Advertisement

Treatment Concepts

Chapter

Keywords

Fracture Reduction Closed Reduction Orthop Trauma Treatment Concept Femoral Shaft Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Skeletal Fixation

  1. 1.
    Acs G, Molmar L, Szabo L. Experiences with the surgical management of childhood fractures and epiphyseal injuries. Magyar Traumatol Orthop 1992;35:207–218.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akeson WH, Coutts RD, Woo SLY. Principles of less rigid internal fixation with plates. Can J Surg 1980;23:235–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso JE, Horowitz M. Use of the AO/ASIF external fixator in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1987;7:594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson LD. Compression plate fixation and the effect of different types of internal fixation on fracture healing. AAOS Instr Course Lect 1993;42:3–18.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Angermann P, Riegels-Nielsen P. Fibrin fixation of osteochondral talar fracture. Acta Orthop Scand 1990;61:551–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aronson J, Tursky EA. External fixation of femur fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1992;12:157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asche G. Behandlungs möglichkeiten mit dem Fixateur externe: Operationsindikationen bei Frakturen im Kindesalter. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asche G. Die Anwendung des Fixateur externe bei Kindlichen Frakturen. Zentral Chir 1986;111:391–397.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Asche G. Die dynamische Behandlung von handgelenksnahen und gelenksbeteiligten Speichenbrüchen mit einem neuartigen Bewegungsfixateur. Akt Traumatol 1990;20:6–10.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asche G, Asche H. Eine Möglichkeit kurzer Frakturheilung durch den Einsatz des neuen dynamischen Gleitstabes Rolling Rod. Unfallchirurgie 1991;17:111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bassett GS, Morris JR. The use of the Ilizarov technique in the correction of lower extremity deformities in children. Orthopedics 1997;20:623–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beaupré GS, Carter DR. Warping of cross sections in the torsion of long bones with internal fracture fixation plates. J Orthop Res 1987;5:296–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benz G, Kallieris D, Seeböck T, McIntosh A, Daum R. Bioresorbable pins and screws in paediatric traumatology. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1994;4:103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennett JT, Dameron TB. Intramedullary migration of a plate and screws. Clin Orthop 1983;175:216–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berjesen T, Benum P. The stress-protecting effect of metal plates on the intact rabbit tibia. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;54:810–814.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bjerkreim I, Langard O. Effect upon longitudinal growth of femur by intramedullary nailing in rats. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;54:363–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blasier RD, Bucholz R, Cole W, Johnson LL, Mäkelä EA. Bioresorbable implants: applications in orthopaedic surgery. AAOS Instr Course Lect 1997;46:531–546.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blount WP. Internal fixation for fractures in childhood. BMJ 1976;1:1301–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bone LB. Indirect fracture reduction: a technique for minimizing surgical trauma. J Am Assoc Orthop Surg 1994;2:247–254.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bone L, Bucholz R. The management of fractures in the patient with multiple trauma. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986;68:945–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Böstman OM. Absorbable implants for the fixation of fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991;73:148–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Böstman OM. Intense granulomatous inflammatory lesions associated with absorbable internal fixation devices made of polyglycolide in ankle fractures. Clin Orthop 1992;278:193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Böstman OM, Hirvensalo E, Mäkinen J, Rokhanen P. Foreign body reactions to fracture fixation implants of biodegradable synthetic polymers. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1990;72:592–956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Böstman OM, Hirvensalo E, Rokkanen P. Foreign-body reactions to polyglycolide screws: observations in 24/216 malleolar fracture cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1992;63:173–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Böstman OM, Mäkelä EA, Södergârd J, et al. Absorbable polyglycolide pins in internal fixation of fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:242–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Böstman OM, Pävännta V, Partio E, Vasenius J, Manninen M, Rokkanen P. Degradation and tissue replacement of an absorbable polyglycolide screw in the fixation of rabbit femoral osteotomies. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992;74:1021–1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Breck L. Treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children. Clin Orthop 1953:1:109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burchardt H, Stankovic P, Bohme A, et al. Die Fixateur externe-osteosynthese-eine seltene Form der Frakturbehandlung in Kindesalter. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burri C, Ruter A. Die Offene Fraktur im Kindesalter. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1976;342:305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cheng SL, Smith TJ, Davey JR. A comparison of the strength and stability of six techniques of cerclage wire fixation for fracture. J Orthop Trauma 1993;7:221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cierney G, Byrd HS, Jones RE. Primary versus delayed soft tissue coverage for severe open tibial fractures: a comparison of results. Clin Orthop 1983;178:54–63.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clarke AC, Spencer RF. Operative fixation of fractures in children. So Afr Med J 1991;79:206–209.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curtis RJ Jr. Operative management of children’s fractures of the shoulder region. Orthop Clin North Am 1990;21:315–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DeBrunner A. Frakturen im Kindesalter: konservative oder operative Therapie. Zentralbl Chir 1974;99:641–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeLuca PA, Lindsey RW, Reeve PA. Refracture of bones of the forearm after removal of compression plates. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1988;70:1372–1376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Demetriades D, Nikolaides N, Filiopoulos K, Hager J. The use of methyl-methacrylate as an external fixator in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop 1995;15:499–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Sanctis N, Gambardella A, Pempinello C, Mallano P, Della Corte S. The use of external fixators in femur fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1996;16:613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Donigian AM, Plaga BR, Caskey PM. Biodegradable fixation of physeal fractures in goat distal femur. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:349–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ecke H. Traumatische Veranderungen an der Wachstumsfuge, ihre Behandlung und Prognose. Z Kinderchir 1972;11(suppl):699–714.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Editorial. Internal fixation for fractures in childhood. BMJ 1976;1:1301–1302.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ehalt W. Verletzungen bei Kindern und Jugendichen. Stuttgart: Enke, 1961.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eilenberger S, Feneis J. Der Versorgung der tibial spiral Fraktur im Kindes-und Jugendalter durch Zugschraubenosteosynthese. Chir Prax 1976;17:107–112.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ender HG, Simon-Widener R. Die Fixierung der trochanteren Brücke mit runden elastischer Condylennägeln. Acta Chir Austria 1970;1:40–42.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Engert J. Indikation und Anwendung des Fixateur externe im Kindesalter. Z Kinderchir 1982;36:133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evanoff M, Strong M, MacIntosh R. External fixation maintained until fracture consolidation in the skeletally immature. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:98–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Feld C, Gotzen L, Hennich T. Pediatric femoral shaft fracture in the 6-14 year age group: a retrospective therapy comparison between conservative treatment, plate osteosynthesis and external stabilization. Unfallchirurg 1992;96:169–174.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Feldkamp G, Mischkowski T, Dawn R. Indikation zur Osteosynthese kindlicher Unterschenkelschaftbrüche. Unfallchirurgie 1976;2:23–26.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ferguson AB Jr. Treatment of common childhood fractures. Am J Surg 1961;101:684–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Finidori G, Touzet P, Alperovitch R, et al. Les indications malheureuses et les malfaçon de l’ostéosynthèse chez l’enfan. Ann Chir 1981;35:333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Firiea A. L’ostéosynthèse stable élastique, nouveau conce biomécanique. Rev Chir Orthop 1981;67(suppl II):82–91.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Foux A, Uhthoff HK, Black RC. Healing of plated femoral osteotomies in dogs: a mechanical study using a new test method. Acta Orthop Scand 1993;64:345–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fraser RK, Cole WG. Osteolysis after biodegradable pin fixation of fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992;74:929–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Friden T, Rydholm U. Severe aseptic synovitis of the knee after biodegradable internal fixation: à case report. Acta Orthop Scand 1992;63:94–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frøkjoer J, Møller BN. Biodegradable fixation of ankle fractures: complications in a prospective study of 25 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1992;63:434–436.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Genet F. Embrochage centro-médullaire dans les fractures déplacées et col du radius chez l’enfant: à propos de 13 observation Thèse no. 107 (Nancy), 1981.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gerber C, Mast JW, Ganz R. Biological internal fixation of fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1990;109:295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Géza ACS. Gyermekkori Szártörések kezelésével szer tapasztalataink [Experience with the management of childhood diaphyseal fractures]. Magyar Traum Orthop 1992;35:281–287.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Géza ACS, Lázló S. A gyermekkori törések és épip sérülések mütéti kezelésével szcrzett tapasetalataink (Experi with the surgical management of childhood fractures and epiphyseal injuries). Magy Traumatol Orthop Helyreallito Sebesz 1992;35:207–218.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Glorion B, Delplace J, Boucher J. Déformation séquelettiqu de l’avant-bras après traumatisme de deux os chez l’enfant. Ann Orthop Ouest 1974;6:91–95.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goodarzi M, Shier NH, Ogden JA. Physiologic changes during tourniquet use in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1992;12:510–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gregory RJH, Cubison TCS, Pinder IM, Smith SR. External fixation of lower limb fractures in children. J Trauma 1992;33:691–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grill F. Correction of complicated extremity deformities by external fixation. Clin Orthop 1989;241:166–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Groves WH. Direct skeletal traction in the treatment of fractures. Br J Surg 1928;16:149–157.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guidera KJ, Hess WF, Highhouse KP, Ogden JA. Extremity lengthening: results and complications with the Orthofix system. J Pediatr Orthop 1991;11:90–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Guidera KJ, Hontas R, Odgen JA. Use of continuous passive motion in pediatric orthopaedics. J Pediatr Orthop 1990;10:120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guidera KJ, Ogden JA. The use of percutaneous, external and internal fixation in children’s fractures. In: Letts M (ed) Management of Pediatric Fractures. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1994.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Guidera KJ, Ogden JA. Complications of fractures. In: Epps C, Bowen JR (eds) Complications in Pediatric Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1995.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Haapanaiemi TAT, Hermansson US. Cardiac arrhythmia caused by a Kirschner wire inside the heart. J Hand Surg [Br] 1997;22:402–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Haas SL. Restriction of bone growth by pins through the epiphyseal cartilaginous plate. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1950;32:338–343.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hackenbroch MH. Die Indikation zur Osteosynthese bei der frischen Kindlichen Verletzung. Z Kinderchir 1972;11:671–687.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hamacher O, Pingel P. Die Verletzungen der Wachstumsfugen. Z Allgemeinmed 1971;47:176–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Handelsman JR. Management of fractures in children. Surg Clin North Am 1983;63:629–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hansen ST. Internal fixation of children’s fractures of the lower extremities. Orthop Clin North Am 1990;21:353–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hardin GT. Timing of fracture fixation: a review. Orthop Rev 1990;19:861–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hecker WC, Daum R. Grundsatzliche Indikationsfehler bei Kindlichen Frakturen. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1970;327:864–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hessmann M, Mattens M, Rumbaut J. The unilateral fixator (Monofixator) in acute fracture treatment: experience in 50 fractures. Acta Chir Belg 1994;84:229–335.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hidaka S, Gustilo RB. Refracture of bones of the forearm after plate removal. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984;66:1241–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Highland TR, LaMont RL. Deep, late infections associated with internal fixation in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1985;5:56–64.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hirvensalo E, Böstman O, Rokkanen P. Absorbable polyglycolide pins in fixation of displaced fractures of the radial head. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1990;109:258–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hope PG, Williamson DM, Coates CJ, Cole WG. Biodegradable pin fixation of elbow fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991;73:965–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hull JB, Bell MJ. Modern trends for external fixation of fractures in children: a critical review. J Pediatr Orthop 1997;6:103–109.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hull JB, Sanderson PL, Rickman M, Bell MJ, Saleh M. External fixation of children’s fractures: use of the Orthofix dynamic axial fixator. J Pediatr Orthop B 1997;6:203–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hutchinson DT, McClinton MA. Upper extremity tourniquet tolerance. J Hand Surg [Am] 1993;18:206–210.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Jaworski ZFG, Liskova-Kiar M, Uhthoff HK. Effect of long-term immobilization on the pattern of bone loss in older dogs. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1980;62:104–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jonasche E, Bertuel E. Verletzungen bei Kindern bis zum 14 Lebensjahr. Hefte Unfallheilkd 1981;150:1–9.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Juan JA, Prat J, Vera P, et al. Biomechanical consequences of callus development in Hoffman, Wagner, Orthofix and Ilizarov external fixators. J Biomech 1992;25:995–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Judet J. Traitment des fractures épiphysaires de l’enfant pa broche transarticulaire. Mem Acad Chir 1947;73:562–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Judet J, Judet R, Lagrange J. Les Fractures de membres chez l’enfant. Paris: Maloine, 1958.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jungbluth K, Daum R, Metzger E. Schenkelhalsfrakturen im Kindesalter. Z Kinderchir 1968;6:392–397.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jupiter JB, First K, Gallico GG II, May JW. The role of external fixation in the treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis. J Orthop Trauma 1988;2:79–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kahle WK. The case against routine metal removal. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Karger C, Dietz JM, Heckel T, Prévot G, Blanquart D. Fractures itératives des deux os l’avant-bras chez l’enfant. Rev Ch Orthop 1987;74(suppl II):137–139.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Keenan WNW, Clegg J. Intraoperative wedging of casts: correction of residual angulation after manipulation. J Pediatr Orthop 1995;15:826–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kehr H, Hierholzer G. Technik der Osteosynthese bei Kindlichen Frakturen. Monatsschr Unfallheilk 1975;78:199–208.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kendra JC, Price CT, Songer JE, Scott DS. Pediatric applications of dynamic axial external fixation. Contemp Orthop 1989;18:477–484.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Khuri S, Uhl RL, Martino J, Whipple R. Clinical application of the forearm tourniquet. J Hand Surg [Am] 1994;19:861–863.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kirby RM, Winquist RA, Hansen ST Jr. Femoral shaft fractures in adolescents: a comparison between traction plus cast treatment and closed intramedullary nailing. J Pediatr Orthop 1981;1:193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kirschenbaum D, Albert MC, Robertson WW, Davidson RS. Complex femur fractures in children: treatment with external fixation. J Pediatr Orthop 1990;10:588–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Klassen HJ, Zimmerman KW, Tendius HJ. Indications for the application of Wagner’s method of external fixation across the knee joint. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1986;105:364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Klein W, Pennig D, Brug E. Die Anwendung eines unilateralen Fixateur externe bei der kindlichen Femurschaftfraktur in Rahmen des Polytraumas. Unfallchirurg 1989;92:282–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kreder HJ, Armstrong P. A review of open tibia fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1995;15:482–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kregor PJ, Song KM, Routt ML Jr, et al. Plate fixation of femoral shaft fractures in multiply injured children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:1774–1780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kuner EH, Weyland F. Indikation zur operativen Behandlung Kindlicher Frakturen. Aktuel Traumatol 1971;1:63–69.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kuner EH. Die indikation zur Osteosynthese beim kindlichen Knochenbruch. Chirurg 1974;46:164–169.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kuntscher G. Die Behandlung der Pseudarthrose im Kindesalter. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1963;304:610–615.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Labosky DA, Cermak MB, Waggy CA. Forearm fracture plate: to remove or not to remove. J Hand Surg [Am] 1990;15:294–301.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Langkamer VG, Ackroyd CE. Removal of forearm plates: a review of the complications. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1990;72:601–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lascombes P, Poncelet T, Lesur E, Prévot J, Blanquart D. Fractures itératives des deux os de l’avant-bras chez l’enfan SOFCOT Proc 1987;62:137–139.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Laurenan CT, Gerhart T, Witschger P, et al. Bioerodible polyanhydrides for antibiotic drug delivery: in vivo osteomyelitis treatment in a rat model system. J Orthop Res 1993;11:256–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lehman WG, Strongwater AB, Tunc D, et al. Internal fixation with biodegradable plate and screws in dogs. J Pediatr Orthop B 1994;3:190–193.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lehmann L, Ferbert WN. Die Anwendung des Fixateur externe in der Behandlung kindlicher Schaftfrakturen. Monatsschr Unfallheilkd 1975;78:401–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Levy O, David Y, Heim M, et al. Minimal tourniquet pressure to maintain arterial closure in upper limb surgery. J Hand Surg 1993;1813:204–206.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ligier JN, Metaizeau JP, Lascombes P, Poncelet T, Prévot J. Traitment des fractures diaphysaires des deux os de l’avantbras de l’enfant per embrochage élastique stable. Rev Chi Orthop 1987;74(suppl II):149–151.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ligier JN, Metaizeau JP, Prévot J. L’embrochage élastiq stable à foyer fermé en traumatologie infantile. Chir Pediatr 1983;24:383–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ligier JN, Metaizeau JP, Prévot J, Lascombes P. Elastic stable intramedullary pinning of long bone shaft fractures in children. Z Kinderchir 1985;40:209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ligier JN, Metaizeau JP, Prévot J, Lascombes P. Elastic stable intra-medullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;70:74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ligtenstein DA, Krijnen LM, Jansen BRH, Euldennk F. Forgotten injury: a late benign complication of an unremoved shrapnel fragment-case report. J Trauma 1994;36:580–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Linhart WE, Spendel S, Mayr H, Schwendwein E. Die elastisch stabile intramedulläre Schlebenung Kindlicher Schaftfrakturen. Zentralbe Kinderchir 1992;1:215–220.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lynn AM, Fischer R, Brandford HG, Pendergrass TW. Systemic responses to tourniquet release in children. Anesth Analg 1986;65:865–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mäkela EA, Vainionpää S, Vihtonen K, et al. The effect of a penetrating biodegradable implant: an experimental study on growing rabbits with special reference to polydioxanone. Clin Orthop 1989;41:300–308.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Malone CB, Heiple KG, Burstein AA. Bone strength before and after removal of threaded pins and screws. Clin Orthop 1977;123:259–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Manninan MJ, Pävännta V, Taurio R, et al. Polylactide screws in the fixation of olecranon osteotomies: a mechanical study in sheep. Acta Orthop Scand 1992;63:437–442.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Manout JP, Metaizeau JP, Ligier JN, Prévot J. Embrochages centro-medulaire des fractures des deux os de l’avant-bras chez l’enfant. Ann Med Nancy 1984;23:149–151.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Marsh JL, Nepola JV, Wuest JK, Osteen D, Cox K, Oppenheim W. Unilateral external fixation until healing with the dynamic axial fixator for severe open tibial fractures. J Orthop Trauma 1991;5:341–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Marson BM, Keenan ME. Skin surface pressures under short leg casts. J Orthop Trauma 1993;7:275–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Marti RK, Besselaar PP. Fracturen bij kinderen. Tijdschr Kindergeneeskd 1988;56:275–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Matter P, Burch HB. Clinical experience with titanium implants especially with the limited contact dynamic compression plate system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1990;109:311–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    McCullough NC III, Visant JE Jr, Sarmiento A. Functional fracture-bracing of long-bone fractures of the lower extremity in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1978;60:314–318.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Meeropol E, Frost J, Pugh L, Roberts J, Ogden JA. Latex allergy in children with myelodysplasia: a survey of Shriners Hospitals. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Merloz PH, Maurel N, Marchard D, et al. Three dimensional rigidity of Ilizarov apparatus (original and modified) applied to the femur: experimental study and clinical applications. Orthop Surg Fr 1991;5:40–51.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Metaizeau JP. Table ronde sur l’ostèosynthèse chez l’enfan techniques et indications. Rev Chir Orthop 1983;69:495–511.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Metaizeau JP. Ostéosynthèses chez l’enfant. Paris: Sauramp Medical, 1988.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Metaizeau JP. L’ostéosynthèse chez l’enfant par ECMES. Montpellie Sauramps Medical, 1989.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Metaizeau JP, Ligier JN. Le traitment chirurgical des fractures des os longs chez l’enfant: interférences entre l’ostéosynthèt les processous physiologiques de consolidation: indications thérapeutiques. J Chir (Paris) 1984;121:527–537.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Metaizeau JP, Prévot J, Schmitt M. Réduction et fixation de fractures et décollements épiphysaires de la tête radial par broche centro-médullaire. Rev Chir Orthop 1980;66:47–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Miettinen H. Fracture of the growing femoral shaft: a clinical and experimental study with special reference to treatment using absorbable osteosynthesis. Thesis, University of Kuopio, 1992.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moyen BJ, Lahey PJ, Weinberg EH, Harris WH. Effects on intact femora of dogs on the application and removal of metal plates. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1978;60:940–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Newton PO, Mubarek SJ. Financial aspects of femoral shaft fracture treatment in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:508–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nielsen FF, Karring T, Gogolewski S. Biodegradable guide for bone regeneration: polyurethane membranes tested in rabbit radius defects. Acta Orthop Scand 1992;63:66–69.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Odell RT, Leydig SM. The conservative treatment of fractures in children. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1951;92:69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ogden JA, Guidera KJ. The use of percutaneous, external, and internal fixation in children’s fractures. In: Letts M (ed) Management of Pediatric Fractures: New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1994.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ogden JA, Southwick WO. Adequate reduction of fractures and dislocations. Radiol Clin North Am 1973;11:667–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ombredanne PL. Osteosynthèse temporaire chez l’enfant Presse Med 1992;52:845–848.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Orbay GL, Frankel VH, Kummer FJ. The effect of wire configuration on the stability of the Ilizarov external fixator. Clin Orthop 1992;279:299–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Osterwalder A, Beeker C, Huggler A, Matter P. Längenwaschstum an der unteren Extremität nach jugendichen Schaftfrakturen. Unfallheilkinder 1979;82:451–457.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Otsuka NY, Mah JY, Orr FW, Martin RF. Biodegradation of polydioxanone in bone tissue: effect on the epiphyseal plate in immature rabbits. J Pediatr Orthop 1992;12:177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Papagelopoulos PJ, Giannarakos DG, Lyritis GP. Suitability of biodegradable polydioxanone materials for the internal fixation of fractures. Orthop Rev 1993;5:585–593.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Parsch KD. Modern trends in internal fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children: a critical review. J Pediatr Orthop 1997;6:117–125.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Partio EK. Absorbable screws in the fixation of cancellous bone fractures and arthrodeses: a clinical study of 318 patients. Thesis, University of Helsinki, 1992.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Paul MA, Patka P, van Heuzen EP, Kooman AR, Rauwerda J. Vascular injury from external fixation: case reports. J Trauma 1992;33:917–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pedowitz RA. Tourniquet-induced neuromuscular injury. Acta Orthop Scand 1991;62(suppl 245):1–33.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Perren SM, Klaue K, Rohler O, et al. The limited contact dynamic compression plate. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1990;109:304–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Perry CR, Brueckman FR, Pankovich AM, Sanders RW, Waddell JP. Flexible intramedullary nailing of long bone fractures. AAOS Instr Course Lect 1993;42:57–66.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pihlajamaki H, Böstman O, Hirvensalo E, et al. Absorbable pins of self-reinforced poly-l-lactic acid for fixation of fractures and osteotomies. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992;74:853–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pleva L, Kopecky J, Bednarikova E. Moznosti leceni zlomenin sevni fixaci u deti. Rozhl Chir 1989;68:589–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Poitevin R, Pouliquen JC, Langlais J. Fracture des deux os de l’avant-bras chez l’enfant. Rev Chir Orthop 1987;72(supp II):41–43.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Poole GV, Miller JD, Agnew SG, Griswold JA. Lower extremity fracture fixation in head-injured patients. J Trauma 1992;32:654–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Porat S, Milgrom C, Nyska M, et al. Femoral fracture treatment in head-injured children: use of external fixation. J Trauma 1986;26:81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Price CT. Unilateral fixators and mechanical axis realignment. Orthop Clin North Am 1994;25:499–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Price CT, Levengood GA, Zink WP. The treatment of pediatric fractures with dynamic axial external fixation. Techn Orthop 1989;4:74–79.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Probe R, Lindsey RW, Hadley NA, Barnes DA. Refracture of adolescent femoral shaft fractures: a complication of external fixation; a report of two cases. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:102–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Probst J. Nachbehandlung und Beobachtung Kindlicher Frakturen. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1976;342:319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Pugh JW, Rose RM, Radin EL. Techniques for the study of the structure of bone. Microstructure 1980;3:228–247Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Quintin J, Evrod H, Govat P, Buruy F. External fixation in child traumatology. Orthopedics 1984;7:463–467.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rab GT. Operative treatment of children’s fractures. In: Chapman MW (ed) Operative Orthopaedics, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1993.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rai J, Singh PP, Singh D. Migration of a screw from a plated femur into the knee joint 22 years post-operatively. J Orthop Trauma 1991;5:509–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ralston JL, Brownn TD, Nepola JV, et al. Mechanical analysis of the factors affecting dynamization of the Orthofix dynamic axial fixator. J Orthop Trauma 1990;4:449–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rang M, Armstrong P, Crawford AH, Kasser JR, Ogden JA. Symposium: management of fractures in children and adolescents. Part I. Contemp Orthop 1991;23:517–548.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rang M, Armstrong P, Crawford AH, Kasser JR, Ogden JA. Symposium: management of fractures in children and adolescents. Part II. Contemp Orthop 1991;23:621–644.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Reeves FB, Ballard RI, Hughes JL. Internal fixation versus traction and casting of adolescents femoral shaft fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 1990;10:592–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Reff RB. The use of external fixation devices in the management of severe lower-extremity trauma and pelvic injuries in children. Clin Orthop 1984;188:21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rettig H. Störungen des Wachstums des Küftnahen Oberschenkelendes nach operativer Behandlung Kindlicher Oberschenkelfrakturen. Z Orthop 1988;126:255–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Rettig H, Porschke W. Schaftfrakturen im Wachstumsalter-Operationsindikation oder Konservative therapie. Unfallchirurgie 1987;13:326–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Richards RH, Palmer JD, Clarke NM. Observations on the removal of metal implants. Injury 1992;23:25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Rigault P. Les fractures de l’avant-bras chez l’enfant. Ann Chi 1980;34:810–816.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Riska EB, von Bonsdorff H, Hakkinen S. Prevention of fat embolism by early internal fixation of fractures in patients with multiple injuries. Injury 1976;8:110–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rosson JW, Petley G, Shearer J. Bone structure after removal of internal fixation plates. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991;73:65–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rosson JW, Petley GW, Shearer JR. Refracture after the removal of plates from the forearm. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991;73:415–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rosson JW, Shearer J, Monro P. Bone weakness after the removal of plates and screws. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991;73:283–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Rumball K, Finnegan M. Refractures after forearm plate removal. J Orthop Trauma 1990;4:124–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sales de Gauzey J, Vidal H, Cahuzac JP. Primary shortening followed by callus distraction for the treatment of post traumatic bone defect: case report. J Trauma 1993;34:461–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Scaverius M, Ebskov LB, Sloth C, Torholm C. External fixation with the Orthofix System in dislocated fractures of the lower extremities in children. J Pediatr Orthop B 1993;2:161–169.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Schenk RK. Besonderheiten des Kindlichen Skelets im Hinblich auf die Frakturheilung. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1976;342:269–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Schmalzreid TP, Grogan TJ, Neumeier PA, Dorey FJ. Metal removal in a pediatric population: benign procedure or necessary evil? J Pediatr Orthop 1991;11:72–76.