Advertisement

Localizing Sites for Plasticity in the Vestibular System

  • A. M. Green
  • Y. Hirata
  • H. L. Galiana
  • S. M. Highstein
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 19)

4.4. Conclusions

The identification of potential sites for plasticity in the VOR has thus far been limited mainly to the investigation of very specific signal components that are modified following a particular reflex-training paradigm (i.e., broadband reflex training). Yet, the richness of different behavioral observations associated with different training paradigms points to the existence of multiple potential adaptation sites within the VOR pathways and the use of different adaptation strategies that thus far remain virtually unexplored. Although the ability to explicitly localize sites for plasticity to individual cells is currently limited by incomplete knowledge of network structure, the use of innovative analysis and modeling approaches that are less sensitive to a priori assumptions can aid in conceptualizing such strategies and in identifying additional sites for plasticity. At the present time, therefore, an apparent step back toward more process-oriented models and interpretation may be required to make further progress in identifying sites for plasticity at the level of individual neurons. Hence, despite much progress in identifying the neural correlates for motor learning in the VOR, the story is far from complete. The VOR system remains an excellent model system for the investigation of the neural correlates for motor learning and in particular for investigating learning strategies that are context-dependent.

Keywords

Purkinje Cell Motor Learning Head Velocity Efference Copy Vestibular Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akaike H (1973) Information theory and extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrov BN, Csaki F (eds) 2nd Intl Symposium on Information Theory. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, pp. 267–281.Google Scholar
  2. Albus JS (1971) A theory of cerebellar function. Math Biosci 10:25–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelaki DE, Hess BJM (1998) Visually induced adaptation in three dimensional organization of primate vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 79:791–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Artola A, Singer W (1993) Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 11:480–487.Google Scholar
  5. Baker JF, Harrison REW, Isu N, Wickland C, Peterson B (1986) Dynamics of adaptive change in vestibuloocular reflex. II. Sagittal plane rotations. Brain Res 371: 166–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker JF, Wickland C, Peterson BW (1987) Dependence of cat vestibuloocular reflex direction adaptation on animal orientation during adaptation and rotation in darkness. Brain Res 408:339–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker R, Precht W, Llinas R (1972) Cerebellar modulatory action on the vestibulotrochlear pathway in the cat. Exp Brain Res 15:364–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes GR (1993) Visual-vestibular interaction in the control of head and eye movement: the role of visual feedback and predictive mechanisms. Prog Neurobiol 41:435–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bear MF, Malenka RC (1994) Synaptic plasticity: LTP and LTD. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:389–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bello S, Paige GD, Highstein SM (1991) The squirrel monkey vestibuloocular reflex and adaptive plasticity in yaw, pitch and roll. Exp Brain Res 87:57–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bliss TV, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brindley CS (1964) The use made by the cerebellum of the information that it receives from sense organs. Int Brain Res Org Bull 3:80.Google Scholar
  13. Brontë-Stewart HM, Lisberger SG (1994) Physiological properties of vestibular primary afferents that mediate motor learning and normal performance of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in monkeys. J Neurosci 14:1290–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Broussard DM, Lisberger SG (1992) Vestibular inputs to brain stem neurons that participate in motor learning in the primate vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 68:1906–1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Broussard DM, Bronte-Stewart HM, Lisberger SG (1992) Expression of motor learning in the response of the primate vestibuloocular reflex pathway to electrical stimulation. J Neurophysiol 67:1493–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bures J, Fenton AA, Kaminsky Y, Zinyuk L (1997) Place cells and place navigation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A 94:343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cannon SC, Robinson DA (1987) Loss of the neural integrator of the oculomotor system from brain stem lesions in monkey. J Neurophysiol 57:1383–1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheron G, Godaux E (1987) Disabling of the oculomotor neural integrator by kainic acid injections in the prepositus-vestibular complex of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 394:267–290.Google Scholar
  19. Clendaniel RA, Lasker DM, Minor LB (2001) Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. IV. Responses after spectacle-induced adaptation. J Neurophysiol 86:1594–1611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Collewijn H, Grootendorst AF (1979) Adaptation of optokinetic and vestibuloocular reflexes to modified visual input in the rabbit. Prog Brain Res 50:772–781.Google Scholar
  21. Collewijn H, Martins AJ, Steinman RM (1983) Compensatory eye movements during active and passive head movements: fast adaptation to changes in visual magnification. J Physiol (Lond) 340:259–286.Google Scholar
  22. Cullen KE, McCrea RA (1993) Firing behavior of brain stem neurons during voluntary cancellation of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex. I. Secondary vestibular neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:828–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cullen KE, Chen-Huang C, McCrea RA (1993) Firing behavior of brainstem neurons during voluntary cancellation of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex. II. Eye movement related neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:844–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Curthoys IS, Halmagyi GM (1995) Vestibular compensation: a review of the oculomotor, neural, and clinical consequences of unilateral vestibular loss. J Vestib Res 5:67–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daniel H, Levenes C, Crepel F (1998) Cellular mechanisms of cerebellar LTD. Trends Neurosci 21:401–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dieringer N (1995) “Vestibular compensation”: neural plasticity and its relations to functional recovery after labyrinthine lesions in frogs and other vertebrates. Prog Neurobiol 46:97–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dufosse M, Ito M, Jastreboff PJ, Miyashita Y (1978) A neuronal correlate in rabbit’s cerebellum to adaptive modification of the vestibuloocular reflex. Brain Res 150:611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. du Lac S, Raymond JL, Sejnowski TJ, Lisberger SG (1995) Learning and memory in the vestibuloocular reflex. Annu Rev Neurosci 18:409–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Escudero M, De La Cruz RR, Delgado-Garcia JM (1992) A physiological study of vestibular and prepositus hypoglossi neurones projecting to the abducens nucleus in the alert cat. J Physiol (Lond) 458:539–560.Google Scholar
  30. Fujita M (1982) Adaptive filter model of the cerebellum. Biol Cybern 45:195–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Galiana HL (1986) A new approach to understanding adaptive visual-vestibular interactions in the central nervous system. J Neurophysiol 55:349–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Galiana HL, Green AM (1998) Vestibular adaptation: how models can affect data interpretations. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 119:231–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Galiana HL, Outerbridge JS (1984) A bilateral model for central neural pathways in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 51:210–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gauthier GM, Robinson DA (1975) Adaptation of the human vestibuloocular reflex to magnifying lenses. Brain Res 92:331–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Godaux E, Halleux J, Gobert C (1983) Adaptive change of the vestibuloocular reflex in the cat: the effects of a longterm frequency selective procedure. Exp Brain Res 49:28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goldberg JM, Fernández C (1971) Physiology of peripheral neurons innervating semicircular canals of the squirrel monkey. I. Resting discharge and response to constant angular accelerations. J Neurophysiol 34:635–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gomi H, Kawato M (1992) Adaptive feedback control models of the vestibulocerebellum and spinocerebellum. Biol Cybern 68:105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1971) Plasticity in the adult human vestibuloocular reflex arc. Proc Can Fed Biol Soc 14:11.Google Scholar
  39. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1976a) Shortterm adaptive changes in the human vestibuloocular reflex arc. J Physiol (Lond) 256:361–379.Google Scholar
  40. Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1976b) Extreme vestibuloocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision. J Physiol (Lond) 256:381–414.Google Scholar
  41. Green AM (2000) Visual-vestibular interaction in a bilateral model of the rotational and translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes: an investigation of viewing-context-dependent reflex performance. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  42. Green A, Galiana HL (1996) Exploring sites for short-term VOR modulation using a bilateral model. Ann N Y Acad Sci 781:625–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harrison REW, Baker JF, Isu N, Wickland CR, Peterson BW (1986) Dynamics of adaptive change in vestibuloocular reflex direction. I. Rotation in the horizontal plane. Brain Res 371:162–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Highstein SM (1973) Synaptic linkage in the vestibulo-ocular and cerebello-vestibular pathways to the VIth nucleus in the rabbit. Exp Brain Res 17:301–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Highstein SM (1998) Role of the flocculus of the cerebellum in motor learning of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 119:212–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Highstein SM, Partsalis A, Arikan R (1997) Role of Y-group of the vestibular nuclei and flocculus of the cerebellum in motor learning of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex. Prog Brain Res 114:383–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hirata Y, Highstein SM (2001) Acute adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex: signal processing by floccular and ventral parafloccular Purkinje cells. J Neurophysiol 85:2267–2288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hirata Y, Lockard JM, Highstein SM (2002) Capacity of vertical VOR adaptation in squirrel monkey. J Neurophysiol 88:3194–3207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirata Y, Takeuchi I, Highstein SM (2003) A dynamical model for the vertical vestibuloocular reflex and optokinetic response in primate. Neurocomputing 52–54:531–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ito M (1972) Neural design of the cerebellar motor control system. Brain Res 40:81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ito M (1989) Long-term depression. Annu Rev Neurosci 12:85–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ito M, Shiida T, Yagi N, Yamamoto M (1974) The cerebellar modification of rabbit’s horizontal vestibuloocular reflex induced by sustained head rotation combined with visual stimulation. Proc Jpn Acad 50:85–89.Google Scholar
  53. Ito M, Nisimaru N, Yamamoto M (1977) Specific patterns of neuronal connexions involved in the control of the rabbit’s vestibulo-ocular reflexes by the cerebellar flocculus. J Physiol (Lond) 265:833–854.Google Scholar
  54. Ito M, Sakurai M, Tongroach P (1981) Evidence for modifiability of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. In: Szentagothai J, Hamori J, Palkovits M (eds) Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 2. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 97–105.Google Scholar
  55. Ito M, Sakurai M, Tongroach P (1982) Climbing fibre induced depression of both mossy fibre responsiveness and glutamate sensitivity of cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Physiol (Lond) 324:113–134.Google Scholar
  56. Kaneko CR (1997) Eye movement deficits after ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus preositus hypoglossi in monkeys. I. Saccades and fixation. J Neurophysiol 78:1753–1768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaneko CR (1999) Eye movement deficits following ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi in monkeys. II. Pursuit, vestibular, and optokinetic responses. J Neurophysiol 81:668–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Keller EL, Precht W (1979) Adaptive modification of central vestibular neurons in response to visual stimulation through reversing prisms. J Neurophysiol 42:896–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Khater TT, Quinn KJ, Pena J, Baker JF, Peterson BW (1993) The latency of the cat vestibulo-ocular reflex before and after shortterm and longterm adaptation. Exp Brain Res 94:16–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim JJ, Thompson RF (1997) Cerebellar circuits and synaptic mechanisms involved in classical eyeblink conditioning. Trends Neurosci 20:177–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kobayashi Y, Kawano K, Takemura A, Inoue Y, Kitama T, Gomi H, Kawato M (1998) Temporal firing patterns of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar ventral parafloccular during ocular following responses in monkeys. II. Complex spikes. J Neurophysiol 80:832–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kramer PD, Shelhamer M, Zee DS (1995) Short-term adaptation of the phase of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in normal human subjects. Exp Brain Res 106:318–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kramer PD, Shelhamer M, Peng GCY, Zee DS (1998) Context-specific short-term adaptation of the phase of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Exp Brain Res 120:184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kukreja S, Galiana HL, Smith HLH, Kearney RE (1999) Parametric identification of non-linear hybrid systems. Proc BMES/IEEE-EMBS Ann Conf 21:991.Google Scholar
  65. Lisberger SG (1984) The latency of pathways containing the site of motor learning in the monkey vestibulo-ocular reflex. Science 225:74–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lisberger SG (1988) The neural basis for learning of simple motor skills. Science 242:728–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lisberger SG (1994) Neural basis for motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex of primates. III. Computational and behavioral analysis of the sites of learning. J Neurophysiol 72:974–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lisberger SG (1998) Physiologic basis for motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 119:43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lisberger SG, Fuchs AF (1978) Role of primate flocculus during rapid behavioral modification of vestibuloocular reflex. I. Purkinje cell activity during visually guided horizontal smooth-pursuit eye movements and passive head rotation. J Neurophysiol 41:733–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lisberger SG, Miles FA (1980) Role of primate medial vestibular nucleus in longterm adaptive plasticity of vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 43:1725–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lisberger SG, Pavelko TA (1986) Vestibular signals carried by pathways subserving plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. J Neurosci 6:346–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lisberger SG, Pavelko TA (1988) Brain stem neurons in modified pathways for motor learning in the primate vestibulo-ocular reflex. Science 242:771–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lisberger SG, Sejnowski TJ (1992) Motor learning in a recurrent network model based on the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Nature 360:159–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lisberger S, Evinger C, Johanson G, Fuchs A (1981) Relationship between eye acceleration and retinal image velocity during foveal smooth pursuit in man and monkey. J Neurophysiol 46:229–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lisberger SG, Miles FA, Optican LM (1983) Frequency-selective adaptation: evidence for channels in the vestibulo-ocular reflex? J Neurosci 3:1234–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lisberger SG, Miles FA, Zee DS (1984) Signals used to compute errors in monkey vestibuloocular reflex: possible role of flocculus. J Neurophysiol 52:1140–1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lisberger SG, Pavelko TA, Broussard DM (1994a) Responses during eye movements of brain stem neurons that receive monosynaptic inhibition from the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus in monkeys. J Neurophysiol 72:909–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lisberger SG, Pavelko TA, Broussard DM (1994b) Neural basis for motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex of primates. I. Changes in responses of brain stem neurons. J Neurophysiol 72:928–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lisberger SG, Pavelko TA, Brontë-Stewart HM, Stone LS (1994c) Neural basis for motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex of primates. II. Changes in the responses of horizontal gaze velocity Purkinje cells in the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus. J Neurophysiol 72:954–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Llinás R, Lang EJ, Welsh JP (1997) The cerebellum, LTD, and memory: alternative views. Learn Mem 3:445–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lopez-Barneo J, Ribas J, Delgado-Garcia JM (1981) Identification of prepositus neurons projecting to the oculomotor nucleus in the cat. Brain Res 214:174–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Luebke AE, Robinson DA (1994) Gain changes of the cat’s vestibulo-ocular reflex after flocculus deactivation. Exp Brain Res 98:379–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marmarelis PD, Marmarelis VZ (1978) Analysis of physiological systems. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  84. Marr D (1969) A theory of cerebellar cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 202:437–470.Google Scholar
  85. Mauk MD (1997) Roles of cerebellar cortex and nuclei in motor learning: contradictions or clues? Neuron 18:343–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mauk MD, Garcia KS, Medina JF, Steele PM (1998) Does cerebellar LTD mediate motor learning? Toward a resolution without a smoking gun. Neuron 20:359–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McCrea RA, Yoshida K, Evinger C, Berthoz A (1981) The location, axonal arborization and termination sites of eye-movement-related secondary vestibular neurons demonstrated by intra-axonal HRP injection in the alert cat. In: Fuchs A, Becker W (eds) Progress in Oculomotor Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 379–386.Google Scholar
  88. McCrea RA, Strassman A, May A, Highstein SM (1987) Anatomical and physiological characteristics of vestibular neurons mediating the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex of the squirrel monkey. J Comp Neurol 264:547–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McElligott JG, Beeton P, Polk J (1998) Effect of cerebellar inactivation by lidocaine microdialysis on the vestibuloocular reflex in goldfish. J Neurophysiol 79:1286–1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. McFarland JL, Fuchs AF (1992) Discharge patterns in nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and adjacent medial vestibular nucleus during horizontal eye movement in behaving macaques. J Neurophysiol 68:319–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McNaughton BL (1998) The neurophysiology of reminiscence. Neurobiol Learn Mem 70:252–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Melvill Jones G, Davies P (1976) Adaptation of cat vestibulo-ocular reflex to 200 days of optically reversed vision. Brain Res 103:551–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mettens P, Godaux E, Cheron G, Galiana HL (1994) Effect of muscimol micro-injections into the prepositus hypoglossi and the medial vestibular nuclei on cat eye movements. J Neurophysiol 72:785–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Miles FA, Eighmy BB (1980) Long-term adaptive changes in primate vestibuloocular reflex. I. Behavioral observations. J Neurophysiol 43:1406–1425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Miles FA, Fuller JH (1974) Adaptive plasticity in the vestibulo-ocular responses of the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 80:512–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miles FA, Lisberger SG (1981) Plasticity in the vestibulo-ocular reflex: a new hypothesis. Annu Rev Neurosci 4:273–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Miles FA, Fuller JH, Braitman DJ, Dow BM (1980a) Long-term adaptive changes in primate vestibuloocular reflex. III. Electrophysiological observations in flocculus of normal monkeys. J Neurophysiol 43:1437–1476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Miles FA, Braitman DJ, Dow BM (1980b) Long-term adaptive changes in primate vestibuloocular reflex. IV. Electrophysiological observations in flocculus of adapted monkeys. J Neurophysiol 43:1477–1493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Minor LB, Lasker DM, Backous DD, Hullar TE (1999) Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. I. Normal responses. J Neurophysiol 82:1254–1270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nagao S (1983) Effects of vestibulocerebellar lesions upon dynamic characteristics and adaptation of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic responses in pigmented rabbits. Exp Brain Res 53:36–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nagao S (1989) Behavior of floccular Purkinje cells correlated with adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex in pigmented rabbits. Exp Brain Res 77:531–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Neville HJ, Bavelier D (1998) Neural organization and plasticity of language. Curr Opin Neurobiol 8:254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nikias CL, Raghuveer MR (1987) Bispectrum estimation: a digital signal processing framework. Proc IEEE 75:869–891.Google Scholar
  104. Paige GD (1983a) Vestibuloocular reflex and its interactions with visual following mechanisms in the squirrel monkey. I. Response characteristics in normal animals. J Neurophysiol 49:134–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Paige GD (1983b) Vestibuloocular reflex and its interactions with visual following mechanisms in the squirrel monkey. II. Response characteristics and plasticity following unilateral inactivation of horizontal canal. J Neurophysiol 49:152–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Paige GD, Sargent EW (1991) Visually-induced adaptive plasticity in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex. Exp Brain Res 84:25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Partsalis AM, Zhang Y, Highstein SM (1995a) Dorsal Y group in squirrel monkey. I. Neuronal responses during rapid and long-term modifications of the vertical VOR. J Neurophysiol 73:615–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Partsalis AM, Zhang Y, Highstein SM (1995b) Dorsal Y group in the squirrel monkey. II. Contribution of the cerebellar flocculus to neuronal responses in normal and adapted animals. J Neurophysiol 73:632–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pastor AM, De La Cruz RR, Baker R (1992) Characterization and adaptive modification of the goldfish vestibuloocular reflex by sinusoidal and velocity step vestibular stimulation. J Neurophysiol 68:2003–2015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pastor AM, De La Cruz RR, Baker R (1994) Cerebellar role in adaptation of the goldfish vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 72:1383–1394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Pastor AM, De La Cruz RR, Baker R (1997) Characterization of Purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Prog Brain Res 114:359–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Powell KD, Quinn KJ, Rude SA, Peterson BW, Baker JF (1991) Frequency dependence of cat vestibulo-ocular reflex direction adaptation: single frequency and multifrequency rotations. Brain Res 550:137–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Powell KD, Peterson BW, Baker JF (1996) Phase-shifted direction of adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in cat. J Vestib Res 6:277–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Quinn KJ, Schmajuk N, Baker JF, Peterson BW (1992a) Simulation of adaptive mechanisms in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Biol Cybern 67:103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Quinn KJ, Schmajuk N, Baker JF, Peterson BW (1992b) Vestibulo-ocular reflex arc analysis using an experimentally constrained neural network. Biol Cybern 67:113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Raphan T, Matsuo V, Cohen B (1979) Velocity storage in the vestibulo-ocular reflex arc (VOR). Exp Brain Res 35:229–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rashbass C (1961) The relationship between saccadic and smooth tracking eye movements. J Physiol (Lond) 159:326–338.Google Scholar
  118. Raymond JL, Lisberger SG (1996) Behavioral analysis of signals that guide learned changes in the amplitude and dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. J Neurosci 16:7791–7802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Raymond JL, Lisberger SG, Mauk MD (1996) The cerebellum: a neuronal learning machine? Science 272:1126–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rey C, Galiana HL (1993) Transient analysis of vestibular nystagmus. Biol Cybern 69:395–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rissanen J (1986) Stochastic complexity and modeling. Annals of statistics 14:1080–1100.Google Scholar
  122. Robinson DA (1974) The effect of cerebellectomy on the cat’s vestibulo-ocular integrator. Brain Res 71:195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Robinson DA (1976) Adaptive gain control of vestibulo-ocular reflex by the cerebellum. J Neurophysiol 39:954–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Robinson DA (1977) Linear addition of optokinetic and vestibular signals in the vestibular nucleus. Exp Brain Res 30:447–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Robinson DA (1981) The use of control systems analysis in the neurophysiology of eye movements. Annu Rev Neurosci 4:463–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sato Y, Kawasaki T (1987) Target neurons of floccular caudal zone inhibition in Y-group nucleus of vestibular nucleus complex. J Neurophysiol 57:460–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sato Y, Kanda K-I, Kawasaki T (1988) Target neurons of floccular middle zone inhibition in medial vestibular nucleus. Brain Res 446:225–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Schairer JO, Bennett MVL (1981) Cerebellectomy in goldfish prevents adaptive gain control of the VOR without affecting the optokinetic system. In: Gualtierotti T (ed) The Vestibular System: Function and Morphology. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 463–477.Google Scholar
  129. Schetzen M (1980) The Volterra and Wiener theories of nonlinear systems. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  130. Schultheis LW, Robinson DA (1981) Directional plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the cat. Ann N Y Acad Sci 374:504–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Schwarz G (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics 6:461–464.Google Scholar
  132. Scudder CA, Fuchs AF (1992) Physiological and behavioral identification of vestibular nucleus neurons mediating the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex in trained rhesus monkeys. J Neurophysiol 68:244–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Seidenberg MS (1997) Language acquisition and use: learning and applying probabilistic constraints. Science 275:1599–1603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Seidman SH, Paige GD, Tomko DL (1999) Adaptive plasticity in the naso-occipital linear vestibulo-ocular reflex. Exp Brain Res 125:485–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shidara M, Kawano K, Gomi H, Kawato M (1993) Inverse dynamics model eye movement control by Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Nature 365:50–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Silva AJ, Giese KP, Fedorov NB, Frankland PW, Kogan JH (1998) Molecular, cellular, and neuroanatomical substrates of place learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 70:44–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Skavenski AA, Robinson DA (1973) Role of abducens neurons in vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol 36:724–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Snyder LH, King WM (1988) Vertical vestibuloocular reflex in cat: asymmetry and adaptation. J Neurophysiol 59:279–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stone LS, Lisberger SG (1990) Visual response of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar floccular during smooth-pursuit eye movements in monkeys. I. Simple spikes. J Neurophysiol 63:1241–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Tabata H, Yamamoto K, Kawato M (2002) Computational study on monkey VOR adaptation and smooth pursuit based on the parallel control-pathway theory. J Neurophysiol 87:2176–2189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Thach WT (1998) A role for the cerebellum in learning movement coordination. Neurobiol Learn Mem 70:177–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tiliket C, Shelhamer M, Roberts D, Zee DS (1994) Short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation in humans. I. Effect on the ocular motor velocity-to-position neural integrator. Exp Brain Res 100:316–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Toda N, Usui S (1991) An overview of biological signal processing: non-linear and non-stationary aspects. Front Med Biol Eng 3:125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Tychsen L, Lisberger SG (1986) Visual motion processing for the initiation of smooth-pursuit eye movements in humans. J Neurophysiol 56:953–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Watanabe E (1984) Neuronal events correlated with long-term adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in the primate flocculus. Brain Res 297:169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wei M, Angelaki DE (2001) Cross-axis adaptation of the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex. Exp Brain Res 138:304–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Green
  • Y. Hirata
  • H. L. Galiana
  • S. M. Highstein

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations