Performance Impact of Mobility in an Emulated IP-based Multihop Radio Access Network

  • Philipp Hofmann
  • Christian Bettstetter
  • Jeremie Wehren
  • Christian Prehofer
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP International Federation for Information Processing book series (IFIPAICT, volume 162)


This paper investigates the performance of a multihop radio access network. In our testbed, nodes communicate to one access point using IEEE 802.11b and AODV routing. We measure the average packet delay and delivery ratio, if the node movement is emulated employing the random waypoint and random direction model, respectively. We find that random waypoint mobility yields up to 100% better results. This shows that the testbed performance is highly sensitive to the mobility model, even if comparable mobility behavior is assumed.


Multihop radio access routing performance mobility modeling testbed ad hoc routing AODV random waypoint model random direction model network emulation 


  1. [1]
    J. Broch, D. A. Maltz, and D. B. Johnson, “Supporting hierarchy and heterogenous interfaces in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proc. Workshop on Mobile Computing, (Perth, Australia), June 1999.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    U. Jönsson, F. Alriksson, T. Larsson, P. Johansson, and G. Q. Maguire, “MIP-MANET: Mobile IP for mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proc. ACM MobiHoc, (Boston, USA), Aug. 2000.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Y. Sun, E. M. Belding-Royer, and C. E. Perkins, “Internet connectivity for ad hoc mobile networks,” Intern. J. of Wireless Inform. Netw., vol. 9, Apr. 2002.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. Xi and C. Bettstetter, “Wireless multi-hop Internet access: Gateway discovery, routing, and addressing,” in Proc. 3Gwireless, (San Francisco, USA), May 2002.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    R. Wakikawa, J. T. Malinen, C. E. Perkins, A. Nilsson, and A. J. Tuominen, “Global connectivity for IPv6 mobile ad hoc networks.” IETF Draft, Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    N. Bayer, B. Xu, and S. Hischke, “An architecture for connecting ad hoc net-works with the IPv6 backbone (6Bone) using a wireless gateway,” in Proc. European Wireless (EW), (Barcelona, Spain), Feb. 2004.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    E. M. Belding-Royer and C. E. Perkins, “Evolution & future directions of the ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol,” Ad Hoc Netw., July 2003.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, Mobile Computing, ch. Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. Kluwer, Feb. 1996.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. A. Guérin, “Channel occupancy time distribution in a cellular radio system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 36, Aug. 1987.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    C. Bettstetter, “Mobility modeling in wireless networks: Categorization, smooth movement, and border effects,” ACM Mobile Comp. Commun. Rev., July 2001.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    E. M. Royer, P. M. Melliar-Smith, and L. E. Moser, “An analysis of the optimum node density for ad hoc mobile networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, (Helsinki, Finland), June 2001.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    C. Bettstetter and C. Wagner, “The spatial node distribution of the random waypoint mobility model,” in Proc. German Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (WMAN), (Ulm, Germany), Mar. 2002.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. M. Blough, G. Resta, and P. Santi, “A statistical analysis of the long-run node spatial distribution in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proc. ACM MSWiM, (Atlanta, USA), Sept. 2002.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C. Bettstetter, G. Resta, and P. Santi, “The node distribution of the random waypoint mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 2, July 2003.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. Bettstetter, H. Hartenstein, and X. Pérez-Costa, “Stochastic properties of the random waypoint mobility model,” ACM/Kluwer Wireless Netw., Sept. 2004.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. Navidi and T. Camp, “Stationary distributions for the random waypoint mobility model,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 3, Feb. 2004.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    “AODV-UU.” Scholar
  18. [18]
    W. Chao, J. P. Macker, and J. W. Winston, “NRL Mobile Network Emulator,” Tech. Rep. NRL/FR/5523-03-10,054, Naval Research Laboratory, Jan. 2003.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Jardosh, E. M. Belding-Royer, K. C. Almeroth, and S. Suri, “Towards realistic mobility models for mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proc. ACM MobiCom, (San Diego, USA), Sept. 2003.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. Kammann, M. Angermann, and B. Lami, “A new mobilty model based on maps,” in Proc. IEEE VTC, (Orlando, USA), Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. G. Jetcheva, Y.-C. Hu, S. PalChaudhuri, A. K. Saha, and D. B. Johnson, “Design and evaluation of a metropolitan area multitier wireless ad hoc network architecture,” in Proc. IEEE WMCSA, (Monterey, USA), Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, “Random waypoint considered harmful,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom, (San Francisco, USA), Apr. 2003.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. Hartmann and J. Eberspächer, “Adaptive radio resource management in F/TDMA cellular networks using smart antennas,” Eur. Trans. Telecom., Sept. 2001.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    B. Ghosh, “Random distances within a rectangle and between two rectangles,” Bull. Calcutta Math. Soc, vol. 43, 1951.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR).” IETF RFC 3626, Oct. 2003.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    C. Bettstetter, “Topology properties of ad hoc networks with random waypoint mobility,” in Proc. ACM MobiHoc, (Annapolis, USA), June 2003. Short paper.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    F. Bai, N. Sadagopan, and A. Helmy, “IMPORTANT: a framework to systematically analyze the impact of mobility on performance of routing protocols for ad hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom, (San Francisco, USA), Mar. 2003.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    P. Santi, “The critical transmitting range for connectivity in mobile ad hoc networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput, 2004. To appear.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    S. R. Das, C. E. Perkins, E. M. Royer, and M. K. Marina, “Performance comparison of two on-demand routing protocols for ad hoc networks,” IEEE Personal Commun. Mag., Feb. 2001.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    D. A. Maltz, J. Broch, and D. B. Johnson, “Lessons from a full-scale multihop wireless ad hoc network testbed,” IEEE Personal Commun. Mag., Feb. 2001.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    D. S. J. DeCouto, D. Aguayo, B. A. Chambers, and R. Morris, “Performance of multihop wireless networks: Shortest path is not enough,” in Proc. Workshop on Hot Topics in Networking (HotNets), (Princeton, USA), Oct. 2002.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    M. Möske, H. Füßler, H. Hartenstein, and W. Franz, “Performance measurements of a vehicular ad hoc network,” in Proc. IEEE VTC, (Milan, Italy), May 2004.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    M. Ghassemian, P. Hofmann, C. Prehofer, V. Friderikos, and H. Aghvami, “Performance analysis of Internet gateway discovery protocols in ad hoc networks,” in In Proc. IEEE WCNC, (Atlanta, USA), Mar. 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Federation for Information Processing 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Hofmann
    • 1
  • Christian Bettstetter
    • 1
  • Jeremie Wehren
    • 1
  • Christian Prehofer
    • 1
  1. 1.Future Networking LabDoCoMo Euro-LabsMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations