The Child with Multiple Injuries



Head Injury Injured Child Skull Fracture Multiple Injury Pediatric Trauma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ackerman AD. Current issues in the care of the head injured child. Curr Opin Pediatr 1991;3:433–438.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adran GM, Kemp FH. The mechanism of changes in form of the cervical airway in infancy. Med Radiogr Photogr 1968;44:26–54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agram PF, Donkle DE, Winn DG. Injuries to a sample of seatbelted children evaluated and treated in a hospital emergency room. J Trauma 1987;27:58–64.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alberts KA, Noren I, Rubin M, Torngren L. Respiratory distress following major trauma. Acta Orthop Scand 1986;57:158–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albrektsen TB, Thomsen JL. Detection of injuries in traumatic deaths: the significance of medico-legal autopsy. Forensic Sci Int 1989;42:135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Association for Automotive Medicine. The Abbreviated Injury Scale, 1985 Revision. Arlington Heights, IL: AAAM, 1985.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aprahamian C, Cattey RP, Walker AP, et al. Pediatric Trauma Score: predictor of hospital use? Arch Surg 1990;125:1128–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Auringer ST, Bisset GS III, Myer CM III. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric airway: compared with findings at surgery and/or endoscopy. Pediatr Radiol 1991;21:329–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker SP, O’Neill B. The injury severity score: an update. J Trauma 1976;14:882–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baker SP, O’Neill B, Haddon W, Long WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974;14:187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bardier M, Moreno C, Thillaye du Boullary C, et al. Les enfants polytraumatismes: à propos de 76 observations. Chir Pediatr 1984;25:293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bardier M, Richard N, Horvath E, et al. Les urgences traumatologiques infantiles: étude analytique et statistique sur 6 ans. Chir Pediatr 1091;22:231–236.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barlow B, Niemirska M, Gandhi R, Shelton M. Response to injury in children with closed femur fractures. J Trauma 1987;27:429–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bass B, Eichelberger MR, Schisgall R, et al. Hazards of nonoperative therapy of hepatic injury in children. J Trauma 1984;24:978–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bass JL. TIPP: the first ten years. Pediatrics 1995;91;274–275.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Basson MD, Guinn JE, McElligott J, et al. Behavioral disturbances in children after trauma. J Trauma 1991;31:1363–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beattie TF. Accuracy of ICD-9 coding with regard to childhood accidents. Health Bull 1995;53:395–397.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beaver BL. The efficacy of computed tomography in evaluating abdominal injuries in children with major head trauma. J Pediatr Surg 1987;22:1117–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bell RS, Loop JW. The utility and futility of radiographic skull examination for trauma. N Engl J Med 1971;284:236–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bellamy R, Browner BD. Management of skeletal trauma in the patient with head injury. J Trauma 1974;14:1021–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blair D, Letts RM. The orthopaedic manifestations of head injury in children. Orthop Rev 1989;18:350–353.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blair E, Topuzulu C, David JH. Delayed misdiagnosis in blunt chest trauma. J Trauma 1971;11:129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blancafort JB, Marco MO, Puig JM, et al. Predictive value of brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in children with posttraumatic coma produced by diffuse brain injury. Childs Nerv Syst 1995;11:400–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blankenship JB, Chadduck WM, Boop FA. Repair of compound-depressed skull fractures in children with replacement of bone fragments. Pediatr Neurosurg 1990–1991;16:297–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bond SJ, Gotschall CS, Eichelberger MR. Predictors of abdominal injury in children with pelvic fractures. J Trauma 1991;31:1169–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Botha AJ, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al. Post injury neutrophil priming and activation: an early vulnerable window. Surgery 1995;118:358–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boyd CR, Tolson MA, Copes WS. Evaluating trauma care; the TRISS method. J Trauma 1987;27:370–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bracken MB, Shephard MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methyl prednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1405–1411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brantigan CO, Grow, JB, Cricothyroidotomy: elective use in respiratory problems requiring tracheotomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc 1976;71:72.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Breaux CW Jr, Smith G, Georgeson KE. The first two years experience with major trauma at a pediatric trauma center. J Trauma 1990;30:37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brink JD, Imbis C, Woo-Sam J. Physical recovery in severe closed head-injured trauma in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1980;97:721–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brown JK, Minns RA. Non-accidental head injury, with particular reference to whiplash shaking injury and medico-legal aspects. Dev Med Child Neurol 1993;35:849–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bruce DA. Head injuries in the pediatric population. Curr Probl Pediatr 1990;20:67–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bruce DA, Alavi A, Bilaniuk L, et al. Diffuse cerebral swelling following head injuries in children: the syndrome of “malignant brain edema.” J Neurosurg 1981;54:170–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bruce DA, Schut L, Bruno LA, et al. Outcome following severe head injuries in children. J Neurosurg 1978;48:679–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buckley SL, Gotschall C, Robertson W Jr, et al. The relationships of skeletal injuries with trauma score, injury severity score, length of hospital stay, hospital charges, and mortality in children admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:449–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buckley SL, Smith G, Sponseller PD, Thompson JD, Griffin PP. Open fractures of the tibia in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:1462–1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burke T, Kehl DK. Intraosseous infusion in infants: case report of a complication. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:428–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bushore M. Emergency care of the child. Pediatrics 1987;79:572–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Caffey J. On the theory and practice of shaking infants. Am J Dis Child 1972;124:161–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Caniano DA, Nugent SK, Rogers MC, et al. Intracranial pressure monitoring in the management of the pediatric trauma patient. J Pediatr Surg 1980;15:537–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Casey R, Ludwig S, McCormick MC. Morbidity following minor head trauma in children. Pediatrics 1986;78:497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cates TR, Clostridium tetani (tetanus). In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG Jr, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, vol 3. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1842–1846.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chadwick DL, Chin S, Salerno C, et al. Death from falls in children: how far is fatal? J Trauma 1991;31:1353–1355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chan BSH, Walker PJ, Cass DT. Urban trauma: an analysis of 1,116 pediatric cases. J Trauma 1989;29:1540–1547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chan RN, Ainscrow D, Sikorski JM. Diagnostic failures in the multiply injured. J Trauma 1980;20:684–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Childhood Injuries in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 1990.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Choux M, Genitori L. Depressed skull fractures in children. Riv Neurosci Pediatr 1985;1:157–167.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choux M, Grisoli F, Peragut JC. Extradural hematomas in children. Childs Brain 1975;1:337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Christoffel KK, Scheidt PC, Agran PF, et al. Standard definitions for childhood injury research: excerpts of a conference report. Pediatrics 1992;89:1027–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Circillo SF Andrews BT, Damron SL, Pitts LH. Severity and outcome of intracranial lesions in pedestrians injured by motor vehicles. J Trauma 1992;33:899–903.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Coldiron JS. Estimation of nasotracheal tube length in neonates. Pediatrics 1968;41:823–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Connolly JF, Whittaker D, Williams E. Femoral and tibial fracture combined with injuries to the femoral or popliteal artery: a review of the literature and analysis of fourteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1971;53:56–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cooney DR. Splenic and hepatic trauma in children. Surg Clin North Am 1981;61:1165–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cosentino M, Barthel MJ, Reynolds M. The impact of level I pediatric trauma center designation on demographics and financial reimbursement. J Pediatr Surg 1991;26:306–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Coté CJ, Liu LMP, Szyfelbein SK, et al. Changes in serial platelet counts following massive blood transfusion in pediatric patients. Anesthesiology 1985;62:186–189.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Coulon RA Jr. Depressed skull fractures in children. Concepts Pediatr Neurosurg 1983;4:253–263.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cramer KE. The pediatric polytrauma patient. Clin Orthop 1995;318:125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dale PA, Bronk JT, O’Sullivan ME, et al. A new concept of fracture immobilization: the application of a pressurized brace. Clin Orthop 1993;295:264–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    D’Amelio LF, Hammond JS, Thomasseau J, Sutyak JP. “Adult” trauma surgeons with pediatric commitment: a logical solution to the pediatric trauma manpower problem. Am Surg 1995;61:968–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    DeBastiani G, Mosconi F, Spagnoli G, Nicolato A, Ferrari S. High calcitonin levels in unconscious polytrauma patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992;74:101–104.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dellinger EP, Miller SD, Wertz MJ, et al. Risk of infection after open fracture of the arm or leg. Arch Surg 1987;123:1320–1327.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dillon H, Leopold R. Children and the post-concussion syndrome. JAMA 1961;175:86–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Douglas GJ, Simpson JS. The conservative management of splenic trauma. J Pediatr Surg 1971;6:565–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Drew R, Perry JF Jr, Fischer RP. The expediency of peritoneal lavage for blunt trauma in children. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1977;145:885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Duff JH, Goldstein M, McLean APH, et al. Flail chest: a clinical review and physiological study. J Trauma 1968;8:63–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    DuPriest RW Jr, Rodriquez A, Shatney CH. Peritoneal lavage in children and adolescents with blunt abdominal trauma. Am Surg 1982;48:460–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dykes EH, Spence LJ, Bohn DJ, et al. Evaluation of pediatric trauma care in Ontario. J Trauma 1989;29:724–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Eckenhoff JE. Some anatomic considerations of infant larynx influencing endotracheal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1951;12:401–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eichelberger MR, Bowman LM, Sacco WJ, et al. Trauma score versus revised trauma score in TRISS to predict outcome in children with blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 1989;18:939–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eichelberger MR, Gotschall CS, Sacco WJ, et al. A comparison of the trauma score, and the pediatric trauma score. Ann Emerg Med 1989;18:1053–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Eichelberger MR, Mangubat EA, Sacco WJ. Outcome analysis of blunt injury in children. J Trauma 1988;28:1108–1117.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Eichelberger MR, Mangubat EA, Sacco WJ, Bowman ML, Lowenstein AD. Comparative outcomes of children and adults suffering blunt trauma. J Trauma 1988;28:430–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Eichelberger MR, Pratsch GL (eds). Pediatric Trauma Care. Rockville, MD: Aspen, 1988.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Eichelberger MR, Randolph JG. Thoracic trauma in children. Surg Clin North Am 1981;61:1181–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Eichelberger MR, Randolph JG. Pediatric trauma: an algorithm for diagnosis and therapy. J Trauma 1983;23:91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Eichelberger MR, Randolph JG. Pediatric trauma-initial resuscitation. In: Moore EE, Eiseman B, Van Way CE (eds) Critical Decisions in Trauma. St. Louis: Mosby, 1984:344.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ein SH, Shandling B, Simpson JS, et al. Nonoperative management of traumatized spleen in children: how and why. J Pediatr Surg 1978;13:117–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Enderson BL, Mault KI. Missed injuries: the trauma surgeon’s nemesis. Surg Clin North Am 1991;71:399–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Enderson BL, Reath DB, Meadors J, et al. The tertiary trauma survey: a prospective study of missed injury. J Trauma 1990;30:666–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Faist E, Baue AE, Dittmer H, et al. Multiple organ failure in polytrauma patients. J Trauma 1983;23:775–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fallat ME, Hardwick VG. Transport of the injured child. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fife D, Kaus J. Infection as a contributory cause of death in patients hospitalized for motor-vehicle trauma. Am J Surg 1988;155:278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Filler RM, Eraklis AJ, Rubin VG, Das JB. Long-term total parenteral nutrition in infants. N Engl J Med 1976;281:589–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fingerhut LA, Kleinman JC. Trends and current status in childhood mortality. Vital Health Stat 1989;26:1–44.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fiser D. Intraosseous infusion. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1579–1581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Flach J, Malmros R. A long-term follow-up study of children with severe head injury. Scand J Rehabil Med 1972;4:9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Flaherty JJ, Kelley R, Burnett B, et al. Relationship of pelvic bone fracture patterns to injuries of urethra and bladder. J Urol 1968;99:297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ford EG, Jennings LM, Gibson AE, et al. The pediatric trauma score accurately predicts injury severity in a single large urban pediatric trauma experience. Contemp Surg 1988;33:43–49.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fortune JB, Sanchez J, Graca L, et al. A pediatric trauma center without a pediatric surgeon: a four-year outcome analysis. J Trauma 1992;33:130–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Francke EL, Neu HC. Postsplenectomy infection. Surg Clin North Am 1981;61:135–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Friedland LR, Kulick RM. Emergency department analgesic use in pediatric trauma victims with fractures. Ann Emerg Med 1994;23:203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fry K, Hoffer MM, Brink J. Femoral shaft fractures in brain injured children. J Trauma 1976;16:371–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Furnival RA, Woodward GA, Schunk JE. Delayed diagnosis of injury in pediatric trauma. Pediatrics 1996;98:56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gallagher SS, Finison K, Guyer B, et al. The incidence of injuries among 87,000 Massachusetts children and adolescents: results of the 1980-81 state-wide children injury pre vention surveillance system. Am J Public Health 1984;74:1340–1347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gantz R, Krushell RJ, Jakob RP, Kuffer J. The antishock pelvic clamp. Clin Orthop 1991;267:71–78.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Garcia VF, Gotschall CS, Eichelberger MR, Bowman LM. Rib fractures in children: a marker of severe trauma. J Trauma 1990;30:695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Glenn JN, Miner M, Peltier LF. The treatment of fractures of the femur in patients with head injuries. J Trauma 1973;13:958–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gofin R, Hass T, Adler B. The development of disability scales for childhood and adolescent injuries. J Clin Epidemiol 1995;48:977–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Goris RJA, Gimbrere JSF, van Niekerk JLM, et al. Early osteosynthesis and prophylactic mechanical ventilation in the multitrauma patient. J Trauma 1982;22:895–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gratz RR. Accidental injury in childhood: a literature review on pediatric trauma. J Trauma 1979;19:551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Green NE. The evolution of pediatric orthopaedic trauma care. J Pediatr Orthop 1994;14:421–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Greenspan AI, MacKenzie EJ. Functional outcome after pediatric head injury. Pediatrics 1994;94:425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Grewal M, Sutcliffe AJ. Early prediction of outcome following head injury in children: an assessment of the value of Glasgow Coma Scale score trend and abnormal plantar and pupillary light reflexes. J Pediatr Surg 1991;26:1161–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gupta A, El Masri WS. Multilevel spinal injuries: incidence, distribution, and neurologic patterns. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1989;71:692–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gutierrez FA, Raimondi AJ. Acute subdural hematoma in infancy and childhood. Childs Brain 1975;1:269–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hahn YS, Raimondi AJ, McLone DG, Yamanouchi Y. Traumatic mechanisms of head injury in child abuse. Childs Brain 1983;10:229–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hall JR, Reyes HM, Horvat M, et al. The mortality of childhood falls. J Trauma 1989;29:1273–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Haller JA Jr. Pediatric trauma. The no. 1 killer of children. JAMA 1983;249:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Haller JA Jr, Shorter N, Miller D, et al. Organization and function of a regional pediatric trauma center: does a system of management improve outcome. J Trauma 1983;23:691–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Harris BH. Creating pediatric trauma systems. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:149–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Harris BH, Barlow BA, Ballatine TV, et al. American Pediatric Surgical Association principles of pediatric trauma care. J Pediatr Surg 1992;27:423–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Harris BH, Gelfand JA. The immune response to trauma. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Harris BH, Latchaw LA, Murphy RE, Schwartzberg SD. The crucial hour. Pediatr Ann 1987;16:301–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Harris BH, Latchaw LA, Murphy RE, et al. A protocol for pediatric trauma receiving units. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:419–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Harris BH, Schwartzberg SD, Seman TM, Herrmann C. The hidden morbidity of pediatric trauma. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:103–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Harris GJ, Soper RT. Pediatric first rib fractures. J Trauma 1990;30:343–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Harwood-Nash DC, Hendrick EB, Hudson AR. The significance of skull fractures in children. Radiology 1971;101:151–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Haslam DR. Age and perception of pain. Psychon Sci 1969;15:86–95.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Heinrich SD, Gallagher D, Harris M, Nadell JM, Undiagnosed fractures in severely injured children and young adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994;76:561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hellbusch LC, Moiel RH, Cheek WR. Growing skull fractures. South Med J 1977;70:555–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hendrick EB, Harwood-Hash DC. Head injuries in children: survey of 4,465 consecutive cases at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Clin Neurosurg 1962;11:45–62.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hjern B, Nylander I. Late prognosis of severe head injuries in childhood. Arch Dis Child 1962;37:113–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hodge D III, Delgado-Paredes C, Fleischer G. Intraosseous infusion flow rates in hypovolemic “pediatric” dogs. Ann Emerg Med 1987;16:305–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hoffman MA, Spence LJ, Wesson DE, et al. The pediatric passenger: trends in seatbelt use and injury patterns. J Trauma 1987;27:974–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Holmes MH, Reyes HM. A critical review of urban pediatric trauma. J Trauma 1984;24:253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Horowitz JH, Nichter LS, Kenney JG, Morgan RF. Lawnmower injuries in children: lower extremity reconstruction. J Trauma 1985;25:1138–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Howman-Giles R, Gilday DL, Venagopal S, et al. Splenic trauma-nonoperative management and long term follow up by scintiscan. J Pediatr Surg 1978;13:121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hu X, Wesson DE, Kenney BD, Chipman ML, Spence LJ. Risk factors for extended disruption of family function after severe injury to a child. Can Med Assoc J 1993;149:421–427.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Humphreys RP, Jaimovich R, Hendrick EB, et al. Severe head injuries in children. Concepts Pediatr Neurosurg 1983;4:230–237.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Isaacman DJ, Scarfone RJ, Kost SI, et al. Utility of routine laboratory testing for detecting intra-abdominal injury in the pediatric trauma patient. Pediatrics 1993;92:691–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jaffe D, Wesson D. Emergency management of blunt trauma in children. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1477–1482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jay SM, Ozolins M, Eliot CH. Assessment of children’s distress during painful medical procedures. Health Psychol 1983;2:133–140.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Johansen K, Lynch K, Paun M, Copass M. Non-invasive vascular tests reliability exclude occult arterial trauma in injured extremities. J Trauma 1991;31:515–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Johnston C, Rivara FP, Soderberg R. Children in car crashes: analysis of data for injury and use of restraints. Pediatrics 1994;93:960–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Johnston MV, Gerring JP. Head trauma and its sequelae. Pediatr Ann 1992;21:362–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Joyce M. Initial management of pediatric trauma. In: Marcus RE (ed) Trauma in Children. Rockville, MD: Aspen, 1986:13–38.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jubelirer RA, Agarwal NN, Beyer FC III, et al. Pediatric trauma triage: review of 1,307 cases. J Trauma 1990;30:1144–1151.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Juhl M, Moeller-Madsen B, Jensen J. Missed injuries in an orthopaedic department. Injury 1990;21:110–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kaban LB. Diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the facial bones in children 1943–1993. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993;51:722–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Karp MP, Cooney DR, Berger PE, et al. The role of computed tomography in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma in children. J Pediatr Surg 1981;16:316–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Karp MP, Cooney DR, Pros GA, et al. The non-operative management of pediatric hepatic trauma. J Pediatr Surg 1983;18:512–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kasperk R, Paar O. The polytraumatized child: pattern of injuries, characteristics of therapeutic management and prognosis. Aktuelle Traumatol 1991;21:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kaufmann CR, Maier RV, Kaufmann EJ, et al. Validity of applying adult TRISS analysis to injured children. J Trauma 1991;31:691–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kaufmann CR, Maier RV, Rivara FP, Carrico CJ. Evaluation of the Pediatric Trauma Score. JAMA 1990;263:69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kissoon N, Dreyer J, Walia M. Pediatric trauma: differences in pathophysiology, injury patterns and treatment compared with adult trauma. Can Med Assoc J 1990;142:27–34.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Knudson MM, Shagoury C, Lewis FR. Can adult trauma surgeons care for injured children? J Trauma 1992;32:729–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kriel RL, Krach LE, Panser LA. Closed head injury: comparison of children younger and older than 6 years of age. Pediatr Neurol 1989;5:296–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Laasonen EM, Kivioja A. Delayed diagnosis of extremity injuries in patients with multiple injuries. J Trauma 1991;31:257–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Laham JL, Cotcamp DH, Gibbons PA, Kahana MD, Crone KR. Isolated head injuries versus multiple trauma in pediatric patients: do the same indications for cervical spine evaluation apply. Pediatr Neurosurg 1994;21:221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lavery RF, Tortella BJ, Griffin CC. The pre-hospital treatment of pediatric trauma. Pediatr Emerg Care 1992;56:447–453.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lende RA. Enlarging skull fractures of childhood. Neuroradiology 1974;7:119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leonidas JC, Ting W, Binkiowicz A, et al. Mild head trauma in children: when is a roentgenogram necessary. Pediatrics 1982;69:139–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Levine JD, Gordon NC. Pain in prelingual children and its evaluation by pain-induced vocalization. Pain 1982;14:85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Levy EN, Griffith JA, Carvajal HF. Pediatric trauma care is cost effective: a comparison of pediatric and adult trauma care reimbursement. J Trauma 1994;36:504–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lewis VL, Manson PN, Morgan RF, et al. Facial injuries associated with cervical fractures: recognition patterns and management. J Trauma 1985;25:90–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Light TR, Wu JC, Ogden JA. Diagnosis and management of fractures in the multiply injured patient. Surg Clin North Am 1980;60:1121–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ligtenstein DA, Krijnen JLM, Jansen BRH, Eulderink F. Forgotten injury: a late benign complication of an unremoved shrapnel fragment: case report. J Trauma 1994;36:580–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lloyd-Thomas AR. ABC of major trauma: paediatric trauma. I. Primary survey and resuscitation. BMJ 1990;301:334–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Loder RT. Pediatric polytrauma: orthopaedic care and hospital course. J Orthop Trauma 1987;1:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    MacKeller A. Head injuries in children and implications for their prevention. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:577–579.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    MacKenzie EJ, Morris JA Jr, de Lissovoy GV, et al. Acute hospital costs of pediatric trauma in the United States: how much and who pays? J Pediatr Surg 1990;25:970–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Mackersie RC, Shackford SR, Garfin SR, Hoyt DB. Major skeletal injuries in the obtunded blunt trauma patient: a case for routine radiologic survey. J Trauma 1988;28:1450–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Malek M. The cost of medical care for injuries to children. Ann Emerg Med 1991;20:997–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Malek M, Guyer B, Lescohier I. The epidemiology and prevention of child pedestrian injury. Accid Anal Prev 1990;22:301–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Maksoud JG, Moront ML, Eichelberger MR. Resuscitation of the injured child. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mangubat E, Eichelberger M. Hypovolemia shock in pediatric patients: a physiologic approach to diagnosis and treatment. Trauma Clin Update Surg 1985;2:1–8.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Marcus RE. The orthopaedic management of the multiply injured child. In: Houghton GR, Thompson GH (eds) Problematic Musculoskeletal Injuries in Children. London: Butterworth, 1983.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Marcus RE, Mills MF, Thompson GH. Multiple injury in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983;65:1290–1294.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Marganitt B, MacKenzie EJ, Deshpande JK, Ramzy AI, Haller JH Jr. Hospitalizations for traumatic injuries among children 84 in Maryland: trends in incidence and severity: 1979 through 1988. Pediatrics 1992;89:608–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Marion DW, Carlier PM. Problems with initial Glasgow Coma Scale assessment caused by prehospital treatment of patients with head injuries: results of a national survey. J Trauma 1994;36:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Marshall LF, Barba D, Toole BM, Bowers SA. The oval pupil: clinical significance and relationship to intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg 1983;58:566–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Masters SJ, McLean PM, Arcarese JS, et al. Skull x-ray examinations after head trauma. N Engl J Med 1987;316:84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mayer T, Matlak ME, Johnson DG, et al. The modified injury severity scale in pediatric multiple trauma patients. J Pediatr Surg 1980;15:719–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mayer T, Walker ML, Clark P. Further experience with the Modified Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale. J Trauma 1984;24:31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Mayer T, Walker ML, Johnson DG. Causes of morbidity and mortality in severe pediatric trauma. JAMA 1981;245:719–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mayer T, Walker ML, Shasha I, et al. Effect of multiple trauma on outcome of pediatric patients. Childs Brain 1987;8:189–195.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Meissner M, Paun M, Johansen K. Duplex scanning for arterial trauma. Am J Surg 1991;161:552–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Moore EE, Moore FA, Franciose RJ, et al. The postischemic gut serves as a priming bed for circulating neutrophils that provoke multiple organ failure. J Trauma 1994;37:881–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Moore MN. Orthopedic pitfalls in emergency medicine. South Med J 1988;81:371–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Mori K, Handa H, Munemitsu M, et al. Epidural hematomas of the posterior fossa in children. Childs Brain 1983;10:130–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Murr PC, Moore EE, Lipscomb R, et al. Abdominal trauma associated with pelvic fracture. J Trauma 1980;20:919–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Nakayama DK, Copes WS, Sacco WJ. The effect of patient age upon survival in pediatric trauma. J Trauma 1991;31:1521–1526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Nakayama DK, Copes WS, Sacco W. Differences in trauma care among pediatric and nonpediatric trauma centers. J Pediatr Surg 1992;27:427–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nakayama DK, Gardner MJ, Rowe MI. Emergency endotracheal intubation in pediatric trauma. Ann Surg 1990;211:218–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Nakayama DK, Ramenofsky ML, Rowe MI. Chest injuries in childhood. Ann Surg 1989;210:770–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nakayama DK, Santz EW, Gardner MJ, et al. Quality assessment in the pediatric trauma care system. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Navarre JR, Cardilo PJ, Gorman JF, et al. Vascular trauma in children and adolescents. Am J Surg 1982;143:229–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nayduch DA, Moylan J, Rutledge R, et al. Comparison of the ability of adult and pediatric trauma scores to predict pediatric outcome following major trauma. J Trauma 1991;31:452–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Neff CC, Pfister RC, VanSonnenberg E. Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation: experimental and practical aspects. J Trauma 1983;23:84–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Oliver RC, Fallat ME. Traumatic childhood death: how well do parents cope? J Trauma 1995;39:303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    O’Neill JA. Special pediatric emergencies. In: Boswick JA (ed) Emergency Care. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1981:13.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pagliarello G, Dempster A, Wesson D. The integrated trauma program: a model for cooperative trauma triage. J Trauma 1992;33:198–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Paige GI, Wexler H. Prehospital management of pediatric trauma. Emerg Care 1987;3:15–19.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Partington MT, Lineaweaver WC, O’Hara M, et al. Unrecognized injuries in patients referred for emergency microsurgery. J Trauma 1993;34:238–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Peclet MH, Newnan KD, Eichelberger MR, et al. Patterns of injury in children. J Pediatr Surg 1990;25:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Phillips TF, Contreras DM. Timing of operative treatment of fractures in patients who have multiple injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:784–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Pina EM, Mehlman CT. Rhabdomyolysis: a primer for the orthopaedist. Orthop Rev 1994;23:28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Powell JN, Waddell JP, Tucker WS, Tranfeldt EE. Multiple-level noncontiguous spinal fractures. J Trauma 1989;29:1146–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Powell RW, Smith DE, Sarins CK, et al. Peritoneal lavage in children with blunt abdominal trauma. J Pediatr Surg 1976;11:973–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Raimondi AJ, Hirschaner J. Head injury in the infant and toddler: coma scoring and outcome scale. Childs Brain 1984;11:12–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ramenofsky ML. Emergency medical services for children and pediatric trauma system components. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:153–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ramenofsky ML, Luterman A, Currer PW, et al. EMS for pediatrics: optimal treatment or unnecessary delay? J Pediatr Surg 1983;18:498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ramenofsky ML, Luterman A, Quindlen E, et al. Maximum survival in pediatric trauma: the ideal system. J Trauma 1984;24:818–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ramenofsky ML, Ramenofsky MB, Jurkovich GJ, et al. The predictive validity of the Pediatric Trauma Score. J Trauma 1988;28:1038–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Read HS, Johnstone AJ, Scobie WG. Skull fractures in children: altered conscious level is the main indication for urgent CT scanning. Injury 1995;26:333–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Reichard SA, Helikson MA, Shorter N, et al. Pelvic fractures in children: review of 120 patients with a new look at general management. Pediatr Surg 1980;15:727–734.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Reid AB, Letts RM, Black GB. Pediatric Chance fractures: association with intra-abdominal injuries and seatbelt use. J Trauma 1990;30:384–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rhodes M, Smith S, Boorse D. Pediatric trauma patients in an adult trauma center. J Trauma 1993;35:384–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Richardson JD, McElvein RB, Trinkle JK. First rib fractures: hallmark of severe trauma. Ann Surg 1975;181:251–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Riska EB, von Bonsdorff H, Hakkinen S, et al. Prevention of fat embolism by early internal fixation of fractures in patients with multiple injuries. Injury 1976;8:110–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Rodriquez JG, Brown ST. Childhood injuries in the United States. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:627–646.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Roe CF, Santulli TV, Blair CS. Heat loss in infants during general anesthesia and operations. J Pediatr Surg 1966;1:266–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rogers MC. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1987.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rokkanen P. Diagnostic aspects in multiple injuries. Int Surg 1966;45:40–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Rosenberg ML, Rodriquez JG, Chorba TL. Childhood injuries: where are we? Pediatrics 1990;86:1084–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rosovsky M, Fitzpatrick M, Goldfarb CR, Finestone H. Bilateral osteomyelitis due to intraosseous infusion: case report and review of the English-language literature. Pediatr Radiol 1994;24:72–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Schechter NL, Allen DA, Hanson K. Status of pediatric pain control: a comparison of hospital analgesic usage in children and adults. Pediatrics 1987;77:11–15.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Schoenfeld PS, Baker MD. Management of cardiopulmonary and trauma resuscitation in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 1993;91:726–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Scholer SJ, Mitchel EF Jr, Ray WA. Predictors of injury mortality in early childhood. Pediatrics 1997;100:342–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Seelig JM, Becker DP, Miller JP, et al. Traumatic acute subdural hematoma: major mortality reduction in comatose patients treated within four hours. N Engl J Med 1981;304:1511–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Seidel JS, Hornbein M, Yoshiyama K, et al. Emergency medical services and the pediatric patient: are the needs being met? Pediatrics 1984;73:769–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Shaker IJ, White JJ, Signer RD, et al. Special problems of vascular injuries in children. J Trauma 1976;16:863–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Shapiro K (ed). Pediatric Head Trauma. Mt. Kisco, NY: Futura, 1983.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Singh R, Kissoon N, Singh N, et al. Is a full team required for emergency management of pediatric trauma? J Trauma 1992;33:213–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Singournas EG, Volikas ZG. Epidural hematoma in a paediatric population. Childs Brain 1984;11:250–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Smith C, Green R. Pediatric vascular injuries. Surgery 1981;90:20–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Smyth BT. Chest trauma in children. J Pediatr Surg 1979;14:41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Starling SP, Holden JR, Jenny C. Abusive head trauma: the relationship of perpetrators to their victims. Pediatrics 1995;95:259–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Tepas JI, DiScala C, Ramenofsky M, Barlow B. Mortality and head injury: the pediatric perspective. J Pediatr Surg 1990;25:92–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Tepas JI, Molitt D, Talbert J, Bryant M. The pediatric trauma score as a predictor of injury severity in the injured child. J Pediatr Surg 1987;22:14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Tepas JJ, Ramenofsky ML, Molitt DL, et al. The Pediatric Trauma Score as a predictor of injury severity: an objective assessment. J Trauma 1988;28:425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Tepas JJ III, Dokler ML. Critical care of the injured child. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:120–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Tepas JJ III, Ramenofsky ML, Barlow B, et al. National pediatric trauma registry. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:156–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Touloukian RJ (ed). Pediatric Trauma, 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1990.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tsai A. Epidemiology of pediatric prehospital care. Ann Emerg Med 1987;16:284–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Van Os JP, Roumen RM, Schoots FJ, Heystraten FM, Goris RJ. Is early osteosynthesis safe in multiple trauma patients with severe thoracic trauma and pulmonary contusion. J Trauma 1994;36:495–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Verstreken L, Deloronge G, Lamoureux J. Orthopaedic treatment of paediatric multiple trauma patients: a new technique. Int Surg 1988;73:177–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Vestrup JA, Phang T, Vertesi L, Wing PC, Hamilton NE. The utility of a multicenter regional trauma registry. J Trauma 1994;37:375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Ward WG, Nunley JA. Occult orthopaedic trauma in the multiply injured patient. J Orthop Trauma 1991;5:308–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wesson DE, Spence LJ, Williams JI, Armstrong PF. Injury scoring systems in children. Can J Surg 1987;30:398–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Wesson DE, Williams JI, Salmi LR, et al. Evaluating a pediatric trauma program: effectiveness versus preventable death rate. J Trauma 1988;28:1226–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Wesson DE, Williams JI, Spence LJ, et al. Functional outcome in pediatric trauma. J Trauma 1989;29:589–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Williams BC, Kotch JB. Excess injury mortality among children in the United States: comparison of recent international statistics. Pediatrics 1990;86:1067–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Williams MD, Reckard PE, Knox R, Petersen SR, Schiller WR. Steroid use is associated with pneumonia in pediatric chest trauma. J Trauma 1992;32:520–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Williams RA. Injuries in infants and small children resulting from witnessed and corroborated free falls. J Trauma 1991;31:1350–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Witte MK, Hill JH, Blumer JL. Shock in the pediatric patient. Adv Pediatr 1987;34:139–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT, Bruce D, et al. Computed tomography of pediatric head trauma: acute general cerebral swelling. Radiology 1978;126:403–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2000

Personalised recommendations