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Schmittenbecher PP, Dietz HG, Germann C. Spätergebnisse nach Unterschenkelfrakturen im Kindesalter. Unfallchirurg 1989;92:79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Schranz PJ, Gultekin C, Colton CL. External fixation of fractures in children. Injury 1992;23:80–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Schweizer P. Indikationen zur operativen Knochenbruch behandlung in Kindesalter. Med Welt 1976;27:187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Shih H, Chen L, Lee Z, et al. Treatment of femoral shaft fractures with the Hoffman external fixator in prepuberty. J Trauma 1989;29:498–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Siffert RS. The effect of staples and longitudinal wires on epiphyseal growth. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1956;38:1966–1988.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Sim E. Intramedullary wiring for tibial shaft fractures in children before epiphyseal closure: indications and technique-experience of 36 patients. Arch Orthop Surg 1991;110:87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Sim E, Schaden W. Indikation and Technik der operativen Behandlung von Schienbeinschaftbrüchen bei offehmen Epiphysenfugen: ein Baricht über 63 Fälle. Unfallchirurg 1990;83:263–269.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Siquier T, Glorion C, Langlais J, et al. La fixation externe dans les fractures du membre inférieur de l’enfant. Rev Chi Orthop 1995;81:157–162.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Slongo T. Der Fixateur externe beim Kind; Eine ideale Methode? Z Unfallchir 1990;83:74–79.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Slongo T, Jakob RP. Korrekturelingriffe nach Schaftfrakturen im Kindes und Jugendalter: Indikationen. Z Unfallchir Vers Med 1990;83:91–95.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Spalding TJW, Jesenko R, Saadi R, Benson M. Removal of femoral Sherman plates: not a simple operation. J Pediatr Orthop B 1996;5:287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Spiegel PG, Mast JW. Internal and external fixation of fractures in children. Orthop Clin North Am 1980;11:405–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Stock HJ, Hahn M. Indications for surgical fracture treatment in children. Pädiatr Grenzgeb 1982;21:451–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Stromberg NEL. Diaphyseal bone in rigid internal plate fixation. Acta Chir Scand 1975;73(suppl 456):1–34.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Strycker ML. Biodegradable internal fixation. J Foot Ankle Surg 1995;34:82–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sudmann B, Anfinsen OG, Bang G, et al. Assessment in rats of a new bioerodible bone-wax-like polymer. Acta Orthop Scand 1993;64:336–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Svensson PJ, Janarv PM, Hirsch G. Internal fixation with biodegradable rods in pediatric fractures: one-year follow-up of fifty patients. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:220–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Taylor BA, Waters PM. Management of pediatric upper extremity fractures. Curr Opin Orthop 1995;6:18–24.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Tencer AF, Johnson KD, Kyle RF, Fu FH. Biomechanics of fractures and fracture fixation. AAOS Instr Course Lect 1993;42:19–55.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Téot L. L’enclouage centro-médullaire élastique stable c l’enfant. SOFCOT 1987:11:71–90.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Terjesen T, Benum P. The stress-protecting effect of metal plates on the intact rabbit tibia. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;54:810–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Terjesen T, Nordby A, Arnulf V. The extent of stress: protection after plate osteosynthesis in the human tibia. Clin Orthop 1986;207:108–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Thies HA, Wielke F, Wuttig W, Bergner P. Osteosynthese bei Kindern. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1971;329:1185–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Thompson GH, Wilber JH, Marcus RE. Internal fixation of fractures in children and adolescents. Clin Orthop 1984;188:10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tolo VT. External skeletal fixation in children’s fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 1983;3:435–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tolo VT. External fixation in multiply injured children. Orthop Clin North Am 1990;21:393–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Tonino AJ, Davidson CL, Klopper PJ, Linclau LA. Protection from stress in bone and its effects. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1976;58:107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Tosovsky V, Stryhal F. The conservative treatment of fractures and dislocations of the extremities in children. Acta Univ Carol (Med Praha) 196;111:1–17.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Toussaint D, Vanderlinden C, Bremen J. L’enclouage élastiqu stable appliqué aux fractures diaphysaire de l’avant-bras che l’enfant. Acta Orthop Belg 1991;57:147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Uhthoff H, Dubuc FL. Bone structure changes in the dog under rigid internal fixation. Clin Orthop 1971;81:165–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Uhthoff HK, Finnegan M. The effects of metal plates on posttraumatic remodeling and bone mass. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983;65:66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Verstreken L, Delronge G, Lamoureux J. Orthopaedic treatment of paediatric multiple trauma patients: a new technique. Int Surg 1988;73:177–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Viljanto J, Linna MI, Kiviluoto H, Paananen M. Indications and results of operative of femoral shaft fractures in children. Acta Chir Scand 1965:141:366–373.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Vinz H. Die Marknagelung Kindlicher Oberschenkelsshaftfrakturen. Zentralbl Chir 1972;97:90–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Vinz H. Operative Behandlung von Knochenbruchen bei Kindern. Zentralbl Chir 1972;97:1377–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Vinz H. Osteosynthese in Kindesalter: biomechanische Aspekte und alter physiologische Osteosyntheseverfahren. Zentralbl Chir 1975;100:455–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Volkov MV, Kiselev VP, Agafonov DV, Pasechnikov AV. Treatment of fractures of long tubular bones in children using a compression-distraction device (in Russian). Khirurgia 1991;8:106–113.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Weber BG. Indikation zur operativen Frakturbehandlung bei Kindern. Chirurg 1967;38:441–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Weber BG. Das Besondere bei der Behandlung der Frakturen im Kindesalter. Monatsschr Unfallheilkd 1975;78:193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Weber BG, Brunner C, Freuler F. Die Frakturenbehandlung bei Kinder und Jugendlichen. Berlin: Springer, 1978.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Weller S. Spezielle Gesichtspunkte bei der Behandlung Kindlicher Frakturen. Z Kinderchir 1972;62(suppl 11):655–667.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Wilkins KE. Changing patterns in the management of fractures in children. Clin Orthop 1991;264:136–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Witt AN, Walcher K. Korrekturoperationen nach Kindlichen Verletzungen. Z Kinderchir 1972;(suppl 11):841–846.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Yamamuro T, Matsusue Y, Uchida A, et al. Bioabsorbable osteosynthetic implants of ultra high strength poly-l-lactide. Int Orthop 1994:18:332–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Zegunis V, Toksurg-Larsen S, Tikuisis R. Insertion of K-wires by hammer generates less heat: a study of drilling and hammering K-wires into bone. Acta Orthop Scand 1993;64:592–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Ziv I, Blackburn N, Rang M. Femoral intramedullary nailing in the growing child. J Trauma 1984;24:432–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Ziv I, Rang M. Treatment of femoral fracture in the child with head injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983;65:276–279. Anesthesia/AnalgesiaPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs. Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Pediatrics 1992;90:1110–1115.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs. Reappraisal of the lytic cocktail Demerol, Phenergan, and Thorazine (DPT) for the sedation of children. Pediatrics 1995;95:598–602.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs. Use of chloral hydrate for sedation in children. Pediatrics 1993;92:471–473.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Arthur DS, McNichol LR. Local anesthesia techniques in pediatric surgery. Br J Anaesth 1986;58:760–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Barnes CL, Blasier RD, Dodge BM. Intravenous regional anesthesia: a safe and cost effective outpatient anesthetic for upper extremity fracture treatment in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1991;11:717–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Bauchner H, Waring C, Vinci R. Parental presence during procedures in an emergency room: results from 500 observations. Pediatrics 1991;87:544–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Berde CB. Convulsions associated with pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1992;75:164–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Berde CB. Toxicity of local anesthetics in infants and children. J Pediatr 1993;122:514–520.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Bergman I, Steeves M, Burckart G, Thompson A. Reversible neurologic abnormalities associated with prolonged intravenous midazolam and fentanyl administration. J Pediatr 1991;119:644–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Beyer JE, Wells N. The assessment of pain in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989;366:873–854.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Bier A. Über einen neuer Weg der Lokal anesthesia an den Gleidmassen zu erzeugen. Arch Klin Chir 1908;86:1007–1016.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Billmire DA, Nesle HW, Gregory RO. Use of IV fentanyl in the outpatient treatment of pediatric facial trauma. J Trauma 1985;25:1079–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Bloch EC, Ginsberg B, Binner RA, Sessler DI. Limb tourniquets and central temperature in anesthetized children. Anesth Analg 1992;74:486–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Bolte RG, Stevens PM, Scott SM, Schunk JE. Mini-dose Bier block intravenous regional anesthesia in the emergency department treatment of pediatric upper-extremity injuries. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:534–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Borland LM. Establishing the pediatric airway. Int Anesthesiol Clin 1988;26:27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Bratt HD, Eyres RL, Cole WG. Randomized double-blind trial of low-and moderate-dose lidocaine regional anesthesia for forearm fractures in childhood. J Pediatr Orthop 1996;16:660–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Brinker MR, Lipton HL, Cook SD, Hyman AL. Pharmacological regulation of the circulation of bone. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:964–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Broadman LM. Regional anesthesia for the pediatric outpatient. Anesth Clin North Am 1987;5:53–72.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Campbell RJ, Ilett KF, Dusci L. Plasma bupivicaine concentration after axillary block in children. Anesth Intensive Care 1986;14:343–346.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Carrel ED, Eyring EJ. Intravenous regional anesthesia for childhood fractures. J Trauma 1971;11:301–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Cohen MD. Pediatric sedation. Radiology 1990;175:611–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Cote CJ. Sedation for the pediatric patient. Pediatr Clin North Am 1994;41:31–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Cramer KE, Glasson S, Mencio G, Green NE. Reduction of forearm fractures in children using axillary block anesthesia. J Orthop Trauma 1995;9:407–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Dahlstrom G, Bolme P, Feychting H. Morphine kinetics in children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979;26:354–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Denton JS, Manning MP. Femoral nerve block for femoral shaft fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;70:84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Diament MJ, Stanley P. The use of midazolam for sedation of infants and children. AJR 1988;150:377–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Dohi S, Naito H, Takahashi T. Age related changes in blood pressure and duration of motor block in spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1979;50:319–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Eather KF. Regional anesthesia for infants and children. Int Anesthesiol Clin 1975:12:19–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Evans JR, Buckley SL, Alexander ALT, Gilpin AT. Analgesia for the reduction of fractures in children: a comparison of nitrous oxide with intramuscular sedation. J Pediatr Orthop 1995;15:73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Fitzgerald B. Intravenous regional anaesthesia in children. Br J Anaesth 1976;48:485–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Friedland LR, Kulick RM. Emergency department analgesic use in pediatric trauma victims with fractures. Ann Emerg Med 1994;23:203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Frush DP, Bisset GS III, Hall SC. Pediatric sedation in radiology: the practice of safe sleep. AJR 1996;167:1381–1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Gamis AS, Knapp JF, Glenski JA. Nitrous oxide analgesia in a pediatric emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1989;18:177–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Gingrich TF. Intravenous regional anesthesia of the upper extremity in children. JAMA 1967;200:135–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Goodarzi M, Shier NV, Ogden JA. Epidural versus patientcontrolled analgesia with morphine for postoperative pain after orthopaedic procedures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:663–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Grossbard GD, Love BRT. Femoral nerve block: a simple and safe method of instant analgesia for femoral shaft fractures in children. Aust NZ J Surg 1979;49:592–596.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Grunau RE, Grait KD. Pain expression in neonate: facial action and cry. Pain 1987;28:395–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Hastings H, Misamore G. Compartment syndrome resulting from intravenous regional anesthesia. J Hand Surg [Am] 1987A;12:559–561.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Hennrikus WL, Shin AY, Klingelberger CE. Self-administered nitrous oxide and a hematoma block for analgesia in the outpatient reduction of fractures in childen. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1995;77;335–339.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Hennrikus WL, Simpson RB, Klingelberger CE, Reis MT. Self-administered nitrous oxide analgesia for pediatric fracture reductions. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:538–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Johnson PQ, Noffsinger MA. Haematoma block of distal forearm fractures: is it safe? Orthop Rev 1991;20:977–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Juliano PJ, Mazur JM, Cummings RJ, McCluskey WP. Low-dose lidocaine intravenous regional anesthesia for forearm fractures in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1992;12:633–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Kart T, Rasmussen M, Horn A, Wested L. Management of postoperative pain in children undergoing orthopaedic surgery. J Pediatr Orthop 1996;16:545–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    LaDez KM, Strong A, Reider M, Burrows FA, Lerman J. Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous lidocaine in pediatrics. Anesthesiology 1987;67A:55–62.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Lam TK Ng WK, Chan YS. Use of midazolam in children. Lancet 1988;2:565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    McGrath PJ, Johnson G, Goodman JT, et al. CHEOPS: a behavioral scale for rating postoperative pain in children. In: Fields HL, Dubner R, Cervero L (eds) Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, vol 9. New York: Raven, 1985:395–402.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Melman E, Penuelas J, Martvfo J. Regional anesthesia in children. Anesth Analg 1975;54:387–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Motoyama EK, Davis PJ (eds) Smith’s Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1990.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Olney BW, Lugg PC, Turner PL, et al. Outpatient treatment of upper extremity injuries in childhood using intravenous regional anaesthesia. J Pediatr Orthop 1988;8:576–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Pereira JK, Burrows PE, Richards HM, et al. Comparison of sedation regimens for pediatric outpatient CT. Pediatr Radiol 1993;23:341–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Petrack EM, Christopher NC, Kriwinsky J. Pain management in the emergency department: patterns of analgesic utilization. Pediatrics 1997;99:711–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Richtsmeiser AJ, Barkin RL, Alexander M. Benzodiazepines for acute pain in children. J Pain Symptom Manage 1992;7:493–495.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Roe CF, Santulli TV, Blair CS. Heat loss in infants during general anesthesia and operations. J Pediatr Surg 1966;1:266–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Ronchi L, Rosenbaum D, Athouel A, et al. Femoral nerve blockade in children using bupivicaine. Anesthesiology 1989;70:622–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Salomen M, Kantz J, Isalo E, Himberg JJ. Midazolam as an induction agent in children: a pharmacokinetic and clinical study. Anesth Analg 1987;66:625–628.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Sapega AA, Heppenstall RB, Chance B, Park YS, Sokolow D. Optimizing tourniquet application and release times in extremity surgery: a biochemical and ultrastructural study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1985;67:303–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Schecter NL. The undertreatment of pain in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989;36:781–795.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Schechter NL, Bernstein BA, Beck A, et al. Individual differences in children’s response to pain: role of temperament and parental characteristics. Pediatrics 1991;87:171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Sectish TC. Use of sedation and local anesthesia to prepare children for procedures. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:909–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Shannon M, Berde CB. Pharmacologic management of pain in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 1986;36:855–871.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Slovis TL, Parks C, Reneau D, Becker CJ, et al. Pediatric sedation: short-term effects. Pediatr Radiol 1993;23:345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Snodgrass WR, Dodge WF. Lytic “DPT” cocktail: time for rational and safe alternatives. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989;367:1285–1291.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Strain JD, Harvey LA, Foley LC, Campbell JB. Intravenously administered pentobarbital sodium for sedation in pediatric CT. Pediatr Radiol 1986;161:105–108.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Turner PL, Battem JB, Hjorth D, et al. Intravenous regional anaesthesia for the treatment of upper limb injuries in childhood. Aust NZ J Surg 1986;56:153–156.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Varela CD, Lorfing RC, Schmidt TL. Intravenous sedation for the closed reduction of fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995;77:340–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Visintainer MA, Wolfer JA. Psychological preparation for surgical pediatric patients: the effect on children’s and parents?stress responses and adjustments. Pediatrics 1975;56:187–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Wattenmaker I, Kasser JR, McGravey A. Self-administered nitrous oxide for fracture reduction in children in an emergency room setting. J Orthop Trauma 1990;4:35–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Wedel DJ, Krohn JS, Hall JA. Brachial plexus anesthesia in pediatric patients. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66:583–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Yaster M, Maxwell LG. Pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1989;70:324–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Yaster M, Nichols DG, Deshpande JK, Wetzel RC. Midiazolamfentanyl intravenous sedation in children: case report of respiratory arrest. Pediatrics 1990;86:463–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Yaster M, Tobin JR, Fisher QA, Maxwell LG. Local anesthetics in the management of acute pain in children. J Pediatr 1994;124:165–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2000

Personalised recommendations