Diagnosis, Course, and Assessment of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adolescents

  • Tammy Chung
  • Christopher S. Martin
  • Ken C. Winters
Part of the Recent Developments in Alcoholism book series (RDIA, volume 17)


Risk for the onset of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) peaks during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood, highlighting the public health significance of alcohol use by adolescents. This chapter summarizes recent research on the diagnosis, course, and assessment of adolescent AUDs. This review focuses on developmental considerations in assessment of AUD criteria, the prevalence of DSM-IV AUDs among adolescents, typical alcohol symptom profiles in youth, and limitations of DSM-IV AUD criteria when applied to adolescents. In addition, studies of AUD course in adolescents, as well as factors influencing the course of AUDs are summarized. The chapter also provides an overview of brief alcohol screening instruments and other measures used in more comprehensive assessment of AUDs in adolescents.


Alcohol Dependence Latent Class Analysis Alcohol Problem Homeless Youth Adolescent Substance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrantes, A, McCarthy, DM, Aarons, GA, & Brown, SA. (July 2002). Trajectories of alcohol involvenient following addiction treatment through 8-year follow-up in adolescents. Paper presented at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, JP & Columbus, M (Eds). (1995). Assessing alcohol problems: A guide for clinicians and researchers (NIAAA Treatment Handbook Series 4). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), text revision. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, G & Peters, L. (1998). The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 80–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Angold A & Costello EJ (2000) The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong, TD & Costello, EJ. (2002). Community studies of adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1224–1239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Babor, TF, De LaFuente, JR, Saunders, J & Grant, M. (1989). AUDIT: The alcohol use disorders identification test: Guidelines for use in primary health care. WHO Publication No 89.4. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  8. Baer, JS, Ginzler, JA, & Peterson, PL (2003). DSM-IV alcohol and substance abuse and dependence in homeless youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baer, JS, Kivlahan, DR & Marlatt, GA. (1995). High risk drinking across the transition from high school to college. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey, SL. (1999). The measurement of problem drinking in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 234–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bailey, SL, Martin, CS, Lynch, KG, & Pollock, NK. (2000). Reliability and concurrent validity of DSM-IV subclinical symptom ratings for alcohol use disorders among adolescents. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 1795–1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bilchik, S. 1998. Mental Health Disorders and Substance Abuse Problems Among Juveniles. Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, SA (1993). Recovery patterns in adolescent substance abuse. In JS Barr, GA Marlatt & RJ Mahon (Eds), Addictive behaviors across the life span (pp. 161–183).Google Scholar
  14. Brown, SA. (1999, July). A double-developmental model of adolescent substance abuse. Presented at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, CA.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, SA, D'Amico, EJ, McCarthy, DM, & Tapert, SE (2001). Four-year outcomes from adolescent alcohol and drug treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 381–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, S.A., Myers, M.G., Lippke, L., Tapert, S.F., Stewart, D.G., & Vik, P.W. (1998). Psychometric evaluation of the customary drinking and drug use record (CDDR): A measure of adolescent alcohol and drug use involvement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 427–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, SA, Myers, MG, Mott, MA & Vik, PW. (1994). Correlates of success following treatment for adolescent substance abuse. Applied Preventive Psychology, 3, 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bucholz KK, Cadoret R, Cloninger CR. (1994). A new, semi-structured psychiatric interview for use in genetic linkage studies: a report on the reliability, of the SSAGA. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55:149–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bucholz, KK, Heath, AC, & Madden, PAR (2000). Transitions in drinking in adolescent females: Evidence from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 914–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Catalano, RF, Hawkins, JD, Wells, EA, & Miller, JL (1990–91) Evaluation of the effectiveness of adolescent drug abuse treatment, assessment of risks for relapse, and promising approaches for relapse prevention. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 1085–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1999). Screening and assessing adolescents for substance use disorders (Treatment Improvement Protocol Series 31). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  22. Chung, T, Colby, SM, Barnett, NP, & Monti, PM. (2002). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Factor structure in an adolescent emergency department sample. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chung, T., Colby, S., Barnett, N., Rohsenow, D., Spirito, A., & Monti, P. (2000). Screening adolescents for problem drinking in a hospital setting. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 579–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chung, T & Martin, CS. (2001). Classification and course of alcohol problems among adolescents in addictions treatment programs. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1734–1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chung, T & Martin, CS (2002). Concurrent and discriminant validity of DSM-IV symptoms of impaired control over alcohol consumption in adolescents. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 485–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chung, T, Martin, CS, Armstrong, TD & Labouvie, EW (2002). Prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses and symptoms in adolescent community and clinical samples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 546–554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chung T, Martin CS, Grella C, Winters KC, & Abrantes AM (2003). Course of alcohol problems in treated adolescents: Symposium proceedings of 2002 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27, 253–261.Google Scholar
  28. Chung, T., Martin, CS, Winters, KC & Langenbucher, JW. (2001). Assessment of alcohol tolerance in adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 687–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, DB, Parker, AM & Lynch, KG. (1999). Psychopathology and substance-related problems during early adolescence: A survival analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 333–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Kasen, S., Velez, C.M., Hartmark, C., Johnson, J., Rojas, M., Brook, J., & Streuning, E.L. (1993) An epidemiological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence, I. Age-and gender-specific prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 851–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cornelius, JR, Maisto, SA, Pollock, NK, Martin, CS, Salloum, IM, Lynch, KG & Clark, DB. (2003). Rapid relapse generally follows treatment for substance use disorders among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 381–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Costello, EJ, Edelbrock, C & Costello, AJ. (1985). Validity of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: A comparison between psychiatric and pediatric referrals. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 570–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Costello, EJ, Erkanli, A, Federman, E, & Angold, A. (1999). Development of psychiatric comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents: Effects of timing and sex. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 298–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Deas, D., Riggs, P., Langenbucher, J., Goldman, M., & Brown, S. (2000). Adolescents are not adults: Developmental considerations in alcohol users. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 232–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dennis, ML, Titus, JC, White, MK, Unsicker, JI & Hodgkins, D. (2002). Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN): Administration guide for the GAIN and related measures. Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems. [Online] Available at: Scholar
  36. Edwards, G., & Gross, M. (1976). Alcohol dependence: provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1058–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elster, AB & Kuznets, NJ (Eds). (1994). American Medical Association Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Service (GAPS). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  38. Ewing, JA (1984). Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. JAMA, 252: 1905–1907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M & Williams, JBW. (1997). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient edition. (SCID-I/NP). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Grella, C, Hser, Y-I, Joshi, V, & Rounds-Bryant, J. (2001). Drug treatment outcomes for adolescents with comorbid mental and substance use disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 384–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grilo, CM, Becker, DF, Fehon, DC, Edell, WC, & McGlashan, TH. (1996). Conduct disorder, substance use disorders, and co-existing conduct and substance use disorders in adolescent inpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 914–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Heath, AC, Bucholz, KK, Slutske, WS, Madden, PAF, Dinwiddie, SH, Dunne, MP, Statham, DB, Whitfield, JB, Martin, NG, & Eaves, LJ. (1994). The assessment of alcoholism in surveys of the general community: What are we measuring? Some insights from the Australian twin panel interview survey. International Review of Psychiatry, 6, 295–307.Google Scholar
  43. Helzer, JE, Burnam, A, & McEvoy, LT. (1991). Alcohol abuse and dependence. In L Robins and D Regier (Eds), Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: MacMillan, pp 81–115.Google Scholar
  44. Herjanic, B & Campbell, W. (1977). Differentiating psychiatrically disturbed children on the basis of a structured interview. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 127–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hopfer, CJ, Crowley, TJ, & Hewitt, JK. (2003). Review of twin and adoption studies of adolescent substance use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 710–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hser, YI, Grella, CE, Hubbard, RL, Hsieh, SC, Fletcher, BW, Brown, BS, & Anglin, MD. (2001). An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 US cities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 689–695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hsieh, S, Hoffman, NG, & Hollister, CD. (1998). The relationship between pre-, during-, posttreatment factors, and adolescent substance abuse behaviors. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 477–488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2003). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2002. Volume I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 03-5375). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 520 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Kandel, DB. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 90, 912–914.Google Scholar
  50. Keller, MB, Lavori, PW, Friedman, B, Nielsen, E, Endicott, J, McDonald-Scott, P, & Andreason, NC. (1987). The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: A comprehensive method for assessing outcome in prospective longitudinal studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 540–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelly, JF, Myers, MG, & Brown, SA. (2000). A multivariate process model of adolescent 12-step attendance and substance use outcome following inpatient treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 4, 376–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kessler, RC, McGonagle, KA, Zhao, S, Nelson, CB, Hughes, M, Eshleman, S, Wittchen, H-U, & Kendler, KS. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Knight, JR, Sherritt, L, Harris, SK, Gates, EC, & Chang, G. (2003). Validity of brief alcohol screening tests among adolescents: A comparison of the AUDIT, POSIT, CAGE, and CRAFFT. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27, 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuperman, S, Schlosser, SS, Kramer, JR, Bucholz, K, Hesselbrock, V, Reich, T & Reich, W. (2001). Risk domains associated with an adolescent alcohol dependence diagnosis. Addiction, 96, 629–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Labouvie, E. (1996). Maturing out of substance use: Selection and self-correction. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 455–474.Google Scholar
  56. Langenbucher, JW & Martin, CS. (1996). Alcohol abuse: adding content to category. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20(Suppl), 270A–275A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Langenbucher, JW, Martin, CS, Labouvie, E, San Juan, PM, Bavly, L, & Pollock, NK. (2000). Toward the DSM-V: The withdrawal-gate model versus the DSM-IV in the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 799–809.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Latimer, WW, Newcomb, M, Winters, KC, & Stinchfield, RD. (2000). Adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome: The role of substance abuse problem severity, psychosocial, treatment factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 684–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Leccese, M & Waldron, HB (1994). Assessing adolescent substance use: A critique of current measurement instruments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 11, 553–563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewinsohn, P.M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J.R. (1996). Alcohol consumption in high school adolescents: Frequency of use and dimensional structure of associated problems. Addiction, 91, 375–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liddle, HA & Dakof, GA. (1995). Family-based treatment for adolescent drug use: State of the science. In ERD Czechowicz (Ed), Adolescent Drug Abuse: Clinical Assessment and Therapeutic Interventions. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  62. Maisto, SA, Connors, GJ & Allen, JP. (1995). Contrasting self-report screens for alcohol problems: A review. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 1510–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maisto, SA, Martin, CS, Cornelius, JR, Pollock, NK & Chung, T. (2002). Non-problem drinking out-comes in adolescents treated for alcohol use disorders. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 324–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Maisto, SA, Pollock, NK, Lynch, KG, Martin, CS, & Ammerman, R. (2001). Course of functioning in adolescents 1-year after alcohol and other drug treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 68–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Martin, CS. (1999, June). Contrasting alternative diagnostic criteria for adolescent alcohol use disorders. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, CA.Google Scholar
  66. Martin, CS, Kaczynski, NA, Maisto, SA, & Tarter, RE. (1996a). Polydrug use in adolescent drinkers with and without DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 1099–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin, C.S., Kaczynski, N.A., Maisto, S.A., Bukstein, O.M., & Moss, H.B. (1995). Patterns of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in adolescent drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 672–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin, C.S., Langenbucher, J.W., Kaczynski, N.A., & Chung, T. (1996b). Staging in the onset of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in adolescent drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 549–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Martin, CS, Maisto, SA, Pollock, NK, & Cornelius, JR. (2000a). Changes in DSM-IV alcohol diagnostic status across three years in adolescent drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(Supplement), 138A, Abstract #792.