Advertisement

Acrylamide in Food: The Discovery and Its Implications

A Historical Perspective
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 561)

Abstract

The unexpected finding that humans are regularly exposed to relatively high doses of acrylamide (AA) through normal consumption of cooked food was a result of systematic research and relevant developments in methodology over decades, as well as a chain of certain coincidences. The present paper describes the scientific approach, investigations and events leading to the discovery of the formation of AA during cooking of foods. In addition, related issues concerning assessment, communication and management of cancer risks and associated ethical questions raised by the finding of the presence of AA in foods will be discussed.

Key words

Acrylamide glycidamide cooking hemoglobin adducts health risk occupational exposure grouting 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergmark, E., 1992, Hemoglobin Dosimetry and Comparative Toxicity of Acrylamide and its Metabolite Glycidamide, Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Radiobiology, Stockholm University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  2. Bergmark, E., 1997, Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and acetonitrile in laboratory workers, smokers, and nonsmokers, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10: 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergmark, E., Calleman, C.J., He, F., and Costa, L.G., 1993, Determination of hemoglobin adducts in humans occupationally exposed to acrylamide, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 120: 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calleman, C.-J., 1996, The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of acrylamide: Implications for mechanisms of toxicity and human risk, Drug Metab. Rev. 28: 527–590.Google Scholar
  5. Calleman, C.J., Ehrenberg, L., Jansson, B., Osterman-Golkar, S., Segerbäck, D., Svensson, K., and Wachtmeister, C.A., 1978, Monitoring and risk assessment by means of alkyl groups in hemoglobin in persons occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 2: 427–442.Google Scholar
  6. Calleman, C.-J., Bergmark, E., and Costa, L.G., 1990, Acrylamide is metabolized to glycidamide in the rat: evidence from hemoglobin adduct formation, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 3: 406–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calleman, C.-J., Wu, Y., He, F., Tian, G., Bergmark, E., Zhang, S., Deng, H., Wang, Y., Crofton, K. M., et al., 1994, Relationships between biomarkers of exposure and neurological effects in a group of workers exposed to acrylamide, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 126: 361–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dybing, E., and Sanner, T., 2003, Risk assessment of acrylamide in foods. Toxicol. Sci. 75(1): 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehrenberg, L., 1974, Genetic toxicology of environmental chemicals, Acta Biol. Iugosl. Ser. F. Genetica 6: 367–398.Google Scholar
  10. Ehrenberg, L., Moustacchi, E., and Osterman-Golkar, S., 1983, Dosimetry of genotoxic agents and dose-response relationships of their effects, Mutat. Res. 123: 121–182.Google Scholar
  11. Ehrenberg, L., Granath, F., and Törnqvist, M., 1996, Macromolecule adducts as biomarkers of exposure to environmental mutagens in human populations, Environ. Health Perspect. 104:Suppl. 3, 423–428.Google Scholar
  12. EC, 2000, (June 18, 2001) Risk assessment of acrylamide. Draft Risk Assessment Report. October 2000, http://ecb.jrc.it/existing-chemicals/.Google Scholar
  13. Friedman, M., 2003, Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide. A review, J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 4504–4526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gamboa da Costa, G., Churchwell, M.I., Hamilton, L.P., Von Tungeln, L.S., Beland, F.A., Marques, M.M. and Doerge, D.R., 2003, DNA Adduct Formation from acrylamide via conversion to glycidamide in adult and neonatal mice, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 16: 1328–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Godin, A.C., Bengtsson, B., Niskanen, R., Tareke, E., Törnqvist, M., and Forslund, K., 2002, Acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide poisoning in a herd of Charolais crossbreed cattle, Vet. Rec. 151: 724–728.Google Scholar
  16. Granath, F., and Törnqvist, M. 2003 Who knows whether acrylamide in food is hazardous to humans? J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 95, 842–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Granath, F., Vaca, C., Ehrenberg, L., Törnqvist, M., 1999, Cancer risk estimation of genotoxic chemicals based on target dose and a multiplicative model, Risk Analysis, 19, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Granath, F., Ehrenberg, L., Paulsson, B., Törnqvist, M., 2001, Cancer risk from exposure to occupational acrylamide, Occup. Environ. Med. 58: 608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagmar, L., and Törnqvist, M. 2003 Inconclusive results from an epidemiological study on dietary acrylamide and cancer. Br. J. Cancer 89: 774–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagmar, L., Törnqvist, M., Nordander, C., Rosén, I., Bruze, M., Kautiainen, A. et al., 2001, Health effects of occupational exposure to acrylamide using hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of internal dose, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 27(4): 219–226.Google Scholar
  21. IARC. 1994, IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogen risk to humans: some industrial chemicals. No 60. 1994. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  22. Jensen, S., Törnqvist, M, and Ehrenberg, L., 1984, Hemoglobin as a dose monitor of alkylating agents: Determination of alkylation products of N-terminal valine, in: Individual Susceptibility to Genotoxic Agents in the Human Population. Environmental Science Research, F.J. de Serres and R.W. Pero, eds, Vol. 30, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 315–320.Google Scholar
  23. Kautiainen, A., Midtvedt, T., and Törnqvist, M., 1993, Intestinal bacteria and endogenous production of malonaldehyde and alkylators in mice, Carcinogenesis 14: 2633–2636.Google Scholar
  24. Licea-Pérez, H., 2000, In Vivo Dosimetry of Some Important Industrial Chemicals by Measurement of Their Reaction Products with Hemoglobin, Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Molecular Genome Research, Stockholm University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  25. Licea Pérez, H., and Osterman-Golkar, S., 2003, A sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for detection of alkylating agents in water: Application to acrylamide in drinking water, coffee and snuff, The Analyst 128(8): 1033–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Löfstedt, R.E., 2003, Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide “alarm”, J. Health Comm. 8: 407–432.Google Scholar
  27. Miller, E.C., and Miller, J.A., 1966, Mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis: nature of proximate carcinogens and their interactions with macromolecules. Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 805–838.Google Scholar
  28. Osterman-Golkar, S., Ehrenberg, L., Segerbäck, D., and Hällström, I., 1976, Evaluation of genetic risks of alkylating agents. II. Haemoglobin as a dose monitor. Mutat Res. 34: 1–10.Google Scholar
  29. Paulsson, B., 2003, Dose Monitoring for Health Risk Assessment of Exposure to Acrylamides, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  30. Paulsson, B., Athanassiadis, I., Rydberg, P., and Törnqvist, M, 2003a, Hemoglobin adducts from glycidamide: acetonisering of hydrophilic groups for reproducible gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17: 1859–1865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paulsson, B., Kotova, N., Grawé, J., Granath, F., Henderson, A., Golding, B., and Törnqvist, M., 2003b, Induction of micronuclei in mouse and rat by glycidamide, the genotoxic metabolite of acrylamide, Mutat. Res. 535: 15–24.Google Scholar
  32. Rosén, J., and Hellenäs, K.-E., 2002, Analysis of acrylamide in cooked foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, Analyst 127: 880–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rydberg, P., Eriksson, S., Tareke, E., Karlsson, P., Ehrenberg, L., and Törnquist, M, 2005, Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods, in: Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food, M. Friedman and D.S. Mottram, eds. Springer, New York, pp. 317–328.Google Scholar
  34. Rydberg, P., Eriksson, S., Tareke, E., Karlsson, P., Ehrenberg, L., and Törnquist, M, 2004, Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods, in: Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food, Kluwer Academic, New York. (this volume)Google Scholar
  35. Schumacher, J.N., Green, C.R., Best, F.W., and Newell, M.P., 1977, Smoke composition. An extensive investigation of the water-soluble portion of cigarette smoke, J. Agric. Food Chem, 25: 310–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Segerbäck, D., Calleman, C.J., Schroeder, J.L., Costa, L.G., and Faustman, E.M., 1995, Formation of N-7-(2-carbamoyl-2hydroxyethyl)guanine in DNA of the mouse and the rat following intraperitoneal administration of [14C]acrylamide. Carcinogenesis 16: 1161–1165.Google Scholar
  37. Solomon, J. J., Fedyk, J., Mukai, F., and Segal, A., 1985, Direct alkylation of 2’-deoxynucleosides and DNA following in vitro reaction with acrylamide. Cancer Research 45(8): 3465–3470.Google Scholar
  38. Svensson, K., Abramsson, L., Becker, W., Glynn, A., Hellenäs, K.-E., Lind, Y., and Rosén, J., 2003, Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden. Food Chem Toxicol 41(11): 1581–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sugimura, T., 2000, Nutrition and dietary carcinogens. Carcinogenesis 21: 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tareke, E., 1998, Studies on Background Carcinogens, Ph. Lic. Thesis, Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  41. Tareke, E., 2003, Identification and Origin of Potential Background Carcinogens: Endogenous Isoprene and Oxiranes, Dietary Acrylamide, Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  42. Tareke, E., Rydberg, P., Karlsson, P., Eriksson, S., and Törnqvist, M., 2000, Acrylamide: A cooking carcinogen? Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13: 517–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tareke, E., Rydberg, P., Karlsson, P., Eriksson, S., and Törnqvist, M., 2002, Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs, J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 4998–5006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tareke, E., and Törnqvist, M., 2001, Akrylamid — inte bara i Hallandsåsen utan även i stekta hamburgare, Vår Föda 2: 28–29.Google Scholar
  45. The Tunnel Commission, 1998, Kring Hallandsåsen [About Hallandsåsen]. SOU 1998:60, Stockholm, Miljödepartementet.Google Scholar
  46. Törnqvist, M., 1988, Search for unknown adducts: Increase of sensitivity through preselection by biochemical parameters, in: Methods for Detecting DNA Damaging Agents in Humans: Applications in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, H. Bartsch, K. Hemminki, and I.K. O’Neill, eds, IARC Sci. Publ. 89, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp. 378–383.Google Scholar
  47. Törnqvist, M., 1989, Monitoring and Cancer Risk Assessment of Carcinogens, Particularly Alkenes in Urban Air, Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Radiobiology, Stockholm University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  48. Törnqvist, M., 1996, Ethylene oxide as a biological reactive intermediate of endogenous origin, in: Biological Reactive Intermediates V, R. Snyder et al. eds, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 275–283.Google Scholar
  49. Törnqvist, M., and Hindsø Landin, H., 1995, Hemoglobin adducts for in vivo dose monitoring and cancer risk estimation, J. Occup. Environ. Med. 37: 1077–1085.Google Scholar
  50. Törnqvist, M., and Kautiainen, A., 1993, Adducted proteins for identification of endogenous electrophiles. Environ. Health Perspect. 99: 39–44.Google Scholar
  51. Törnqvist, M., Mowrer, J., Jensen, S., and Ehrenberg, L., 1986, Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method, Anal. Biochem. 154: 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Törnqvist, M., Gustafsson, B., Kautiainen, A., Harms-Ringdahl, M., Granath, F., and Ehrenberg, L. 1989, Unsaturated lipids and intestinal bacteria as sources of endogenous production of ethene and ethylene oxide, Carcinogenesis 10: 9–41.Google Scholar
  53. Törnqvist, M., Bergmark, E., Ehrenberg, L., and Granath, F., 1998, [Risk Assessment of Acrylamide] (in Swedish), National Chemicals Inspectorate, Sweden, PM 7/98.Google Scholar
  54. Törnqvist, M., Fred, C., Haglund, J., Helleberg, H., Paulsson, B., and Rydberg, P., 2002, Protein adducts: Quantitative and qualitative aspects of their formation, analysis and applications. J. Chromatogr. B 778(1–2): 279–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. WHO, 1996, Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd ed., World Health Organisation, Geneva, Vol 2, pp. 940–949.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Environmental ChemistryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations