Kindling 6 pp 27-36 | Cite as

Neonatal Heat-Induced Convulsions Affect Behaviours in Neonatal, Juvenile and Adult Rats

  • Deborah Saucier
  • Avril Keller
  • Aaron Sheerin
  • R. Daniel LaPorte
  • Jerome Y. Yager
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 55)


Febrile convulsions are a common form of childhood seizure, occurring in approximately 2–5 % of infants and young children.1 Simple febrile convulsions are the most common, defined as a generalized seizure of short duration (<15 minutes) that occurs during a febrile illness,2, 3 in a child between the ages of 6 months to 6 years. The significance of simple febrile convulsions is debated, with many considering them to be benign, as they do not result in gross neuropathology4 nor do they increase the risk of partial-complex epilepsy (e.g., 5 2, 6) or cognitive impairments.7, 8, 9 Conversely, some researchers have observed that in adulthood, individuals who have experienced simple febrile convulsions have a slightly higher risk of partial-complex epilepsy in later life (e.g., 3, l0) and may exhibit cognitive deficits, including: decreased ability to sustain attention; deficits in some types of learning and non-verbal memory; delayed recognition; and decreased visuomotor skills (e.g., 1, 11). As such, the question of whether febrile convulsions enhance susceptibility to seizure disorders, cognitive impairments or other pathologies remains unresolved.


Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Febrile Seizure Febrile Convulsion Ultrasonic Vocalization Object Location Memory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

6. References

  1. 1.
    W. Kolfen, K. Pehle, and S. Konig, Is the long-term outcome of children following febrile convulsions favorable? Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 40, 667–671 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.U. Knudsen, Febrile seizures: treatment and prognosis, Epilepsia 41, 2–9 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.J. Baumann, Prevention and management of febrile seizures, Paediatr. Drugs 3, 585–592 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.E. VanLandingham, E.R. Heinz, J.E. Cavazos, and D.V. Lewis, Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal injury after prolonged focal febrile convulsions, Ann. Neurol. 43, 413–426 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.F. Annegers, W.A. Hauser, S.B. Shirts, and L.T. Kurland, Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions, N. Engl. J. Med. 316, 493–498 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Lee, M. Diaz, and J.C. Melchior, Temporal lobe epilepsy-not a consequence of childhood febrile convulsions in Denmark, Acta Neurol. Scand. 63, 231–236 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.C. Chang, N.W. Guo, S.T. Wang, C.C. Huang, and J.J. Tsai, Working memory of school-aged children with a history of febrile convulsions: a population study, Neurology 57, 37–42 (2001).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.H. Ellenberg, D.G. Hirtz, and K.B. Nelson, Do seizures in children cause intellectual deterioration? N. Engl. J. Med. 314, 1085–1088 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    CM. Verity, R. Greenwood, and J. Golding, Long-term intellectual and behavioral outcomes of children with febrile convulsions, N. Engl. J. Med. 338, 1723–1728 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Kanemoto, N. Takuji, J. Kawasaki, and I. Kawai, Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 64, 245–248 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.J. Wallace, and A.M. Cull, Long-term psychological outlook for children whose first fit occurs with fever, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 21, 28–40 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T.Z. Baram, A. Gerth, and L. Schultz, Febrile seizures: an appropriate-aged model suitable for long-term studies, Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 98, 265–270 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Holtzman, K. Obana, and J. Olson, Hyperthermia-induced seizures in the rat pup: a model for febrile convulsions in children, Science 213, 1034–1036 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.L. Holmes, and Y. Ben-Ari, Seizures in the developing brain: perhaps not so benign after all, Neuron 21, 1231–1234 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.A. McCaughran, Jr., and N. Schechter, Experimental febrile convulsions: long-term effects of hyperthermia-induced convulsions in the developing rat, Epilepsia 23, 173–183 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.G. Nealis, N.P. Rosman, T.J. De Piero, and E.M. Ouellette, Neurologic sequelae of experimental febrile convulsions, Neurology 28, 246–250 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Dube, K. Chen, M. Eghbal-Ahmadi, K. Brunson, I. Soltesz, and T.Z. Baram, Prolonged febrile seizures in the immature rat model enhance hippocampal excitability long term, Ann. Neurol. 47, 336–344 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Jiang, T.M. Duong, and N.C. de Lanerolle, The neuropathology of hyperthermic seizures in the rat, Epilepsia 40, 5–19 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y.C. Chang, A.M. Huang, Y.M. Kuo, S.T. Wang, Y.Y Chang, and C.C. Huang, Febrile seizures impair memory and cAMP response-element binding protein activation, Ann. Neurol. 54, 706–718 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Werboff, and J. Havlena, Febrile Convulsions in Infant Rats, and Later Behavior, Science 142, 684–685 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.A. Kornelsen, F. Boon, L.S. Leung, and D.P. Cain, The effects of a single neonatally induced convulsion on spatial navigation, locomotor activity and convulsion susceptibility in the adult rat, Brain Res. 706, 155–159 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Janus, Effects of early separation of young rats from the mother on their open-field behavior, Physiol. Behav. 40, 711–715 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Kalinichev, K.W. Easterling, P.M. Plotsky, and S.G. Holtzman, Long-lasting changes in stress-induced corticosterone response and anxiety-like behaviors as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long-Evans rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 73, 131–140 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Zimmerberg, A.J. Rosenthal, and A.C. Stark, Neonatal social isolation alters both maternal and pup behaviors in rats, Dev. Psychobiol. 42, 52–63 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.N. Shair, S.A. Brunelli, J.R. Masmela, E. Boone, and M.A. Hofer, Social, thermal, and temporal influences on isolation-induced and maternally potentiated ultrasonic vocalizations of rat pups, Dev. Psychobiol. 42, 206–222 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.N. Shair, J.R. Masmela, S.A. Brunelli, and M.A. Hofer, Potentiation and inhibition of ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups: regulation by social cues, Dev. Psychobiol. 30, 195–200 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Sokoloff, and M.S. Blumberg, Thermogenic, respiratory, and ultrasonic responses of week-old rats across the transition from moderate to extreme cold exposure, Dev. Psychobiol. 30, 181–194 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.T. Allin, and E.M. Banks, Functional aspects of ultrasound production by infant albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), Anim. Behav. 20, 175–185 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.M. Brudzynski, P. Kehoe, and M. Callahan, Sonographic structure of isolation-induced ultrasonic calls of rat pups, Dev. Psychobiol. 34, 195–204 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Velisek, and S.L. Moshe, Temporal lobe epileptogenesis and epilepsy in the developing brain: bridging the gap between the laboratory and the clinic. Progression, but in what direction? Epilepsia 44, 51–59 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y.C. Chang, N.W. Guo, C.C. Huang, S.T. Wang, and J.J. Tsai, Neurocognitive attention and behavior outcome of school-age children with a history of febrile convulsions: a population study, Epilepsia 41, 412–420 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah Saucier
    • 1
  • Avril Keller
    • 1
  • Aaron Sheerin
    • 1
  • R. Daniel LaPorte
    • 1
  • Jerome Y. Yager
    • 2
  1. 1.University of SaskatchewanSaskatoon
  2. 2.Stollery Children’s HospitalEdmonton

Personalised recommendations