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Chemokines and Their Receptors and the Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

  • Howard E. Gendelman
  • Eric R. Anderson
  • Loyda Melendez
  • Jialin Zheng
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Diseases and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a broad spectrum of behavioral, motor, and cognitive dysfunctions. In its most severe form, HIV-1-associated dementia or HAD, occurs late in viral infection, often associated with profound immunosuppression. Disease is perpetuated by cellular and viral neurotoxins produced from brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages and microglia) without direct infection of neurons. Such MP neurotoxins are, in measure, homeostatic immune products that negatively affect neuronal function when produced in abundance. Induction of disease through metabolic events perpetrated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, platelet-activating factor, arachidonic acid and its metabolites, nitric oxide, quinolinc acid, glutamate viral structural, and regulatory proteins makes the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection unique.

Keywords

Chemokine Receptor Functional Chemokine Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard E. Gendelman
    • 1
  • Eric R. Anderson
    • 2
  • Loyda Melendez
    • 2
  • Jialin Zheng
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience Pathology and Microbiology and Internal MedicineUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmaha
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Specialized NeuroSciences ProgramUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences CampusSan Juan
  3. 3.Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental NeuroScience and Pathology and Microbiology, and PharmacologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmaha

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