Asymptotic Pheromone Behavior in Swarm Intelligent MANETs

An Analytical Analysis of Routing Behavior
  • Martin Roth
  • Stephen Wicker
Part of the IFIP International Federation for Information Processing book series (IFIPAICT, volume 162)


An analytical justification is proposed for the design and global routing performance of three pheromone update methods proposed for use in Termite, a swarm intelligent routing algorithm for mobile wireless ad-hoc networks. A simple model is used in order to determine the average amount of pheromone present on a link, as well as some basic aspects of the pheromone dynamics. This includes a tendency towards a one-zero pheromone distribution favoring the better link. The pheromone update methods are investigated with the perspective that link pheromone is more an estimate of link utility than simply a routing heuristic. This allows the routing solution to be rephrased from a biological analogy to a more traditional best-metric routing terminology. A signal estimation perspective is suggested.


Node Mobility Packet Arrival Infinite Impulse Response Link Utility Packet Arrival Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Information Processing 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Roth
    • 1
  • Stephen Wicker
    • 1
  1. 1.Wireless Intelligent Systems Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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