment of venous blood flow before and after laser therapy: approach to understanding the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound Obstetr. Gynecol. 24:164–168, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Islam, A.B.M., Hill, W.G. and Land, R.B.: Ovulation rates in lines of mice selected for testis weight. Genet. Res. 27:23–32, 1976.Google Scholar
  471. Israelstam, D.M.: Mono-amniotic twin pregnancy: a case report. S. Afr. Med. J. (Suppl. S. Afr. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.) 47:2026–2027, 1973.Google Scholar
  472. Itoh, H., Kambe, S., Maeba, Y. and Hirai, T.: A case of duplicitas lateralis superior. Congen. Anom. (Jpn.) 14:1–11, 1974.Google Scholar
  473. Itskovitz, J., Boldes, R., Thaler, I., Bronstein, M., Erlik, Y. and Brandes, J.M.: Transvaginal ultrasonography-guided aspiration of gestational sacs for selective abortion in multiple pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:215–217, 1989.Google Scholar
  474. Itzkowic, D.: A survey of 59 triplet pregnancies. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 86:23–28, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Jackson, J. and Benirschke, K.: The recognition and significance of the vanishing twin. J. Amer. Board Fam. Pract. 2:58–63, 1989.Google Scholar
  476. Jain, J.K., Boostanfar, R., Slater, C.C., Francis, M.M. and Paulson, R.J.: Monozygotic twins and triplets in association with blastocyst transfer. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 21:103–107, 2004b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Jain, T., Missmer, S.A. and Hornstein, M.D.: Trends in embryotransfer practice and in outcomes of the use of assisted reproductive technology in the United States. NEJM 350:1639–1945, 2004a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Jamal, A.A.: Placental teratoma: a case report and review of the literature. Ann. Saudi Med. 19:359–361, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. James, W.H.: Excess of like sexed pairs of dizygotic twins. Nature 232:277–278, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. James, W.H.: Decline in dizygotic twinning (cont.) NEJM 289:1204–1205, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. James, W.H.: The declines in dizygotic twinning rates and in birth rates. Ann. Hum. Biol. 2:81–84, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. James, W.H.: Twinning and anencephaly. Ann. Hum. Biol. 3:401–409, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. James, W.H.: The sex ratio of monoamniotic twin pairs. Ann. Hum. Biol. 4:143–153, 1977a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. James, W.H.: A note on the epidemiology of acardiac monsters. Teratology 16:211–216, 1977b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. James, W.H.: Sex ratio and placentation of twins. Ann. Hum. Biol. 7:273–276, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. James, W.H.: Twinning rates. Lancet 1:934–935, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. James, W.H.: Zygosity and Weinberg’s rule. J. Reprod. Med. 13:197–199, 1984.Google Scholar
  488. James, W.H., Bracken, M.B. and Honore, L.H.: Letters to the editor on: twinning rates and the “pill.” Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135:699–701, 1979.Google Scholar
  489. Jarmulowicz, M.: Embryo biopsy. Lancet 1:547, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Jarvik, L.F., Falek, A., Schmidt, R. and Platt, M.: The mixed leukocyte reaction as a possible test of zygosity in twins. Hum. Hered. 19:668–673, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Jauniaux, E., Elkazen, N., Leroy, F., Wilkin, P., Rodesch, F. and Hustin, J.: Clinical and morphologic aspects of the vanishing twin phenomenon. Obstet. Gynecol. 72:577–581, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. Jauniaux, E., Gulbis, B. and Burton, G.J.: Physiological implications of the materno-fetal oxygen gradient in human early pregnancy. Reprod. BioMedicine Online: www.rbmonline.com/Article/871. 7:250–253, 2003.Google Scholar
  493. Javert, C.T.: Spontaneous and Habitual Abortion. Blakiston, New York, 1957.Google Scholar
  494. Jeanty, P., Rodesch, F., Verhoogen, C. and Struyven, J.: The vanishing twin. Ultrasonics 2:25–31, 1981.Google Scholar
  495. Jeanty, P., Shah, D. and Roussis, P.: Single-needle insertion in twin amniocentesis. J. Ultrasound Med. 9:511–517, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Jenkins, M.E., Eisen, J. and Seguin, F.: Congenital asymmetry and diploid-triploid mosaicism. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 122:80–84, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Johnson, M., Crombleholme, T.M., Hedrick, H.L., King, M., Kasperski, S., Wilson, R.D., Flake, A.W. and Howell, L.J.: Bipolar umbilical cord cauterization for selective termination of complicated monochorionic pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 185:246 (abstract 606), 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Johnson, K.L., Nelson, J.L., Furst, D.E., McSweeney, P.A., Roberts, D.J., Zhen, D.K. and Bianchi, D.W.: Fetal cell microchimerism in tissue from multiple sites in women with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 44:1848–1854, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Johnson, S., Barss, V. and Driscoll, S.: Incidence and impact of single intrauterine death in multiple gestation. Lab. Invest. 54:29A, 1986 (abstract).Google Scholar
  500. Jones, J.M., Sbarra, A.J., Dilillo, L., Cetrulo, C.L. and D’Alton, M.E.: Indomethacin in severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Perinatol. 10:24–26, 1993.Google Scholar
  501. Jones, K.L.: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. 4th ed., pp. 600–601. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1988.Google Scholar
  502. Jones, W.S.: Obstetric significance of female genital anomalies. Obstet. Gynecol. 10:113–127, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. Joseph, T.J. and Vogt, P.J.: Placental teratomas. Obstet. Gynecol. 41:574–578, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Jou, H.-J., Ng, K.-Y., Teng, R.-J. and Hsieh, F.-J.: Doppler sonographic detection of reverse twin-twin transfusion after intrauterine death of the donor. J. Ultrasound Med. 5:307–309, 1993.Google Scholar
  505. Jovanovic, L., Landesman, R. and Saxena, B.B.: Screening for twin pregnancy. Science 198:738, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Jung, J.H., Graham, J.M, Schultz, N. and Smith, D.W.: Congenital hydranencephaly/porencephaly due to vascular disruption in monozygotic twins. Pediatrics 73:467–469, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Kadowaki, J.-I., Thompson, R.I., Zuelzer, W.W., Woolley, P.V., Brough, A.J. and Gruber, D.: XX/XY lymphoid chimaerism in congenital immunological deficiency syndrome with thymic alymphoplasia. Lancet 2:1152–1156, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Kaelber, C.T. and Pugh, T.F.: Influence of intrauterine relations on the intelligence of twins. NEJM 280:1030–1034, 1969. 281:332, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Kalfayan, B. and Gundersen, J.H.: Ovarian twin pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 55:25S–27S, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Källén, B.: Congenital malformations in twins: a population study. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 35:167–178, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Kamin, L.J.: Transfusion syndrome and the heritability of IQ. Ann. Hum. Genet. 42:161–171, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Kanhai, H.H.H., van Rijssel, E.J.C., Meerman, R.J. and Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.: Selective termination in quintuplet pregnancy during first trimester. Lancet 1:1447, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Kao, K.R., Masui, Y. and Elinson, R.P.: Lithium-induced respecification of pattern in Xenopus laevis embryos. Nature 322:371–373, 1986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Kaplan, C.G.: Color Atlas of Gross Placental Pathology. Igaku-Shoin, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  515. Kaplan, C. and Benirschke, K.: The acardiac anomaly: new case reports and current status. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 28:51–59, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Kaplan, C.G., Askin, F.B. and Benirschke, K.: Cytogenetics of extragonadal tumors. Teratology 19:261–266, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Kaplan, C., Perlmutter, S. and Molinoff, S.: Epignathus with placental hydrops. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 104:374–375, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Kappelman, M.D.: Acardius amorphus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 47:412–416, 1944.Google Scholar
  519. Kapur, R.P., Mahony, B.S., Nyberg, D.A., Resta, R.G. and Shephard, T.H.: Sirenomelia associated with a “vanishing twin.” Teratology 43:103–108, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Karam, J.A. and Baker, L.A.: True hermaphroditism. NEJM 350:393, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Kaufman, M.H.: The embryology of conjoined twins. Childs Nerv. Syst. 20:508–525, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Kaufman, M.H. and O’Shea, K.S.: Induction of monozygotic twinning in the mouse. Nature 276:707–708, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Kawamura, A.: Siamese twins in the Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson. Nature 221:490–491, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Kawamura, A. and Kashita, K.: A rare double monster of dolphin, Stenella caeruleoalba. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. No.23:139–140, 1971.Google Scholar
  525. Keeler, C.E.: On the amount of external mirror imagery in double monsters and identical twins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 15:839–842, 1929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Keith, L.: Zygosity and Weinberg’s rule. J. Reprod. Med. 13:195–197, 1974.Google Scholar
  527. Keith, L., Ellis, R., Berger, G.S., Depp, R., Filstead, W., Hatcher, R. and Keith, D.M.: The Northwestern University multihospital twin study. I. A description of 588 twin pregnancies and associated pregnancy loss, 1971 to 1975. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:781–789, 1980.Google Scholar
  528. Keith, L.G., Keith, D.M., Blickstein, I. and Oleszczuk, J.J., eds.: Triplet Pregnancies and their Consequences. Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, London, 2002.Google Scholar
  529. Kempthorne, O. and Osborne, R.H.: The interpretation of twin data. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 13:320–339, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. Kennedy, J.F. and Donahue, R.P.: Binucleate human oocytes from large follicles. Lancet 1:754–755, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. Kennedy, N.: Twin pregnancy in a double uterus. JAMA 169:2064, 1959.Google Scholar
  532. Kenney, A., Hall, C.A. and McGrath, J.: H.P.L. and twins. Lancet 1:253–254, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Kerenyi, T.D. and Chitkara, U.: Selective birth in twin pregnancy with discordance for Down’s syndrome. NEJM 304:1525–1527, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Khudr, G. and Benirschke, K.: Discordant monozygous twins associated with amnion rupture: a case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 39:713–716, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. Khunda, S.: Locked twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 39:453–459, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. Kiely, J.L., Kleinman, J.C. and Kiely, M.: Triplets and higher-order multiple births. Time trends and infant mortality. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 146:862–868, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Kilby, M.D., Platt, C., Whittle, M.J., Oxley, J. and Lindop, G.B.M.: Renin gene expression in fetal kidneys of pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediatr. Devel. Pathol. 4:175–179, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Kilpatrick, S.J., Jackson, R. and Croughan-Minihane, M.S.: Perinatal mortality in twins and singletons matched for gestational age at delivery at ≥30 weeks. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174:66–71, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Kim, C.K., Barr, R.J. and Benirschke, K.: Cytogenetic studies of conjoined twins: a case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 38:877–881, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. Kim, K.-R., Kwon, Y., Joung, J.Y, Kim, K.S., Ayala, A.G. and Ro, J.Y.: True hermaphroditism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis in young children: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases. Modern Pathol. 15:1013–1019, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Kindred, J.E.: Twin pregnancies with one twin blighted. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 48:642–682, 1944.Google Scholar
  542. King, A.D., Soothill, P.W., Montemagno, R., Young, M.P., Sams, V. and Rodeck, C.H.: Twin-to-twin blood transfusion in a dichorionic pregnancy without the oligohydramniospolyhydramnios sequence. Brit. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 102:334–335, 1995.Google Scholar
  543. Kirkland, J.A.: An acardiac, acephalic monster in a triplet pregnancy. Aust. N.Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 22:168–171, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Kirshon, B.: Fetal urine output in hydramnios. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:240–242, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Klebe, J.G. and Ingomar, C.J.: The fetoplacental circulation during parturition illustrated by the interfetal transfusion syndrome. Pediatrics 49:112–115, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Klingberg, W.G., Jones, B., Allen, W.M. and Dempsey, E.: Placental parabiotic circulation of single ovum human twins. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 90:519–520, 1955.Google Scholar
  547. Klinger, G., Merlob, P., Aloni, D., Maayan, A. and Sirota, L.: Normal pulmonary function in a monoamniotic twin discordant for bilateral renal agenesis: report and review. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 73:76–79, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Kloosterman, G.J.: The “third circulation” in identical twins. Ned. Tijdschr. Verlosk. 63:395–412, 1963.Google Scholar
  549. Knox, G. and Morley, D.: Twinning in Yoruba women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 67:981–984, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. Knudsen, L.B.: No association between griseofulvin and conjoined twinning. Lancet 2:1097, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Kobak, A.J. and Cohen, M.R.: Velamentous insertion of cord with spontaneous rupture of vasa previa in twin pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 38:1063–1066, 1939.Google Scholar
  552. Kohga, S., Nambu, T., Tanaka, K., Benirschke, K., Feldman, B.H. and Kishikawa, T.: Hypertrophy of the placenta and sacrococcygeal teratoma: report of two cases. Virchows Arch. [A] Histol. 386:223–229, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Kohler, H.G.: An unusual case of sirenomelia. Teratology 6:295–302, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Kohler, H.G. and MacDonald, H.N.: Discordant anencephaly in a set of triplets. Obstet. Gynecol. 40:607–611, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Köhn, K.: Beobachtungen zur Ätiologie der Acardier. Zentralbl. Allg. Pathol. Pathol. Anat. 90:209–218, 1953.Google Scholar
  556. Komai, T. and Fukuoka, G.: A set of dichorionic identical triplets. J. Hered. 22:233–243, 1931.Google Scholar
  557. Koontz, W.L., Layman, L., Adams, A. and Lavery, J.P.: Antenatal sonographic diagnosis of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153:230–231, 1985.Google Scholar
  558. Koranyi, G. and Kovacs, J.: Über das Zwillingstransfusionssyndrom. Acta Paediatr. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16:119–125, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Kormann, E.: Chang, and Eng Bunker. Schmidt’s Jahrbücher 143:281, 1869.Google Scholar
  560. Kovacs, B., Shahbahrami, B., Platt, L.D. and Comings, D.E.: Molecular genetic prenatal determination of twin zygosity. Obstet. Gynecol. 72:954–956, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Kovacs, B.W., Kirschbaum, T.H. and Paul, R.H.: Twin gestations. I. Antenatal care and complications. Obstet. Gynecol. 74:313–317, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Kovacs, L., Geallen, J. and Falkay, G.: Amniotic chloride concentrations in twin-pregnancy after intra-amniotic injection of hypertonic saline. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 79:54–59. 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Kraay, G.J., Menard, D.P. and Bedoya, M.: Monozygous cattle twins as a result of transfer of a single embryo. Can. Vet. J. 24:281–283, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. Krauer, F.: Das akute Hydramnion bei eineiigen Zwillingsschwangerschaften. Gynaecologia 158:395–399, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  565. Krause, H.G. and Goh, J.T.W.: Cord entanglement in monochorionic diamniotic twins. Aust. NZ J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 38:341–342, 1998.Google Scholar
  566. Kresky, B.: Transplacental transfusion syndrome. Clin. Pediatr. 3:600–603, 1964.Google Scholar
  567. Kreutner, A.K., Levine, J. and Thiede, H.: A double truncus arteriosus in thoracopagus twins. NEJM 268:1388–1390, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. Kreyberg, L.: A teratoma-like swelling in the umbilical cord possibly of acardius nature. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 75:109–112, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Kruyer, H., Milà, M., Glover, G., Carbonell, P., Ballesta, F. and Estivill, X.: Fragile X syndrome and the (CGG)n mutation: two families with discordant MZ twins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 54:437–442, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. Kurosawa, K., Kuromaru, R., Imaizumi, K., Nakamura, Y., Ishikawa, F., Ueda, K. and Kuroki, Y.: Monozygotic twins with discordant sex. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 41:301–310. 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  571. Laband, S.J., Cherny, W.B. and Finberg, H.J.: Heterotopic pregnancy: report of four cases. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:437–438, 1988.Google Scholar
  572. Lachapelle, M.F., Leduc, L., Côté, J.M., Grignon, A. and Fouron, J.C.: Potential value of fetal echocardiography in the differential diagnosis of twin pregnancy with presence of polyhydramnios-oligohydramnios syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:388–394, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Lachman, R., McNabb, M., Furmanski, M. and Karp, L.: The acardiac monster. Eur. J. Pediatr. 134:195–200, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Lack, E.E., Glaun, R.S., Hefter, L.G., Seneca, R.P., Steigman, C. and Athari, F.: Late occurrence of malignancy following resection of a histologically mature sacrococcygeal teratoma. Report of a case and literature review. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 117:724–728, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Lage, J.M., VanMarter, L.J. and Mikhail, E.: Vascular anastomoses in fused, dichorionic twin placentas resulting in twin transfusion syndrome. Placenta 10:55–59, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Laird, E.G., Thomas, R.B. and Halabi, N.E.: Double pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus: a review of the literature with a case report. Delaware Med. J. 29:78–83, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  577. Lam, Y.H., Sin, S.Y., Lam, C., Lee, C.P., Tang, M.H.Y. and Tse, H.Y.: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of conjoined twins in the first-trimester: two case reports. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 10:1–3, 1997; 11:289–291, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Lambalk, C.B. and Boomsma, D.I.: The endocrinology of dizygotic twinning. Twin Res. 1:(#2) 96 (abstr. 061), 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Lancaster, P.A.L.: Monozygotic twins and triplets after assisted conception. Twin Res. 7:361 (abstract), 2004.Google Scholar
  580. Land, R.B.: The expression of female sex-limited characters in the male. Nature 204:208–209, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Land, R.B., Pelletier, J., Thimonier, J. and Mauleon, P.: A quantitative study of genetic differences in the incidence of oestrus, ovulation and plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in the sheep. J. Endocrinol. 58:305–317, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Lander, M., Oosterhof, H. and Aarnoudse, J.G.: Death of one twin followed by extremely variable flow velocity waveforms in the surviving fetus. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 36:127–128, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Landy, H.J., Keith, L. and Keith, D.: The vanishing twin. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 31:179–194, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Landy, H.J., Weiner, S., Corson, S.L., Batzer, F.R. and Bolognese R.J.: The “vanishing twin”: ultrasonographic assessment of fetal disappearance in the first trimester. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155:14–19, 1986.Google Scholar
  585. Landy, H.J., Larsen, J.W., Schoen, M., Larsen, M.E., Kent, S.G. and Weingold, A.B.: Acardiac fetus in a triplet pregnancy. Teratology 37:1–6, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Lange, A.P., Hebjorn, S., Moth, I., Fuglsand, E., Hasch, E., Bruun Petersen, G. and Norgaard-Pedersen, B.: Twin fetus papyraceus and alpha-fetoprotein: a clinical dilemma. Lancet 2:636, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Lange, I.R., Harman, C.R., Ash, K.M., Manning, F.A. and Menticoglou, S.: Twin with hydramnios: treating premature labor at source. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:552–557, 1989.Google Scholar
  588. Langer, J.C., Harrison, M.R., Schmidt, K.G., Silverman, N.H., Anderson, R.L., Goldberg, J.D., Filly, R.A., Crombleholme, T.M., Longaker, M.T. and Golbus, M.S.: Fetal hydrops and death from sacrococcygeal teratoma: rationale for fetal surgery. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160:1145–1150, 1989.Google Scholar
  589. Laros, R.K. and Dattel, B.J.: Management of twin pregnancy: the vaginal route is still safe. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158:1330–1338, 1988.Google Scholar
  590. Larroche, J.Cl., Droullé, P., Delezoide, A.L., Narcy, F. and Nessmann, C.: Brain damage in monozygous twins. Biol. Neonate 57:261–278, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. Larson, S.L., Kempers, R.D. and Titus, J.L.: Monoamniotic twins with a common umbilical cord. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105:635–636, 1969a.Google Scholar
  592. Larson, S.L., Wilson, R.B. and Titus, J.L.: Monoamniotic hydrocephalic twins with survival: report of a case with cytogenetic study. Obstet. Gynecol. 34:419–421, 1969b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. La Sala, G.B., Nucera, G., Gallinelli, A., Nicoli, A., Villani, M.T. and Blickstein, I.: Spontaneous embryonic loss following in vitro fertilization: incidence and effect on outcomes. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191:741–746, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Lassen, M.-T.: Nachgeburtsbefunde bei eineiigen Zwillingen und Ähnlichkeitsdiagnose. Arch. Gynäkol. 147:48–64, 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Lawce, H.: Case report. Prenatal chromosome findings in a case of XX/XY chimerism. Karyogram 11:93–94, 1985.Google Scholar
  596. Lawrence, J.M., Watkins, M.L., Chiu, V., Erickson, J.D. and Petitti, D.B.: Food fortification with folic acid and rate of multiple births, 1994–2000. Birth Defects Res. (Part A): Clin. Molec. Teratol. 70:948–952, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Layton, W.M.: Random determination of a developmental process: reversal of normal visceral asymmetry in the mouse. J. Hered. 67:336–338, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. Layzer, R.B.: Selective reduction—a perinatal necessity? NEJM 318:1062–1063, 1988.Google Scholar
  599. Lazda, E.J.: Endocardial fibroelastosis in growth-discordant monozygotic twins. Pediat. Development. Pathol. 1:522–527, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Lee, C.Y., Madrazo, B. and Roberson, J.: Management of monoamniotic twins diagnosed by ultrasound. Personal communication, Flint, Michigan, 1988.Google Scholar
  601. Lehndorff, H.: Intrauterines Bluten von einem Zwilling in den anderen. Neue Österr. Z. Kinderheilk. 6:163–172, 1961.Google Scholar
  602. Leidig, E., Dannecker, G., Pfeiffer, K.H., Salinas, R. and Pfeiffer, J.: Intrauterine development of posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Eur. J. Pediatr. 147:26–29, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Lemke, R.P., Machin, G., Muttitt, S., Bamforth, F., Rao, S. and Welch, R.: A case of aplasia cutis congenita in dizygotic twins. J. Perinatol. 13:22–27, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  604. Leonard, M.W.E.: Large twins: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 9:219–220, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  605. Leppert, P.C., Wartel, L. and Lowman, R.: Fetus papyraceus causing dystocia: inability to detect blighted twin antenatally. Obstet. Gynecol. 54:381–384, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  606. Levi, S.: Ultrasonic assessment of the high rate of human multiple pregnancy in the first trimester. J. Clin. Ultrasound 4:3–5, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  607. Levinsky, H.V.: A case of conjoined twins in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Lab. Anim. Sci. 23:903–904, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  608. Leviton, A. and Paneth, N.: White matter damage in preterm newborns—an epidemiologic perspective. Early Human Devel. 24:1–22, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. Leviton, A., Stewart, J.E., Alfred, E.N., Dammann, O. and Kuban, K.: Neurological sequelae in in-vitro fertilization babies. Lancet 360:718, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Lewis, S.H., Ryder, C. and Benirschke, K.: Omphalogopagus twins in Chelonia mydas. Herpetol. Review 23:69–70, 1992.Google Scholar
  611. Librach, S. and Terrin, A.J.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 74:440–443, 1957.Google Scholar
  612. Librach, C.L., Doran, T.A., Benzie, R.J. and Jones, J.M.: Genetic amniocentesis in seventy twin pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148:585–591, 1984.Google Scholar
  613. Liggins, G.C. and Ibbertson, H.K.: A successful quintuplet pregnancy following treatment with human pituitary gonadotrophin. Lancet 1:114–117, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. Lillie, F.R.: The free martin; a study of the action of sex hormones in the foetal life of cattle. J. Exp. Zool. 23:371–452, 1917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. Linke, R.P. and Kuni, H.: Über unterschiedliche Blutfülle bei Parabiosepartnern: ein Beitrag zur Parabiosekrankheit. Z. Ges. Exp. Med. 149:233–250, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Lipitz, S., Reichman, B., Paret, G., Modan, M., Shalev, J., Serr, D.M., Mashiach, S. and Frenkel, Y.: The improving outcome of triplet pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:1279–1284, 1989.Google Scholar
  617. Lipitz, S., Reichman, B., Uval, J., Shalev, J., Achiron, R., Barkai, G., Lusky, A. and Mashiach, S.: A prospective comparison of the outcome of triplet pregnancies managed expectantly or by multifetal reduction to twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170:874–879, 1994.Google Scholar
  618. Lipitz, S., Meizner, I., Yagel, S., Shapiro, I., Achiron, R. and Schiff, E.: Expectant management of twin pregnancies discordant for anencephaly. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:969–972, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Lipitz, S., Uval, J., Achiron, R., Schiff, E., Lusky, A. and Reichman, B.: Outcome of twin pregnancies reduced from triplets compared with nonreduced twin gestations. Obstet. Gynecol. 87:511–514, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. Lipitz, S., Peltz, R., Achiron, R., Barkai, G., Mashiach, S. and Schiff, E.: Selective second-trimester termination of an abnormal fetus in twin pregnancies. J. Perinatol. 17:301–304, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  621. Litschgi, M. and Stucki, D.: Verlauf von Zwillingsschangerschaften nach intrauterinem Fruchttod eines Föten. Z. Geburtsh. Perinatol. 184:227–230, 1980.Google Scholar
  622. Litt, S. and Strauss, H.A.: Monoamniotic twins, one normal, the other anencephalic; multiple true knots in the cords. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 30:728–730, 1935.Google Scholar
  623. Littlewood, J.M.: Polycythaemia, and anaemia in newborn monozygotic twin girls. Br. Med. J. 1:857–859, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  624. Liu, S., Benirschke, K., Scioscia, A.L. and Mannino, F.L.: Intrauterine death in multiple gestation. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 41:5–26, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Livingston, J.E. and Poland, B.J.: A study of spontaneously aborted twins. Teratology 21:139–148, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. Loendersloot, E.W.: Twin pregnancy in double uterus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127:682, 1977.Google Scholar
  627. Loeschke, H.: Die Acardie, eine durch Anoxybiose und Nährstoffmangel verursachte Hemmungsbildung. Virchows Arch. [Pathol. Anat.] 315:499–533, 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Logroño, R., Garcia-Lithgow, C., Harris, C., Kent, M. and Meisner, L.: Heteropagus conjoined twins due to fusion of two embryos: report and review. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 73:239–243, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  629. Loos, R., Derom, C., Vlietinck, R. and Derom, R.: The East Flanders prospective twin survey (Belgium): a populationbased register. Twin Research 1:167–175, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. Lopriore, E., Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A., Tiersma, E.S.M., de Beaufort, A.J. and de Leeuw, J.P.: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: New perspectives. J. Pediat. 127:675–680, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Lopriore, E., Nagel, H.T.C., Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A. and Walther, F.J.: Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 189:1314–1319, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Loughead, J.R. and Halbert, D.R.: An acardiac amorphous twin presenting soft tissue dystocia. J. South. Med. Assoc. 62:1140–1142, 1969.Google Scholar
  633. Loughry, W.J., Prodöhl, P.A., McDonough, C.M. and Avise, J.C.: Polyembryony in armadillos. Amer. Scientist 86:274–279, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  634. Ludwig, E.: Über die Verteilung der Erbmasse unter eineiige Zwillinge. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 57:1041–1042, 1927.Google Scholar
  635. Luke, B., Nugent, C., van de Ven, C., Martin, D., O’Sullivan, M.J., Eardley, S., Witter, F.R., Mauldin, J. and Newman, R.B.: The association between maternal factors and perinatal outcomes in triplet pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187:752–757, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Lumme, R.H. and Saarikoski, S.V.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 35:99–105, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  637. Lundstroem, A.: Tooth morphology as a basis for distinguishing monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 15:34–43, 1963.Google Scholar
  638. Lutz, H. and Lutz-Ostertag, Y.: Sur l’orientation des embryons jumeaux obtenus par fissuration parallèle à l’axe présumé du blastoderme non incubé de l’oef de Caille (Coturnix coturnix japonica). C. R. Proc. Acad. Sci. Paris 256:3752–3754, 1963.Google Scholar
  639. Lynch, L., Berkowitz, R.L., Chitkara, U. and Alvarez, M.: First-trimester transabdominal multifetal pregnancy reduction: a report of 85 cases. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:735–738, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  640. Lynch, L., Berkowitz, R.L., Stone, J., Alvarez, M. and Lapinski, R.: Preterm delivery after selective termination in twin pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 87:366–369, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. MacGillivray, I., Nylander, P.P.S. and Corney, G.: Human Multiple Reproduction. Saunders, London, 1975.Google Scholar
  642. MacGillivray, I., Campbell, D.M. and Thompson, B., eds.: Twinning and Twins. Wiley, Chichester, 1988.Google Scholar
  643. Machin, G.A.: Malformations and chromosome anomalies in perinatal death. Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1974. (quoted from Deacon et al., 1980).Google Scholar
  644. Machin, G.A.: Twins and their zygosity. Lancet 343:1577, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  645. Machin, G.A.: Some causes of genotypic and phenotypic discordance in monozygotic twin pairs. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 61:216–228, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  646. Machin, G.A.: Velamentous cord insertion in monochorionic twin gestation. An added risk factor. J. Reprod. Med. 42:785–789, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  647. MacKenzie, A.P., Stephenson, C.D., Funai, E.F., Lee, M.-L. and Timor-Tritsch, I.: Three-dimensional ultrasound to differentiate epigastric heteropagus conjoined twins from a TRAP sequence. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191:1736–1739, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  648. Mackenzie, T.C., Crombleholme, T.M., Johnson, M.P., Schnaufer, L., Flake, A.W., Hedrick, H.L., Howell, L.J. and Adzick, N.S.: The natural history of prenatally diagnosed twins. J. Pediatr. Surg. 37:303–309, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  649. MacLennan, A.H., Green, R.C., O’Shea, R., Brookes, C. and Morris, D.: Routine hospital admission in twin pregnancy between 26 and 30 weeks’ gestation. Lancet 335:267–269, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  650. Macones, G.A., Schemmer, G., Pritts, E., Weiblatt, V. and Wapner, R.J.: Multifetal reduction of triplets to twins improves perinatal outcome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:982–986, 1993.Google Scholar
  651. Mägiste, M., v. Schenck, H., Sjöberg, N.-O., Thorell, J.I. and Åberg, A.: Screening for detecting twin pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126:697–698, 1976.Google Scholar
  652. Magyar, E., Weiner, E., Shalev, E. and Ohel, G.: Pseudoamniotic twins with cord entanglement following genetic funipuncture. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:915–918, 1991.Google Scholar
  653. Maher, E.R., Brueton, L.A.S., Bowdin, S.C., Luahria, A., Cooper, W., Cole, T.R., Macdonald, F., Sampson, J.R., Barratt, C.L., Reik, W. and Hawkins, M.M.: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and assisted reproductive technology (ART). J. Med. Genet. 40:62–64, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  654. Mahieu-Caputo, D., Dommergues, M., Dalezoide, A.-L., Lacoste, M., Cai, Y., Narcy, F., Dumez, Y. and Gubler, M.-C.: Twin-totwin transfusion syndrome. Role of the fetal reninangiotensin system. Amer. J. Pathol. 156:629–636, 2000.Google Scholar
  655. Mahone, P.R., Sherer, D.M., Abramowicz, J.S. and Woods, J.R.: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: rapid development of severe hydrops of the donor following selective feticide of the hydropic recipient. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:166–168, 1993.Google Scholar
  656. Mahony, B.S., Filly, R.A. and Callen, P.W.: Amnionicity and chorionicity in twin pregnancies: prediction using ultrasound. Radiology 155:205–209, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  657. Mahony, B.S., Petty, C.N., Nyberg, D.A., Luthy, D.A., Hickok, D.E. and Hirsch, J.H.: The “stuck twin” phenomenon: ultrasonographic findings, pregnancy outcome, and management with serial amniocenteses. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163:1513–1522, 1990.Google Scholar
  658. Maier, R.F., Bialobrzeski, B., Gross, A., Vogel, M., Dudenhausen, J.W. and Obladen, M.: Acute and chronic fetal hypoxia in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:973–977, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  659. Malinowski, W.: Very early and simple determination of chorionic and amniotic type in twin gestations by high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 46:167–173, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  660. Malinowski, W. and Biskup, I.: The sonographic prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects of the anterior abdominal wall based on our own study of twin pregnancies—gastroschisis. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 46:101–104, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  661. Malinowski, W. and Wierzba, W.: Twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 47:75–87, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Malinowski, W., Dec, W. and Biskup, I.: The assessment of the umbilical blood flow of the surviving twin after the intrauterine death of the other twin. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 45:383–386, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  663. Malone, F.D., Craigo, S.D., Chelmow, D. and D’Alton, M.E.: Outcome of twin gestations complicated by a single anomalous fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:1–5, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  664. Manivel, J.C., Dehner, L.P. and Burke, B.: Ovarian tumorlike structures, biovular follicles, and binucleated oocytes in children: their frequency and possible pathologic significance. Pediatr. Pathol. 8:283–292, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Mannino, F.L., Jones, K.L. and Benirschke, K.: Congenital skin defects and fetus papyraceus. J. Pediatr. 91:559–564, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  666. March of Dimes. Updates. Multiple births and the rising rate of preterm delivery. Contemp. Ob/Gyn. July, pp. 67–77, 2003.Google Scholar
  667. Marcus, N.H.: Developmental aberrations associated with twinning in laboratory-reared sea urchins. Dev. Biol. 70:274–277, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  668. Margono, F., Feinkind, L. and Minkoff, H.L.: Foot necrosis in a surviving fetus associated with twin-twin transfusion syndrome and monochorionic placenta. Obstet. Gynecol. 79:867–869, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. Mari, G., Uerpairojkit, B., Abuhamad, A., Martinez, E. and Copel, J.: Velamentous insertion of the cord in polyhydramnios-oligohydramnios twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:291 (abstract 102), 1995.Google Scholar
  670. Mari, G., Detti, L., Levi-D’Ancona and Kern, L.: “Pseudo” twin-to-twin transfusions syndrome and fetal outcome. J. Perinatol. 18:399–403, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  671. Marin-Padilla, M., Chin, A.J. and Marin-Padilla, T.M.: Cardiovascular abnormalities in thoracopagus twins. Teratology 23:101–113, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Markavy, K.L. and Scanlon, J.W.: Hydrops fetalis in a parabiotic, acardiac twin. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 132:638–639, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  673. Marshall, J.R.: Ovulation induction. Obstet. Gynecol. 35:963–970, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  674. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F. and Munson, M.L.: Births: final data for 2002. Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 52:1–113, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  675. Martin, N.G., Olsen, M.E., Theile, H., Beaini, J.L.E., Handelsman, D. and Bhatnagar, A.S.: Pituitary-ovarian function in mothers who have had two sets of dizygotic twins. Fertil. Steril. 41:878–880, 1984a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. Martin, N.G., Beaini, J.L.E., Olsen, M.E., Bhatnagar, A.S. and Macourt, D.: Gonadotropin levels in mothers who have had two sets of DZ twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 33:131–139, 1984b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  677. Martin, N.G., Shanley S., Butt, K., Osborne, J. and O’Brien, G.: Excessive follicular recruitment and growth in mothers of spontaneous dizygotic twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 40:291–301, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  678. Martinez-Poyer, J.L., Quintero, R.A., Carreño, C.A., King, M., Bottoms, S.F., Romero, R. and Evans, M.I.: Doppler assessment of the effect of umbilical-cord ligation of acardiac twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176:S152 (abstract 530), 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  679. Marx, W.: Akutes Hydramnion bei Drillingsschwangerschaft mit hochgradigem Hydrops einer Frucht. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 78:101–109, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  680. Mas, C., Delatycki, M.B. and Weintraub, R.G.: Persistent truncus arteriosus in monozygotic twins: case report and literature review. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 82:146–148, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  681. Mashiach, S., Ben-Rafael, Z., Dor, J. and Serr, D.M.: Triplet pregnancy in uterus didelphys with delivery interval of 72 days. Obstet. Gynecol. 58:519–520, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  682. Massip, A., Zwalmen, P. and Mulnard, J.: Atypical hatching of a cow blastocyst leading to separation of complete twin half blastocysts. Vet. Rec. 112:301, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  683. Mastroiacovo, P. and Botto, L.: Structural congenital defects in multiple births. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 43:57–70, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  684. Mastroiacovo, P., Castilla, E.E., Arpino, C., Botting, B., Cocchi, G., Goujard, J., Marinacci, C., Merlob, P., Métneki, J., Mutchinick, O., Ritvanen, A. and Rosano, A.: Congenital malformations in twins: an international study. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 83:117–124, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  685. Mauer, S.M., Dorrin, R.S. and Vernier, R.L.: Unilateral and bilateral renal agenesis in monoamniotic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 84:236–238, 1974.Google Scholar
  686. Maxwell, C.V., Lieberman, E., Norton, M., Cohen, A., Seely, E. W. and Lee-Parritz, A.: Relationship of twin zygosity and risk of preeclampsia. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 185:819–821, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  687. Maymon, R., Halperin, R., Weinraub, Z., Herman, A. and Schneider, D.: Three-dimensional transvaginal sonography of conjoined twins at 10 weeks: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 11:1–3, 1998; 11:292–294, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  688. McCracken, A.A., Daly, P.A., Zolnick, M.R. and Clark, A.M.: Twins and Q-banded chromosome polymorphisms. Hum. Genet. 45:253–258, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  689. McCrossin, D.B. and Roberton, N.R.C.: Congenital skin defects, twins and toxoplasmosis. J. R. Soc. Med. 82:108–109, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. McCurdy, C.M., Childers, J.M. and Seeds, J.W.: Ligation of the umbilical cord of an acardiac-acephalus twin with an endoscopic intrauterine technique. Obstet. Gynecol. 82:708–711, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  691. McFee, J.G., Lord, E.L., Jeffrey, R.L., O’Meara, O.P., Josepher, H.J., Butterfield, J. and Thompson, H.E.: Multiple gestations of high fetal number. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:99–106, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  692. McKeown, T. and Record, R.G.: Observations on fetal growth in multiple pregnancy in man. J. Endocrinol. 8:386–401, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  693. McLeod, F. and McCoy, D.R.: Monoamniotic twins with an unusual cord complication. Case report. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 88:774–775, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  694. McManus, C.: Right Hand Left Hand. The Origin of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies, Atoms and Cultures. Harvard University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  695. McNamara, M.F., McCurdy, C.M., Reed, K.L., Philipps, A.F. and Seeds, J.W.: The relation between pulmonary hypoplasia and amniotic fluid volume: lessons learned from discordant urinary tract anomalies in monoamniotic twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 85:867–869, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  696. McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J.L., Wilson, T., Galloway, S.M. and Davis, G.H.: Genetic mutations influencing ovulation rate in sheep. Reprod. Fertil. Devel. 13:549–555, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  697. Meagher, S., Tippett, C., Renou, P., Baker, L. and Susil, B.: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: Intraamniotic pressure measurement in the assessment of volume reduction at serial amniocenteses. Aust. NZ J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 35:22–26, 1995.Google Scholar
  698. Medearis, A.L., Jonas, H.S., Stockbauer, J.W. and Domke, H.R.: Perinatal deaths in twin pregnancy: a five-year analysis of statewide statistics in Missouri. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 134:413–421, 1979.Google Scholar
  699. Megory, E., Weiner, E., Shalev, E. and Ohel, G.: Pseudomonoamniotic twins with cord entanglement following genetic funipuncture. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:915–917, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. Melgar, C.A., Rosenfeld, D.L., Rawlinson, K. and Greenberg, M.: Perinatal outcome after multifetal reduction to twins compared with nonreduced multiple gestations. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:763–767, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. Melnick, M.: Brain damage in survivors after in-utero death of monozygous co-twin. Lancet 2:1287, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  702. Melnick, M. and Myrianthopoulos, N.C.: The effects of chorion type on normal and abnormal developmental variation in monozygous twins. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 4:147–156, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  703. Mercer, B.M., Crocker, L.G., Pierce, F. and Sibai, B.M.: Clinical characteristics and outcome of twin gestation complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168:1467–1473, 1993.Google Scholar
  704. Métneki, J. and Czeizel, A.: Twinning rates. Lancet 1:935, 1983.Google Scholar
  705. Metrakos, J.D., Metrakos, K. and Baxter, H.: Clefts of the lip and palate in twins: including a discordant pair whose monozygosity was confirmed by skin transplants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 22:109–122, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  706. Meulepas, E., Vlietinck, R. and van den Berghe, H.: The probability of dizygosity of phenotypically concordant twins. Amer. J. Human. Genet. 43:817–826, 1988.Google Scholar
  707. Meyer, W.R. and Meyer, W.W.: Report on a very young dizygotic human twin pregnancy. Arch. Gynecol. 231:51–56, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  708. Michaels, L.: Unilateral ischemia of fused twin placenta: a manifestation of the twin transfusion syndrome? Can. Med. Assoc. J. 96:402–405, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  709. Michaels, W.H., Schreiber, F.R., Padgett, R.J., Ager, J. and Pieper, D.: Ultrasound surveillance of the cervix in twin gestations: management of cervical incompetency. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:739–744, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  710. Michlewitz, H., Kennedy, J., Kawada, C. and Kennison, R.: Triplet pregnancies. J. Reprod. Med. 26:243–246, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  711. Mijsberg, W.A.: Genetic-statistical data on the presence of secondary oocytary twins among non-identical twins. Acta Genet. Statist. Med. 7:39–42, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  712. Milham, S.: Pituitary gonadotrophin and dizygotic twinning. Lancet 2:566, 1964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  713. Milham, S.: Symmetrical conjoined twins: an analysis of the birth records of twenty-two sets. J. Pediatr. 69:643–647, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  714. Miller, D.L. and Dillon, J.: An unusual abdominal mass in an elderly woman. NEJM 321:1613–1614, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  715. Miller, V.L., Ransom, S.B., Shalhoub, A., Sokol, R.J. and Evans, M.I.: Multifetal pregnancy reduction: perinatal and fiscal outcomes. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 182:1575–1580, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  716. Mills, W.G.: Pathological changes in blighted twins. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 56:619–624, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  717. Min, S.-J., Luke, B., Gillespie, B., Min, L., Newman, R.B., Mauldin, J.G., Witter, F.R., Salman, F.A. and O’Sullivan, M.J.: Birth weight references for twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 182:1250–1257, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  718. Mingeot, R.A. and Keirse, M.J.: Twin pregnancy in a pseudodidelphys. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111:1121–1122, 1971.Google Scholar
  719. Mitrani, A.: Conjoined thoracopagus twins. Harefuah 74:95–97, 1968.Google Scholar
  720. Miyabara, S., Okamoto, N., Akimoto, N., Satow, Y. and Nakagawa, S.: A study on dicephalic monsters, especially with regard to embryopathology. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. 22:377–395, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  721. Moestrup, J.K.: Monoamniotic twins: a case with vessel anomaly in one twin’s umbilical cord. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 49:85–87, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  722. Mohanty, C., Mishra, O.P., Singh, C.P., Das, B.K. and Singla, P.N.: Acardiac anomaly spectrum. Teratology 62:356–359, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  723. Moise, K.J.: Indomethacin therapy in the treatment of symptomatic polyhydramnios. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 34:310–318, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  724. Molnar-Nadasdy, G. and Altshuler, G.: Perinatal pathology case book. A case of twin transfusion syndrome with dichorionic placentas. J. Perinatol. 16:507–509, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  725. Monteagudo, A., Timor-Tritsch, I.E. and Sharma, S.: Early and simple determination of chorionic and amniotic type in multifetal gestations in the first fourteen weeks by high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170:824–829, 1994.Google Scholar
  726. Monteiro, J., Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Kohn, N., Derom, R. and Gregersen, K.: X chromosome inactivation patterns in monozygotic twin girls. Twin Res. 1(2): 101 (abstr. 083), 1998a.Google Scholar
  727. Monteiro, J., Derom, C., Vlietinck, R., Kohn, N., Lesser, M. and Gregersen, P.K.: Commitment to X inactivation precedes the twinning event in monochorionic MZ twins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 63:339–346, 1998b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  728. Montgomery, G.W., Duffy, D.L., Hall, J., Haddon, B.R., Kudo, M., McGee, E.A., Palmer, J.S., Hsueh, A.J., Boomsma, D.I. and Martin, N.G.: Dizygotic twinning is not linked to variation at the alpha-inhibin locus on human chromosome 2. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85:3391–3395, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  729. Montgomery, G.W., Duffy, D.L., Hall, J., Kudo, M., Martin, N.G. and Hsueh, A.J.: Mutations in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and familial dizygotic twinning. Lancet 357:773–774, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  730. Montgomery, G.W., Zhao, Z.Z., Morley, K.I., Marsh, A.J., Boomsma, D.I., Martin, N.G. and Duffy, D.L.: Dizygotic twinning is not associated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase haplotypes. Human Reprod. 18:2460–2464, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  731. Montgomery, G.W., Zhao, Z.Z., Marsh, A.J., Mayne, R., Treloar, S.A., James, M., Martin, N.G., Boomsma, D.I. and Duffy, D.L.: A deletion mutation in GDF9 in sisters with spontaneous DZ twins. Twin Res. 7:548–555, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  732. Moore, C.A., Buehler, B.A., McManus, B.M., Harmon, J.P., Mirkin, L.D. and Goldstein, D.J.: Brief clinical report. Acephalus-acardia in twins with aneuploidy. Amer. J. Med. Genet. [Suppl.] 3:139–143, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  733. Moore, C.M., McAdams, A.J. and Sutherland, J.: Intrauterine disseminated intravascular coagulation: a syndrome of multiple pregnancy with a dead twin fetus. J. Pediatr. 74:523–528, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  734. Moore, T.R., Gale, S.A. and Benirschke, K.: Perinatal outcome of forty-nine pregnancies complicated by acardiac twinning. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163:907–912, 1990.Google Scholar
  735. Moreno, M.J. and Sanchez, O.: Mosaico cromosómico X0/XX/XY/XXY/, en un hermafrodita verdadero. Acta Cient. Venez. 22:14–18, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  736. Mortimer, G.: Zygosity and placental structure in monochorionic twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:417–520, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  737. Morton, C.C., Corey, L.A., Nance, W.E. and Brown, J.A.: Quinacrine mustard and nucleolar organizer region heteromorphisms in twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 30:39–49, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  738. Moshiri, M., Salari, A.A., Mansorian, H.R. and Shariat, R.: Lithopedion (stone baby). Ann. Saudi Med. 16:69–70, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  739. Mostoufi-Zadeh, M., Weiss, L.M. and Driscoll, S.G.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis: a challenge in perinatal pathology. Hum. Pathol. 16:785–789, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  740. Motomura, K., Tateishi, H., Nishisho, I., Okazaki, M., Miki, T., Tonomura, A., Takai, S.-I., Mori, T. and Jeffreys, A.J.: The zygosity determination of Japanese twins using a minisatellite core probe. Jpn. J. Hum. Genet. 32:9–14, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  741. Moyaert, I. Bouters, R. and Bouquet, Y.: Birth of a monozygotic cattle twin following non surgical transfer of a single 7 day old embryo. Theriogenology 18:127–132, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  742. Mueller-Heubach, E. and Battelli, A.F.: Prolonged in utero retention and mummification of a Macaca mulatta fetus. J. Med. Primatol. 10:265–268, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  743. Munro, S.S.: Are monovular avian twins always female? J. Hered. 56:285–288, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  744. Munsinger, H.: The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability. Ann. Hum. Genet. 40:307–321, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  745. Murray, J.C., Mansilla, M.A., Kimani, J., Mitchell, L., Christensen, K., Daack-Hirsch, S., Wyszynski, D.F. and Felix, T.: Discordant MZ twins with cleft lip and palate: a model for identifying genes in complex traits. Twin Res. 7(4):(abstract), 2004.Google Scholar
  746. Mutinelli, F., Nani, S. and Zampiron, S.: Conjoined twins (Thoracopagus) in a Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus). Lab. Animal Sci. 42:612–613, 1992.Google Scholar
  747. Myrianthopoulos, N.C.: An epidemiological survey of twins in a large, prospectively studied population. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 22:611–629, 1970a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  748. Myrianthopoulos, N.C.: A survey of twins in the population of a prospective collaborative study. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 19:15–23, 1970b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. Naeye, R.: Parabiotic syndrome. NEJM 269:1043, 1963.Google Scholar
  750. Naeye, R.L.: The fetal and neonatal development of twins. Pediatrics 33:546–553, 1964a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  751. Naeye, R.: Organ composition in newborn parabiotic twins with speculation regarding neonatal hypoglycemia. Pediatrics 34:415–418, 1964b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  752. Naeye, R.: Organ abnormalities in a human parabiotic syndrome. Amer. J. Pathol. 46:829–842, 1965.Google Scholar
  753. Naeye, R.L. and Blanc, W.A.: Fetal renal structure and the genesis of amniotic fluid disorders. Amer. J. Pathol. 67:95–105, 1972.Google Scholar
  754. Naeye, R.L. and Letts, H.W.: Body measurements of fetal and neonatal twins. Arch. Pathol. 77:393–396, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  755. Naeye, R.L., Tafari, N., Judge, D. and Marboe, C.C.: Twins: causes of perinatal death in 12 United States cities and one African city. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131:267–272, 1978.Google Scholar
  756. Nagashima, H., Kato, Y. and Ogawa, S.: Microsurgical bisection of porcine morulae and blastocysts to produce monozygotic twin pregnancy. Gamete Res. 23:1–10, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  757. Nageotte, M.P., Hurwitz, S.R., Kaupke, C.J., Vaziri, N.D. and Pandian, M.R.: Atriopeptin in the twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:867–870, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  758. Nakayama, A., Imai, S. and Takemura, T.: Intrauterine embolism syndrome: multiple infarction of co-twin caused by dead counterpart in utero. Teratology 34:457, 1986 (abstract).Google Scholar
  759. Nakayama, D.K., Killian, A., Hill, L.M., Miller, J.P., Hannakan, C., Lloyd, D.A. and Rowe, M.I.: The newborn with hydrops and sacrococcygeal teratoma. J. Pediatr. Surg. 26:1435–1438, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  760. Napolitani, F.D. and Schreiber, I.: The acardiac monster. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 80:582–589, 1960.Google Scholar
  761. Natori, M., Tanaka, M., Kohno, H., Ishimoto, H., Morisada, M., Kobayashi, T. and Nozawa, S.: A case of twin-twin transfusion syndrome treated with placental vessel occlusion using fetoscopic Nd:Yag laser System. Acta Obstet. Gynaecol. Jpn. 44:117–120, 1992.Google Scholar
  762. Neal, F.C. and Wilcox, C.J.: Double acardius amorphus case in a brown Swiss cow. J. Dairy Sci. 50:236, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  763. Nelson, J.L.: Microchimerism: expanding new horizon in human health or incidental remnant of pregnancy? Lancet 358:2011–2012, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  764. Neubecker, R.D., Blumberg, J.M. and Townsend, F.M.: A human monozygotic quintuplet placenta: report of a specimen. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 69:137–139, 1962.Google Scholar
  765. Neuman, W.L., Ponto, K., Farber, R.A. and Shangold, G.A.: DNA analysis of unilateral twin ectopic gestation. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:479–483, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  766. Neurath, P.W., Lin, P.-S. and Low, D.A.: Quantitative karyotyping: a model twin study. Cytogenetics 11:457–474, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  767. Newman, H.H.: Palm-print patterns in twins: on the use of dermatoglyphics as an aid in the diagnosis of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. J. Hered. 22:41–49, 1931a.Google Scholar
  768. Newman, H.H.: Differences between conjoined twins: in relation to a general theory of twinning. J. Hered. 22:201–215, 1931b.Google Scholar
  769. Newman, H.H. and Patterson, J.T.: The development of the nine-banded armadillo from the primitive streak stage to birth; with especial reference to the question of specific polyembryony. J. Morphol. 21:359–424, 1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  770. Newton, R., Casabonne, D., Johnson, A. and Pharoah, P.: A casecontrol study of vanishing twin as a risk factor for cerebral palsy. Twin Res. 6:83–84, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  771. Nhân, V.Q. and Huisjes, H.J.: Double uterus with a pregnancy in each half. Obstet. Gynecol. 61:115–117, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  772. Nichols, J.B.: Quintuplet and sextuplet births in the United States. Obstet. Gynecol. 3:124–125, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  773. Nichols, R.C. and Bilbro, W.C.: The diagnosis of twin zygosity. Acta Genet. (Basel) 16:265–275, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  774. Nickerson, C.W.: Amniotic sac dystocia in twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 97:867–868, 1967.Google Scholar
  775. Nicolini, U., Pisoni, M.P., Cela, E. and Roberts, A.: Fetal blood sampling immediately before and within 24 hours of death in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by single intrauterine death. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179:800–803, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  776. Nielsen, H.C., Harvey-Wilkes, K., MacKinnon, B. and Hung, S.: Neonatal outcome of very premature infants from multiple and singleton gestations. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:653–659, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  777. Nigro, M.: Considérations immunologiques et endocrinologiques à propos d’un case d’acardie. J. Gynecol. Obstet. Reprod. 6:963–970, 1977.Google Scholar
  778. Nikkels, P.G.J., van Gemert, M.J.C., Sollie-Szarynska, K.M., Molendijk, H., Timmer, B. and Machin, G.A.: Rapid onset of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome caused by placental venous thrombosis. Pediatr. Devel. Pathol. 5:310–314, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  779. Niku, M., Ilmonen, L., Pessa-Morikawa, T. and Iivanainen, A.: Limited contribution of circulating cells to the development and maintenance of nonhematopoietic bovine tissues. Stem Cells 22:12–20, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  780. Nkemayim, D.C., Hammadeh, M.E., Hippach, M., Rosenbaum, P. and Schmidt, W.: Complications of triple pregnancy following intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a case report. Twin Res. 3:76–79, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  781. Noonan, J.A.: Twins, conjoined twins, and cardiac defects. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 132:17–18, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  782. Noone, P.G., Bali, D., Carson, J.L., Sannuti, A., Gipson, C.L., Ostrowski, L.E., Bromberg, P.A., Boucher, R.C. and Knowles, M.R.: Discordant organ laterality in monozygotic twins with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Amer. J. Med. Genet. 82:155–160, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  783. Nores, J., Athanassiou, A., Elkadry, E., Malone, F.D., Craigo, S. D. and D’Alton, M.: Gender differences in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 90:580–582, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  784. Norman, M.G.: Bilateral encephaloclastic lesions in a 26 week gestation fetus: effect on neuroblast migration. J. Can. Sci. Neurol. 7:191–194, 1980.Google Scholar
  785. Norman, M.G.: Mechanism of brain damage in twins. J. Can. Sci. Neurol. 9:339–344, 1982.Google Scholar
  786. Norton, M.E., D’Alton, M.E. and Bianchi, D.W.: Molecular zygosity studies aid in the management of discordant multiple gestations. J. Perinatal. 17:202–207, 1997.Google Scholar
  787. Nunley, W.C., Jr.: The slippery slopes of advanced reproductive technologies. Presidential address. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191:588–592, 2004.Google Scholar
  788. Nylander, P.P.S.: Placental forms and zygosity determination of twins in Ibadan, Western Nigeria: a study of 1475 twin maternities. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 19:49–54, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  789. Nylander, P.P.S.: Ethnic differences in twinning rates in Nigeria. J. Biosoc. Sci. 3:151–157, 1971a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  790. Nylander, P.P.S.: The incidence of triplets and higher multiple births in some rural and urban populations in Western Nigeria. Ann. Hum. Genet. 34:409–415, 1971b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  791. Nylander, P.P.S.: Serum levels of gonadotrophins in relation to multiple pregnancy in Nigeria. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80:651–653, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  792. Nylander, P.P.S. and Corney, G.: Placentation and zygosity of twins in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ann. Hum. Genet. 33:31–40, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  793. Nylander, P.P.S. and Corney, G.: Placentation and zygosity of triplets and higher multiple births in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ann. Hum. Genet. 34:417–426, 1971.Google Scholar
  794. Nylander, P.P.S. and Osunkoya, B.O.: Unusual monochorionic placentation with heterosexual twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 36:621–625, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  795. Oberg, K.C., Pestaner, J.P., Bielamowicz, L. and Hawkins, E.P.: Renal tubular dysgenesis in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Pediat. Developm. Pathol. 2:25–32, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  796. O’Brien, P.J. and Hay, D.A.: Birthweight differences, the transfusion syndrome, and the cognitive development of monozygotic twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 36:181–196, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  797. Odibo, A.O. and Macones, G.A.: Management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome: Laying the foundation for future interventional studies. Twin Res. 5:515–520, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  798. O’Donnell, C.P.F., Pertile, M.D., Sheffield, L.J. and Sampson, A.: Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes: a case report. J. Pediatr. 145:406–408, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. Ohel, G., Granat, M., Zeevi, D., Golan, A., Wexler, S., David, M.P. and Schenker, J.G.: Advanced ultrasonic placental maturation in twin pregnancies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 156:76–78, 1987.Google Scholar
  800. Okamura, K., Murotsuki, J., Tanigawara, S., Uehara, S. and Yajima, A.: Funipuncture for evaluation of hematologic and coagulation indices in the surviving twin following co-twin’s death. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:975–958, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  801. O’Keane, J.A., Yuen, B.H., Farquharson, D.F. and Wittman, B. K.: Endocrine response to selective embryocide in a gonadotropin-induced quintuplet pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155:364–367, 1988.Google Scholar
  802. Olding, L.: The possibility of materno-foetal transfer of lymphocytes in man. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61:73–75, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  803. Osborne, R.H.: Serology in physical anthropology. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 16:187–195, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  804. O’Sullivan, J.V.: Multiple pregnancy. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 61:235–236, 1968.Google Scholar
  805. Ozturk, O. and Templeton, A.: In-vitro fertilisation and risk of multiple pregnancy. Lancet 359:232, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  806. Paepe, J.de: Mortalité périnatale dans une série de grossesses gémellaires. Bull. Soc. R. Belge Gynécol. Obstet. 29:421–4433, 1959.Google Scholar
  807. Parks, J. and Epstein, J.R.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy with living infants. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 39:140–142, 1940.Google Scholar
  808. Patten, R.M., Mack, L.A., Harvey, D., Cyr, D.R. and Pretorius, D.H.: Disparity of amniotic fluid volume and fetal size: problem of the stuck twin—US studies. Radiology 172:153–157, 1989a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  809. Patten, R.M., Mack, L.A., Nyberg, D.A. and Filly, R.A.: Twin embolization syndrome: prenatal sonographic detection and significance. Radiology 173:685–689, 1989b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  810. Paulson, R.J., Lobo, R.A., Stein, A., Toker, R., Moegle, A. and Macaso, T.: Gestation of triplets after intrauterine implantation of two embryos. NEJM 318:1339–1340, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  811. Pavlica, F.: Über einen Fötus mit zahlreichen Entwicklungsanomalien. Pädiatrie Pädol. 3:27–33, 1967.Google Scholar
  812. Payne, S., Dudge, J. and Bradbury, W.: Ectopic pregnancy concomitant with twin intrauterine pregnancy: a case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 38:905–906, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  813. Pearlman, S.A. and Batton, D.G.: Effect of birth order on intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 71:358–360, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  814. Pedrosa, M.P., Salzano, F.M., Mattevi, M.S. and Viegas, J.: Quantitative analysis of C-bands in chromosomes 1, 9, 16, and Y of twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 32:257–260, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  815. Pérez, M.L., Firpo, J.R. and Baldi, E.M.: Sobre las anastomosis circulatorias de las placentas dizigoticas. Obstet. Ginecol. Lat. 5:5–21, 1947.Google Scholar
  816. Pessa-Morikawa, T., Niku, M. and Iivanainen, A.: Persistent differences in the level of chimerism in B versus T cells of freemartin cattle. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:77–87, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  817. Petersen, B.L., Broholm, H., Skibsted, L. and Graem, N.: Acardiac twin with preserved brain. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 16:231–233, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  818. Pharoah, P.O.D. and Cooke, R.W.I.: A hypothesis for the etiology of spastic cerebral palsy—the vanishing twin. Developm. Med. Child Neurol. 39:292–296, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  819. Phillips, D.I.W.: Twin studies in medical research: can they tell us whether diseases are genetically determined? Lancet 341:1008–1009, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  820. Pickering, G.H.: Monovular twins. Br. Med. J. 2:988, 1946.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  821. Pickhardt, W.L. and Breen, J.L.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 12:471–472, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  822. Pijpers, L., Jahoda, M.G.J., Vosters, R.P.L., Niermeijer, M.F. and Sachs, E.S.: Genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 95:323–326, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  823. Pinette, M.G., Pan, Y.M.M., Pinette, S.G. and Stubblefield, P.G.: Treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 82:841–846, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  824. Plath, H. and Hansmann, M.: Diagnostik und Therapie zwillingsspezifischer Anomalien. Gynäkologe 31:229–244, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  825. Platt, L.D., DeVore, G.R., Bieniarz, A., Benner, P. and Rao, R.: Antenatal diagnosis of acephalus acardia: a proposed management scheme. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 146:857–859, 1983.Google Scholar
  826. Platt, M.J., Marshall, A. and Pharoah, O.D.: The effects of assisted reproduction on the trends and zygosity of multiple births in England and Wales 1974–1999. Twin Res. 4:417–421, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  827. Poch, M., Luks, F.I., Carr, S.R. and De Paepe, M.E.: Intratwin arteriovenous fistula of the placenta in a case of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Perinatol. 22:3–6, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  828. Popek, E.J., Strain, J.D., Neumann, A. and Wilson, H.: In utero development of pulmonary artery calcification in monochorionic twins: a report of three cases and discussion of the possible etiology. Pediat. Pathol. 13:597–611, 1993.Google Scholar
  829. Porreco, R.P.: Percutaneous ultrasonographically guided ablation of an acardiac twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190: 572–574, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  830. Porreco, R.P., Burke, M.S. and Parker, D.W.: Selective embryocide in the nonsurgical management of combined intrauterine-extrauterine pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 75:498–501, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  831. Porreco, R.P., Barton, S.M. and Haverkamp, A.D.: Occlusion of umbilical artery in acardiac, acephalic twin. Lancet 337: 326–327, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  832. Porter, R.P. and Gengozian, N.: Immunological tolerance and rejection of skin allografts in the marmoset. Transplantation 8:653–665, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  833. Potter, E.L.: Twin zygosity and placental form in relation to the outcome of pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 87:566–577, 1963.Google Scholar
  834. Powers, W.F.: Twin pregnancy: complications and treatment. Obstet. Gynecol. 42:795–808, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  835. Powers, W.F. and Kiely, J.L.: The risks confronting twins: a national perspective. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170:456–461, 1994.Google Scholar
  836. Powers, W.F. and Miller, T.C.: Bed rest in twin pregnancy: identifi cation of a critical period and its cost implications. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 134:23–29, 1979.Google Scholar
  837. Preis, A. and Srubarova, M.: Cardiological findings in twins, with special references to their zygosity and peristasis. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 15:190–198, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  838. Pretorius, D.H., Manchester, D., Barkin, S., Parker, S. and Nelson, T.R.: Doppler ultrasound of twin transfusion syndrome. J. Ultrasound Med. 7:117–124, 1988a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  839. Pretorius, D.H., Leopold, G., Moore, T.R., Benirschke, K. and Sivo, J.J.: Acardiac twin: report of Doppler sonography. J. Ultrasound Med. 7:413–416, 1988b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  840. Price, B.: Primary biases in twin studies: review of prenatal and natal differences-producing factors in monozygotic pairs. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 2:293–352, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  841. Pridjian, G., Nugent, C.E. and Barr, M.: Twin gestation: influence of placentation on fetal growth. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165:1394–1401, 1991.Google Scholar
  842. Puckett, J.D.: Fetal death of second twin in second trimester. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:740–741, 1988.Google Scholar
  843. Quigley, C.: Conjoined twins: An Historical, Biological and Ethical Issues Encyclopedia. McFarland & Co., Jefferson, North Carolina, 2003.Google Scholar
  844. Quigley, J.K.: Mono-amniotic twin pregnancy: case record with review of literature. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 29:354–362, 1935.Google Scholar
  845. Quintero, R.A., Reich, H., Puder, K.S., Bardicef, M., Evans, M. I., Cotton, D.B. and Romero, R.: Brief report: umbilical-cord ligation of an acardiac twin by fetoscopy at 19 weeks of gestation. NEJM 330:469–471, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  846. Quintero, R.A., Lanouette, J., Carreño, C.A., King, M., Johnson, M.P., Sudz, C., Romero, R. and Evans, M.I.: Percutaneous ligation and transection of the umbilical cord in complicated monoamniotic twin gestations via operative fetoscopy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176:S19 (abstract 43), 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  847. Quintero, R.A., Morales, W.J., Allen, M.H., Bornick, P.W., Johnson, P.K. and Kruger, M.: Staging of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J. Perinatol. 19:550–555, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  848. Quintero, R.A., Dickinson, J.E., Morales, W.J., Bornick, P.W., Bermúdez, C., Cincotta, R., Chan, F.Y. and Allen, M.H.: Stagebased treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 188:1333–1340, 2003a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Quintero, R.A., Mueller, O.T., Martinez, J.M., Arroyo, J., Gilbert-Barness, E., Hilbelink, D., Papenhausen, P. and Sutcliffe, M.: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome in a dizygotic monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy: J. Matern.-Fetal Neonatal. Med. 14:279–281, 2003b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  850. Ramos-Arroyo, M.A., Ulbright, T.M. and Christian, J.C.: Twin study: relationship between birth weight, zygosity, placentation, and pathologic placental changes. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 37:229–238, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  851. Raphael, S.I.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy: a review of the literature and a report of 5 new cases. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:323–330, 1961.Google Scholar
  852. Rashad, M.N. and Kerr, M.G.: Observations on the so-called holoacardius amorphus. J. Anat. 100:425–426, 1966.Google Scholar
  853. Rausen, A.R., Seki, M. and Strauss, L.: Twin transfusion syndrome: a review of 19 cases studied at one institution. J. Pediatr. 66:613–628, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  854. Rayburn, W.F. and Barr, M.: Teratomas: concordance in mother and fetus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144:110–112, 1982.Google Scholar
  855. Rayburn, W.F., Lavin, J.P., Miodovnik, M. and Varner, M.W.: Multiple gestation: time interval between delivery of the first and second twins. Obstet. Gynecol. 63:502–506, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  856. Record, R.G., McKeown, T. and Edwards, J.H.: An investigation of the difference on measured intelligence between twins and single births. Ann. Hum. Genet. 34:11–20, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  857. Redline, R.W.: Nonidentical twins with a single placenta—disproving dogma in perinatal pathology. NEJM 349:111–114, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  858. Redline, R.W., Shah, D., Sakar, H., Schluchter, M. and Salvator, A.: Placental lesions associated with abnormal growth in twins. Pediatr. Developm. Pathol. 4:473–481, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  859. Reed, T., Sprague, F.R., Kang, K.W., Nance, W.E. and Christian, J.C.: Genetic analysis of dermatoglyphic patterns in twins. Hum. Hered. 25:263–275, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  860. Rehder, H., Geisler, M., Kleinbrecht, J. and Degenhardt, K.H.: Monozygotic twins with 47,XXY karyotype and discordant malformations. Teratology 17:5a, 1978.Google Scholar
  861. Reisner, D.P., Mahony, B.S., Petty, C.N., Nyberg, D.A., Porter, T.F., Zingheim, R.W., Williams, M.A. and Luthy, D.A.: Stuck twin syndrome: outcome in thirty-seven consecutive cases. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:991–995, 1993.Google Scholar
  862. Reisner, S.H., Forbes, A.E. and Cornblath, M.: The smaller of twins and hypoglycaemia. Lancet 1:524–526, 1965.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  863. Reitnauer, P.J., Callanan, N.P., Farber, R.A. and Aylsworth, A.S.: Prenatal exposure to disulfiram implicated in the cause of malformations in discordant monozygotic twins. Teratology 56:358–362, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  864. Renkonen, K.O.: Is Weinberg’s differential rule defective? Ann. Hum. Genet. 30:277–280, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  865. Rhine, S.A. and Nance, W.E.: Familial twinning: a case for superfetation in man. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 25:66–69, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  866. Rice-Wray, E., Cervantes, A., Gutierrez, J. and Marquez-Monter, H.: Pregnancy and progeny after hormonal contraceptives—genetic studies. J. Reprod. Med. 6:101–104, 1971.Google Scholar
  867. Richart, R. and Benirschke, K.: Holoacardius amorphus: report of a case with chromosome analysis. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:329–332, 1963.Google Scholar
  868. Ries, M., Beinder, E., Gruner, C. and Zenker, M.: Rapid development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin following death of the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J. Perinat. Med. 27:68–73, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  869. Rijnders, P.M. and Jansen, C.A.: Increased incidence of monozygotic twinning following the transfer of blastocysts in human IVF/ICSI. Fertil. Steril. 70: S15–16 (abstract O-040), 1998a.Google Scholar
  870. Rijnders, P.M. and Jansen, C.A.: The predictive value of day 3 embryo morphology regarding blastocyst formation, pregnancy and implantation rate after day 5 transfer following in-vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Human Reprod. 13:2869–2873, 1998b.Google Scholar
  871. Roberge, J.L.: Sympodia in identical twins: report of a case. JAMA 186:728–729, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  872. Roberts, S.J.: Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Edwards Broths, Ann Arbor, 1956.Google Scholar
  873. Robertson, E.G. and Neer, K.J.: Placental injection studies in twin gestation. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147:170–175, 1983.Google Scholar
  874. Robertson, J.G.: Twin pregnancy: morbidity and fetal mortality. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:330–337, 1964a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  875. Robertson, J.G.: Twin pregnancy: influence of early admission on fetal survival. Obstet. Gynecol. 23:854–860, 1964b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  876. Robertson, J.G.: Blood grouping in twin pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 76:154–156, 1969.Google Scholar
  877. Robie, G.F., Payne, G.G. and Morgan, M.A.: Selective delivery of an acardiac, acephalic twin. NEJM 320:512–513, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  878. Robinson, H.P. and Caines, J.S.: Sonar evidence of early pregnancy failure in patients with twin conceptions. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 84:22–25, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  879. Rodeck, C., Deans, A. and Jauniaux, E.: Thermocoagulation for the early treatment of pregnancy with an acardiac twin. NEJM 339:1293–1295, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  880. Rodis, J.F., Vintzileos, A.M., Campbell, W.A., Deaton, J.L., Fumia, F. and Nochimson, J.: Antenatal diagnosis and management of monoamniotic twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157:1255–1257, 1987.Google Scholar
  881. Rodis, J.F., McIlveen, P.F., Egan, J.F.X., Borgida, A.F., Turner, G.W. and Campbell, W.A.: Monoamniotic twins: improved perinatal survival with accurate prenatal diagnosis and antenatal fetal surveillance. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177:1046–1049, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  882. Rohmer, A., Ruch, J.-V., Schneegans, E. and Clavert, J.: Jumeaux dizygotes, l’un 47 XX 21+ et cliniquement mongolien, l’autre 46 XX/47 XX 21+ et cliniquement non mongolien. Pediatrie 26:209–213, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  883. Romero, R., Duffy, T.P., Berkowitz, R.L., Chang, E. and Hobbins, J.C.: Prolongation of a preterm pregnancy complicated by death of a single twin in utero and disseminated intravascular coagulation: effects of treatment with heparin. NEJM 310:772–774, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  884. Roos, F.J., Roter, A.M. and Molina, F.A.: A case of triplets including anomalous twins and a fetus compressus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 73:1342–1345, 1957.Google Scholar
  885. Ropacka, M., Markwitz, W. and Blickstein, I.: Treatment options for the twin-twin transfusion syndrome: A review. Twin Res. 5:507–514, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  886. Rosa, F.W., Hernandez, C. and Carlo, W.A.: Griseofulvin teratology, including two thoracopagus conjoined twins. Lancet 1:171, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  887. Rosenfeld, C.R., Coln, C.D. and Duenhoelter, J.H.: Fetal teratomas as a cause of polyhydramnios. Pediatrics 64:176–179, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  888. Rosenquist, G.C.: Parabiotic syndrome. NEJM 269:161–162, 1963.Google Scholar
  889. Ross, J.R.W.: An acardius amorphus in a triplet pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 58:835–838, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  890. Ross, R.K., Bernstein, L., Judd, H., Hanisch, R., Pike, M. and Henderson, B.: Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 76:45–48, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  891. Rothman, K.J.: Fetal loss, twinning and birth weight after oralcontraceptive use. NEJM 297:468–471, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  892. Rouse, D.J., Skopec, G.S., Zlatnik, F.J.: Fundal height as a predictor of preterm twin delivery. Obstet. Gynecol. 81:211–214, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  893. Runner, M.N.: New evidence for monozygotic twins in the mouse: twinning initiated in the late blastocyst can account for mirror image asymmetries. Anat. Rec. 209:399–406, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  894. Russell, E.M.: Cerebral palsied twins. Arch. Dis. Child. 36:328–336, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  895. Ryan, K.J.: Paternity and pedigree, from superfecundation to “test-tube” babies. NEJM 299:603, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  896. Ryan, R.R. and Wislocki, G.B.: The birth of quadruplets, with an account of the placentas and fetal membranes. NEJM 250:755–758, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  897. Rydhstroem, H.: Twin pregnancy and the effects of prophylactic leave of absence on pregnancy duration and birth weight. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 67:81–84, 1988.Google Scholar
  898. Rydhstroem, H.: The relationship of birth weight and birth weight discordance to cerebral palsy or mental retardation later in life for twins weighing less than 2500 grams. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173:680–686, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  899. Saade, G., Olson, G.L., Belfort, M. and Moise, K.: Amniotomy: a new approach to the “stuck twin” syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172:429 (abstract 622), 1995.Google Scholar
  900. Sacks, M.O.: Occurrence of anemia and polycythemia in phenotypically dissimilar single-ovum human twins. Pediatrics 24:604–608, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  901. Saier, F., Burden, L. and Cavanagh, D.: Fetus papyraceus: an unusual case with congenital anomaly of the surviving fetus. Obstet. Gynecol. 45:217–220, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  902. Sala, M.A. and Matheus, M.: Placental characteristics in twin transfusion syndrome. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 246:51–56, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  903. Salat-Baroux, J., Alvarez, S. and Antoine, J.M.: A case of triple monoamniotic pregnancy combined with a bioamniotic twinning after in-vitro fertilization. Human Reprod. 9:374–375, 1994.Google Scholar
  904. Salihu, H.M., Aliyu, M.H., Kirby, R.S. and Alexander, G.R.: Effect of advanced maternal age on early mortality among quadruplets and quintuplets. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190:383–388, 2004a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  905. Salihu, H.M., Williams, A.T., McCainey, T.T.N., Kirby, R.S. and Alkexander, G.R.: Early mortality among triplets in the United States: black-white disparity. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190:477–484, 2004b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  906. Samon, L.M., Ash, K.M. and Murdison, K.A.: Aorto-pulmonary calcification an unusual manifestation of idiopathic calcification of infancy evident prenatally. Obstet. Gynecol. 85:863–865, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  907. Sander, C.H.: Fetus papyraceus. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 145:895–896, 1983.Google Scholar
  908. Sato, T., Kaneko, K., Konuma, S., Sato, I. and Tamada, T.: Acardiac anomalies: review of 88 cases in Japan. Asia Oceania J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 10:45–52, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  909. Saunders, M.C., Dick, J.S., McPherson, K. and Chalmers, I.: The effect of hospital admission for bed rest on the duration of twin pregnancy: a randomized trial. Lancet 2:793–795, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  910. Saunders, N.J., Snijders, R.J.M. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Therapeutic amniocentesis in twin-twin transfusion syndrome appearing in the second trimester of pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 166:820–824, 1992.Google Scholar
  911. Schatz, F.: Zur Frage über die Quelle des Fruchtwassers und über Embryones papyracei. Arch. Gynäkol. 7:336–338, 1875. 19:329, 1882.Google Scholar
  912. Schatz, F.: Die Gefässverbindungen der Placentarkreisläufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen. Arch. Gynäkol. 27:1–72, 1886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  913. Schatz, F.: Die Acardii und ihre Verwandten. Hirschwald, Berlin, 1898.Google Scholar
  914. Schatz, F.: Systematisches und alphabetisches Inhaltsverzeichniss von Friedrich Schatz: Placentakreisläufe eineiiger Zwillinge, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Folgen, in Band 19, 24, 27, 29, 30, 53, 55, 58, 60. Arch. Gynäkol. 60:559–584, 1900. [Systematic index of Schatz’s work on twins, with specific references to his citing various features of twin placentas, and authorities quoted.]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  915. Scheller, J.M. and Nelson, K.B.: Twinning and neurologic morbidity. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 146:110–1113, 1992.Google Scholar
  916. Schenker, J.G., Yarkoni, S. and Granat, M.: Multiple pregnancies following induction of ovulation. Fertil. Steril. 35:105–123, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  917. Schieve, L.A., Meikle, S.F., Ferre, C., Peterson, H.B., Jeng, G. and Wilcox, L.S.: Low and very low birth weight in infants conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology. NEJM 346:731–737, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  918. Schinzel, A.A.G.L., Smith, D.W. and Miller, J.R.: Monozygotic twinning and structural defects. J. Pediatr. 95:921–930, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  919. Schmid, O., Trautmann, U., Ashour, H., Ulmer, R., Pfeiffer, R. A. and Beinder, E.: Prenatal diagnosis of heterokaryotypic twins discordant for fetal sex. Prenat. Diagn. 20:999–1003, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  920. Schmidt, W., Heberling, D. and Kubli, F.: Antepartum ultrasonographic diagnosis of conjoined twins in early pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139:961–963, 1981.Google Scholar
  921. Schneider, K.T.M., Vetter, K., Huch, R. and Huch, A.: Acute polyhydramnios complicating twin pregnancies. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 34:179–184, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  922. Scholtes, G.: Zum Problem der Zwillingsschwangerschaft. Arch. Gynäkol. 210:188–207, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  923. Schwalbe, E.: Acardii und Verwandte. In, Die Missbildungen des Menschen und der Tiere. Vol. II. Die Doppelbildungen. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1907.Google Scholar
  924. Schwartz, J.L., Maniscalco, W.M., Lane, A.T. and Currao, W.J.: Twin transfusion syndrome causing cutaneous erythropoiesis. Pediatrics 74:527–529, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  925. Scipiades, E. and Burg, E.: Über die Morphologie der menschlichen Plazenta mit besonderer Berücksichtigung auf unsere eigenen Studien. Arch. Gynäkol. 141:577–619, 1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  926. Scott, F. and Evans, N.: Distal gangrene in a polycythemic recipient fetus in twin-twin transfusion. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:677–679, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  927. Scott, J.M. and Ferguson-Smith, M.A.: Heterokaryotypic monozygotic twins and the acardiac monster. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 80:52–59, 1973.Google Scholar
  928. Sebire, N.J., Sepulveda, W., Hughes, K.S., Noble, P. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Management of twin pregnancies discordant for anencephaly. Brit. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 104:216–219, 1997a.Google Scholar
  929. Sebire, N.J., Sherod, C., Abbas, A., Snijders, R.J.M. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Preterm delivery and growth restriction in mutifetal pregnancies reduced to twins. Human Reprod. 12:173–175, 1997b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  930. Sebire, N.J., Snijders, R.J.M., Hughes, K., Sepulveda, W. and Nicolaides, K.H.: The hidden mortality of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Brit. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 104:1203–1207, 1997c.Google Scholar
  931. Sekiya, S. and Hafez, E.S.E.: Physiomorphology of twin transfusion syndrome: a study of 86 twin gestations. Obstet. Gynecol. 50:288–292, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  932. Sekiya, S.-I., Akamatsu, H., Kaneko, K. and Takeishi, Y.: Report of a case: placental vascular communications between triplet fetuses; triplet transfusion syndrome. J. Jpn. Neonatol. Soc. (Nihon Shinseiji Gakkai Zasshi) 9:89–96, 1973.Google Scholar
  933. Selby, L.A., Khalili, A., Stewart, R.W., Edmonds, L.D. and Marienfeld, C.J.: Pathology and epidemiology of conjoined twinning in swine. Teratology 8:1–10, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  934. Selvin, S.: Twin zygosity diagnosis by blood group antigens. Hum. Hered. 20:540–548, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  935. Semchyshyn, S., Mangurten, H., Benawra, R., Trujillo, Y., Fernandez, B. and McKeown, J.C.: Fetal Tumor: antenatal diagnosis and its implications. J. Reprod. Med. 27:231–234, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  936. Semmens, J.P.: Monoamniotic twin pregnancy: delivery of living premature twins after uterine rupture; a case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 12:75–77, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  937. Senat, M.-V., Deprest, J., Boulvain, M., Paupe, A., Winer, N. and Ville, Y.: Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. NEJM 351:136–144, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  938. Seo, J.W., Shin, S.S. and Chi, J.G.: Cardiovascular system in conjoined twins: an analysis of 14 Korean cases. Teratology 32:151–161, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  939. Seoud, M.A.-F., Toner, J.P., Kruithoff, C., Muasher, S.J.: Outcome of twin, triplet, and quadruplet in vitro fertilization pregnancies: the Norfolk experience. Fertil. Steril. 57:825–834, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  940. Sepulveda, W., Bower, S., Hassan, J. and Fisk, N.M.: Ablation of acardiac twin by alcohol injection into the intra-abdominal umbilical artery. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:680–681, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  941. Sepulveda, W., Sebire, N.J., Odibo, A., Psarra, A. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Prenatal determination of chorionicity in triplet pregnancy by ultrasonographic examination of the Ipsilon zone. Obstet. Gynecol. 88:855–858, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  942. Sepulveda, W., Surerus, E., Vandecruys, H. and Nicolaides, K.H.: Fetofetal transfusion syndrome in triplet pregnancies: Outcome after endoscopic laser surgery. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 192:161–164, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  943. Sergi, C. and Schmitt, H.P.: Central nervous system in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with special reference to examination of the brain in acardius anceps. Teratology 61:284–290, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  944. Seski, A.G. and Miller, L.A.: Plural pregnancies-the cause of plural problems. Obstet. Gynecol. 21:227–233, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  945. Shah, D.M. and Chaffin, D.: Perinatal outcome in very preterm births with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:1111–1113, 1989.Google Scholar
  946. Shahabi, S., Donner, C., Wallond, J., Schlikker, I., Avni, E.F. and Rodesch, F.: Monoamniotic twin cord entanglement. A case report with color flow Doppler ultrasonography for antenatal diagnosis. J. Reprod. Med. 42:740–742, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  947. Shapiro, L.R. and Farnsworth, P.G.: Down’s syndrome in twins. Clin. Genet. 2:364–370, 1972.Google Scholar
  948. Shapiro, L.R., Zemek, L. and Shulman, M.J.: Familial monozygotic twinning: an autosomal dominant form of monozygotic twinning with variable penetrance. Pp 61–63. In: Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. Volume 24B. Twin Research. Part B. Biology and Epidemiology. W.E. Nance, ed., G. Allen and P. Parisi, Associate eds. A.R. Liss, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  949. Shapiro, L.R., Wilmot, P.L., Duncan, P.A., Davidian, M.M., Fakhry, J. and Capone, A.J.: Holoacardius acephalus: cytogenetic abnormalities as the principle pathogenetic mechanism. Proc. Greenwood Genet. Center 5:128, 1986.Google Scholar
  950. Sheffer-Mimouni, G., Littner, Y., Mimouni, F.B., Mandel, D., Deutsch, V. and Dollberg, S.: Nucleated red blood cells in concordant, appropriate-for-gestational age twins. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191:1291–1295, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  951. Sherer, D.M., Armstrong, B., Shah, Y.G., Metlay, L.A. and Woods, J.R.: Prenatal sonographic diagnosis, Doppler velocimetric umbilical cord studies, and subsequent management of an acardiac twin pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 74:472–475, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  952. Sherer, D.M., Abramowicz, J.S., Jaffe, R., Smith, S.A., Metlay, L.A. and Woods, J.R.: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome with abrupt onset of microcephaly in the surviving recipient following spontaneous death of the donor twin. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169:85–88, 1993.Google Scholar
  953. Shevell, T., Malone, F.D., Weintraub, J., Thaker, H.M. and d’Alton, M.E.: Radiofrequency ablation in a monochorionic twin discordant for fetal anomalies. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190:575–576, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  954. Shorland, J.: Management of the twin transfusion syndrome. Clin. Pediatr. 10:160–163, 1971.Google Scholar
  955. Short, R.V.: Testis size, ovulation rate and breast cancer. In: One Medicine. O.A. Ryder and M.L. Byrd, eds., pp. 32–44. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  956. Sills, E.S., Tucker, M.J. and Palermo, G.D.: Assisted reproductive technologies and monozygous twins: implications for future study and clinical practice. Twin Res. 3:217–223, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  957. Sills, E.S., Sweitzer, C.L., Morton, P.C., Perloe, M., Kaplan, C.R. and Tucker, M.J.: Dizygotic twin delivery following in vitro fertilization and transfer of thawed blastocysts cryopreserved at day 6 and 7. Fertil. Steril. 79:424–427, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  958. Simonds, J.P. and Gowen, G.A.: Fetus amorphus. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 41:171–179, 1925.Google Scholar
  959. Simonsen, M.: Monoamniotic twins. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 45:43–52, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  960. Simpson, C.W., Olatunbosun, O.A. and Baldwin, V.J.: Delayed interval delivery in triplet pregnancy: report of a single case and review of the literature. Obstet. Gynecol. 64:8S–11S, 1984.PubMed