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, CS, Pollock, NK, Bukstein, OG, & Lynch, KG. (2000b). Inter-rater reliability of the SCID alcohol and substance use disorders section among adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59, 173–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Martin, CS & Winters, KC. (1998). Diagnosis and assessment of alcohol use disorders among adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22, 95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayer, J & Filstead, WJ. (1979). The adolescent alcohol involvement scale: An instrument for measuring adolescent use and misuse of alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 40, 291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McGue, M. (1999). The behavioral genetics of alcoholism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meyers, K, Hagan, TA, Zanis, D, Webb, A, Frantz, J, Ring-Kurtz, S, Rutherford, M, & McLellan, AT. (1999). Critical issues in adolescent substance use assessment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55, 235–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mikulich, SK, Hall, SK, Whitmore, EA & Crowley, TJ. (2001). Concordance between DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses of substance use disorders in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 61, 237–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Million, T. (1991). Classification in psychopathology: Rationale, alternatives, and standards. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Myers, MG, Brown, SA & Mott, MA. (1993). Coping as a predictor of adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome. Journal of Substance Abuse, 5, 15–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Myers, MG, Brown, SA & Mott, MA. (1995). Preadolescent conduct disorder behaviors predict relapse and progression of addiction for adolescent alcohol and drug abusers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 1528–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Myers, MG, Stewart, DG & Brown, SA. (1998). Progression from conduct disorder to antisocial personality disorder following treatment for adolescent substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 479–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nathan, P & Skinstad, A. (1987). Outcomes of treatment for alcohol problems: Current methods, problems, and results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 332–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nelson, CB, Heath, AC, & Kessler, RC. (1998). Temporal progression of alcohol dependence symptoms in the U.S. household population: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 474–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nelson, CB & Wittchen, H-U. (1998). DSM-IV alcohol disorders in a general population sample of adolescents and young adults. Addiction, 93, 1065–1077.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Orvaschel, H. (1995). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Epidemiologic Version-5, (K-SADS-E-5). Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeast University.Google Scholar
  84. Perkonigg, A, Lieb, R, Hoefler, M, Schuster, P, Sonntag, H & Wittchen, H-U. (1999). Patterns of cannabis use, abuse and dependence over time: Incidence, progression and stability in a sample of 1,228 adolescents. Addiction, 94, 1663–1678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pollock, N.K. & Martin, C.S. (1999). Diagnostic orphans: Adolescents with alcohol symptoms who do not qualify for DSM-IV abuse or dependence diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 897–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pollock, NK, Martin, CS & Langenbucher, JW. (2000). Diagnostic concordance of DSM-III, DSM-III-R, DSM-IV and ICD-10 alcohol diagnoses in adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 439–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Reich, W, Shayla, JJ & Taibelson, C. (1992). The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised (DICA-R). St Louis, MO: Washington University.Google Scholar
  88. Robins, LN, Cottler, LB, Bucholz, KK & Compton, W. (2000). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. St Louis, MO: Washington University.Google Scholar
  89. Robins, LN & Barrett, JE (Eds). (1989). The validity of psychiatric diagnosis. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  90. Rohde, P, Lewinsohn, PM, Kahler, CW, Seeley, JR, & Brown, RA. (2001). Natural course of alcohol use disorders from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 83–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rohde, P, Lewinsohn, PM & Seeley, JR. (1996). Psychiatric comorbidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 101–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schulenberg, J, Maggs, JL, Steinman, KJ, & Zucker, RA. (2001). Development matters: Taking the long view on substance abuse etiology and intervention during adolescence. In PM Monti, SM Colby & TA O'Leary (Eds), Adolescents, alcohol, and substance use: Reaching teens through brief interventions, pp 19–57. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  93. Shaffer, D, Fisher, P & Dulcan, M. (1996). The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3): Description, acceptability, prevalences, and performance in the MECA study. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 865–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sher, KJ & Gotham, HJ (1999). Pathological alcohol involvement: A developmental disorder of young adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 933–956.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Skinner, H (1986). Construct validation approach to psychiatric classification. In Millon, T & Klerman, G (Eds), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV, New York: Guilford Press, pp 307–330.Google Scholar
  96. Slutske, WS, Heath, AC, Dinwiddie, SH, Madden, PAF, Bucholz, KK, Dunne, MP, Statham, DH & Martin, NG. (1998). Common genetic risk factors for conduct disorder and alcohol dependence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 363–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Stewart, D., & Brown, S. (1995). Withdrawal and dependency symptoms among adolescent alcohol and drug abusers. Addiction, 90, 627–635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stinchfield, RD. (1997). Reliability of adolescent self-reported pretreatment alcohol and other drug use. Substance use and Misuse, 32, 63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wagner, EF, Lloyd, DA, & Gil, AG. (2002). Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the incidence and onset age of DSM-IV alcohol use disorder symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 609–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Waldron, HB, Slesnick, N, Brody, JL, Turner, CW, & Peterson, TR. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4-and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 802–813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Warner, LA, Canino, G, & Colon, HM (2001). Prevalence and correlates of substance use disorders among older adolescents in Puerto Rico and the United States: A cross-cultural comparison. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63, 229–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G.W., Davenport, A., & Castillo, S. (1995). Correlates of college student binge drinking. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 921–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. White, HR & Labouvie, EW. (1989). Towards the assessment of adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 30–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Whitmore, EA, Mikulich, SK, Thompson, LL, Riggs, PD, Aarons, GA & Crowley, TJ. (1997). Influences on adolescent substance dependence: Conduct disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and gender. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 47, 87–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Williams, RJ, Chang, SY & Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group (2000) A comprehensive and comparative review of adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 138–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Winters, KC (1992). Development of an adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale: Personal Experiences Screening Questionnaire. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 479–490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Winters, KC (1999). Treating adolescents with substance use disorders: An overview of practice issues and treatment outcome. Substance Abuse, 20, 203–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Winters, K.C. (2001). Assessing adolescent substance use problems and other areas of functioning: State of the art. In PM Monti, SM Colby, TA O'Leary (Eds), Adolescents, alcohol and substance use. New York: Guilford Press, pp 80–108.Google Scholar
  109. Winters, KC, Anderson, N, Bengston, P, Stinchfield, RD & Latimer, WW (2000a). Development of a parent questionnaire for use in assessing adolescent drug abuse. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32, 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Winters, KC & Henly, GA (1989). Personal Experience Inventory and Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  111. Winters, KC & Henly, GA (1993). Adolescent Diagnostic Interview Schedule and Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  112. Winters, KC, Latimer, WW & Stinchfield, RD. (1999). DSM-IV criteria for adolescent alcohol and cannabis use disorders. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 337–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Winters, KC, Stinchfield, RD & Henly, GA. (1996). Convergent and predictive validity of scales measuring adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 5, 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Winters, KC, Stinchfield, RD, Henly, GA & Schwartz, RH (1991). Validity of adolescent self-report of alcohol and other drug involvement. International Journal of Addictions, 25, 1379–1395.Google Scholar
  115. Winters, KC, Stinchfield, RD, Opland, E, Weller, C, & Latimer, WW. (2000b). The effectiveness of the Minnesota Model approach in the treatment of adolescent drug abusers. Addiction, 95, 601–612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wolraich, ML, Felice, ME, Drotar, D (Eds). (1996). The classification of child and adolescent mental diagnoses in primary care: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (DSM-PC) Child and Adolescent Version. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.Google Scholar
  117. World Health Organization. (1992). International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  118. World Health Organization. (1998). Composite International Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. [Online] Available at: Scholar
  119. Zucker, RA, Fitzgerald, HE, & Moses, HD. (1994). Emergence of alcohol problems and the several alcoholisms: A developmental perspective on etiologic theory and life course trajectory. In D. Cichetti (Eds), Advanced Developmental Psychopathology, Vol 2, New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tammy Chung
    • 1
  • Christopher S. Martin
    • 1
  • Ken C. Winters
    • 2
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburgh
  2. 2.Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse ResearchUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis

Personalised recommendations