Role of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Sleep Disorders



This chapter is designed to characterize how pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in sleep regulation. Basic observations demonstrate that cytokines have a physiological role in sleep regulation with both somnogenic and inhibitory effects depending on the cytokine, dose and diurnal and/or circadian phase. These basic mechanisms have not yet been translated into clinical applications, although they have tremendous implications for answering why sleep is disturbed in so many individuals, and may eventually provide effective treatment. Yet, relationships between cytokine expression and sleep in healthy and insomniac populations at different ages are a current topic of investigation in several laboratories. Circadian expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol have been evaluated in various studies. Generally speaking, older individuals do not show increased daytime sleepiness when compared to controls, but display more daytime fatigue in all studies


Sleep Disorder Chronic Insomnia Circadian Pacemaker Sleep Regulation Daytime Fatigue 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Dentistry PsychoneuroimmunologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos Angeles
  2. 2.Center for Community HealthUCLA Neuropsychiatric InstituteLos Angeles

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