Skip to main content

Resiliency in Maltreated Children

  • Chapter

Abstract

Child abuse is a pervasive societal problem, with nearly 1 million substantiated reports of child maltreatment each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), many reported cases of actual abuse that are not verified (Kaufman & Zigler, 1996), and countless other cases that are never brought to the attention of authorities (Wolfner & Gelles, 1993). Extant research has identified a host of negative sequelae associated with child maltreatment, including deficits in interpersonal relationships, affect regulation, and self-development (Beeghly & Cicchetti, 1994; Crittenden, 1992; Egeland & Sroufe, 1981; Maughan & Cicchetti, 2002), as well as increased rates of multiple psychiatric diagnoses (Cicchetti & Carlson, 1989; Cicchetti & Toth, 1995; Ammerman, Cassisi, Hersen, & Van Hasselt, 1986; Egeland, Sroufe, & Erickson, 1983).

Keywords

  • Child Maltreatment
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis
  • Hippocampal Volume
  • Borderline Personality Disorder

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Ammerman, R. T., Cassisi, J. E., Hersen, M., & Van Hasselt, V. B. (1986). Consequences of physical abuse and neglect in children. Clinical Psychology Review, 6(4), 291–310.

    Google Scholar 

  • An, X., Bandler, R., Ongur, D., & Price, J. L. (1998). Prefrontal cortical projections to longitudinal columns in the midbrain periaqueductal gray in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 401(4), 455–479.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Anisman, H., Zaharia, M. D., Meaney, M. J., & Merali, Z. (1998). Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors? International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 16(3–4), 149–164.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arborelius, L., Owens, M. J., Plotsky, P. M., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1999). The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in depression and anxiety disorders. Journal of Endocrinology, 160(1), 1–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, D. G., West, S. A., Nicholson, W. E., Ekhator, N. N., Kasckow, J. W., Hill, K. K. et al. (1999). Serial CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone levels and adrenocortical activity in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 585–588.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barbazanges, A., Vallee, M., Mayo, W., Day, J., Simon, H., Le Moal, M. et al. (1996). Early and later adoptions have different long-term effects on male rat offspring. Journal of Neuroscience, 16(23), 7783–7790.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1994). Child maltreatment, attachment, and the self-system: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in toddlers at high social risk. Development and Psychopathology, 6(1), 5–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernard, J. F., & Bandler, R. (1998). Parallel circuits for emotional coping behaviour: New pieces in the puzzle. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 401(4), 429–436.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Birken, D. L., & Oldendorf, W. H. (1989). N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid: A literature review of a compound prominent in 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies of the brain. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Review, 13, 23–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bremner, J. D., Innis, R. B., Ng, C. K., Staib, L. H., Salomon, R. M., Bronen, R. A. et al. (1997). Positron emission tomography measurement of cerebral metabolic correlates of yohimbine administration in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives General Psychiatry, 54(3), 246–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bremner, J. D., Innis, R. B., Southwick, S. M., Staib, L., Zoghbi, S., & Charney, D. S. (2000). Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in prefrontal cortex in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(7), 1120–1126.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bremner, J. D., Licinio, J., Darnell, A., Krystal, J. H., Owens, M. J., Southwick, S. M. et al. (1997). Elevated CSF corticotropin-releasing factor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(5), 624–629.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Scott, T. M., Bronen, R. A., Seibyl, J. P., Southwick, S. M. et al. (1995). MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7), 973–981.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R. A., & Mazure, C. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse—a preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry, 41(1), 23–32.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkley, J. A., Jenny, C., & Reid, T. (1996). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caldji, C., Francis, D., Sharma, S., Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (2000). The effects of early rearing environment on the development of GABAA and central benzodiazepine receptor levels and novelty-induced fearfulness in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22(3), 219–229.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (1998). Maternal care during infancy regulates the development of neural systems mediating the expression of fearfulness in the rat. Proceedings National Academy of Science, 95(9), 5335–5340.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W. et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297(5582), 851–854.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). (1994). Kinship care: A natural bridge. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chrousos, G. P. (1998). Stressors, stress, and neuroendocrine integration of the adaptive response. The 1997 Hans Selye Memorial Lecture. Ann NY Academy of Science, 851, 311–335.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chu, J. A., & Dill, D. L. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(7), 887–892.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cicchetti, D., & Carlson, V. (1989). Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). A developmental psychopathology perspective on child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(5), 541–565.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cicchetti, D., & Tucker, D. (1994). Development and self-regulatory structures of the mind. Development and Psychopathology, 6(4), 533–549.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coe, C. L., Mendoza, S. P., Smotherman, W. P., & Levine, S. (1978). Mother-infant attachment in the squirrel monkey: Adrenal response to separation. Behavioral Biology, 22(2), 256–263.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, R., Fleishman, E., & Grimes, V. (1991). A national evaluation of Title IV-E foster care independent living programs for youth: Phase 2, final report (Vol. 1). Unpublished report. Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coplan, J. D., Andrews, M. W., Rosenblum, L. A., Owens, M. J., Friedman, S., Gorman, J. M. et al. (1996). Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: Implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 93(4), 1619–1623.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cowen, E. L., & Work, W. C. (1988). Resilient children, psychological wellness, and primary prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16(4), 591–607.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Wyman, P. A. (1992). Resilience among profoundly stressed urban schoolchildren. In M. Kessler, & S. E. Goldston (Eds.), The present and future of prevention: In honor of George W. Albee. Primary prevention of psychopathology (Vol. 15, pp. 155–168). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Wyman, P. A. (1997). The Rochester Child Resilience Project (RCRP): Facts found, lessons learned, future directions divined. In S. S. Luthar, & J. A. Burack (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 527–547). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crittenden, P. M. (1992). Children’s strategies for coping with adverse home environments: An interpretation using attachment theory. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(3), 329–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bellis, M. D., Keshavan, M. S., Clark, D. B., Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., Boring, A. M. et al. (1999). Developmental traumatology. Part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45(10), 1271–1284.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De Stefano, N., Matthews, P. M., & Arnold, D. L. (1995). Reversible decreases in N-acetylaspartate after acute brain injury. Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 34, 721–727.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dhabhar, F. S., McEwen, B. S., & Spencer, R. L. (1997). Adaptation to prolonged or repeated stress—comparison between rat strains showing intrinsic differences in reactivity to acute stress. Neuroendocrinology, 65(5), 360–368.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Drevets, W. C., Ongur, D., & Price, J. L. (1998). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the subgenual prefrontal cortex: Implications for the pathophysiology of familial mood disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 3(3), 220–226, 190–221.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Driessen, M., Hermann, J., Stahl, K., Zwann, M., Meier, S., Hill, A. et al. (2000). Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 1115–1122.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Duman, R. S., Nakagawa, S., & Malberg, J. (2001). Regulation of adult neurogenesis by antidepressant treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, 836–844.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1981). Developmental sequelae of maltreatment in infancy. New Directions in Child Development, 11, 77–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Egeland, B., Sroufe, A., & Erickson, M. (1983). The developmental consequence of different patterns of maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7(4), 459–469.

    Google Scholar 

  • Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1992). Psychiatric diagnoses of maltreated children: Preliminary findings Journal of American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(5), 863–867.

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis, D., Caldji, C., Champagne, F., Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (1999). The role of corticotropin-releasing factor—Norepinephrine systems in mediating the effects of early experience on the development of behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Biological Psychiatry, 46(9), 1153–1166.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Francis, D., Diorio, J., Liu, D., & Meaney, M. J. (1999). Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat. Science, 286(5442), 1155–1158.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, T. W., Cardwell, D., Karson, C. N., & Komoroski, R. A. (1998). In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the medial temporal lobes of subjects with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 40(1), 66–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N. (1992). Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. In T. Thompson, & S. C. Hupp (Eds.), Saving children at risk: Poverty and disabilities (Vol. 131, pp. 45–60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Focus Editions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N. (1993). Vulnerability and resilience. In D. C. Funder, & R. D. Parke et al. (Eds.), Studying lives through time: Personality and development. APA Science Volumes (pp. 377–398). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55(1), 97–111.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Geracioti, T. D., Jr., Baker, D. G., Ekhator, N. N., West, S. A., Hill, K. K., Bruce, A. B. et al. (2001). CSF norepinephrine concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(8), 1227–1230.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: High vs. low CRH/NE states. Molecular Psychiatry, 7(3), 254–275.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, J., Solnit, A., Goldstein, S., & Freud, A. (1996). The best interest of the child: The least detrimental alternative. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, M. E., Ladd, C. O., Huot, R., Owens, M. J., & Plotsky, P. M. (1999, October 22–28). Prevention of HPA axis changes in response to neonatal maternal separation by providing dams with foster pups during the absence of her litter (Abstract #583.6). Paper presented at the Society for Neuroscience, Miami, FL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould, E., & Cameron, H. A. (1996). Regulation of neuronal birth, migration and death in the rat dentate gyrus. Developmental Neuroscience, 18(1–2), 22–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gould, E., Tanapat, P., Rydel, T., & Hastings, N. (2000). Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood. Biological Psychiatry, 48(8), 715–720.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graham, Y. P., Heim, C., Goodman, S. H., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1999). The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: Implications for psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 11(3), 545–565.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groenewegen, H. J. (1988). Organization of the afferent connections of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rat, related to the mediodorsal-prefrontal topography. Neuroscience, 24(2), 379–431.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gurvits, T. V., Shenton, M. E., Hokama, H., Ohta, H., Lasko, N. B., Gibertson, M. W. et al. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 40(11), 1091–1099.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of chidhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1023–1039.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Herman, J. P., & Cullinan, W. E. (1997). Neurocircuitry of stress: Central control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Trends in Neuroscience, 20(2), 78–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofer, M. A. (1987). Early social relationships: A psychobiologist’s view. Child Development, 58(3), 633–647.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jezova, D., Ochedalski, T., Glickman, M., Kiss, A., & Aguilera, G. (1999). Central corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal activity during stress. Neuroscience, 94(3), 797–802.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Perel, J., Dahl, R. E., Moreci, P., Nelson, B. (1997). The corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in depressed abused, depressed nonabused, and normal control children. Biological Psychiatry, 42(8), 669–679.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J. (1991). Depressive disorders in maltreated children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 257–265.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J., & Henrich, C. (2000). Exposure to violence and early childhood trauma. In C. Zeanah Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 195–207). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J., Plotsky, P., Nemeroff, C., & Charney, D. (2000). Effects of early adverse experience on brain structure and function: Clinical implications. Biological Psychiatry, 48(8), 778–790.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J., & Zigler, E. (1989). The intergenerational transmission of child abuse. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, J., & Zigler, E. (1996). Child abuse and social policy. In E. Zigler, S. Kagan, & N. Hall (Eds.), Children, families and government: Preparing for the twenty-first century (pp. 233–255). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E., & McKinney, W. T. (1989). A longitudinal study of the effect of different social rearing conditions on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and biogenic amine metabolites in rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2(3), 175–189.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Krout, K. E., Jansen, A. S., & Loewy, A. D. (1998). Periaqueductal gray matter projection to the parabrachial nucleus in rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 401(4), 437–454.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kuhn, C. M., & Schanberg, S. M. (1998). Responses to maternal separation: Mechanisms and mediators. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 16(3–4), 261–270.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ladd, C. O., Huot, R. L., Thrivikraman, K. V., Nemeroff, C. B., Meaney, M. J., & Plotsky, P. M. (2000). Long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine adaptations to adverse early experience. In E. Mayer & C. Saper (Eds.), Progress in brain research: The biological basis for mind body interactions (Vol. 122, pp. 79–101). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ladd, C. O., Owens, M. J., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1996). Persistent changes in corticotropin-releasing factor neuronal systems induced by maternal deprivation. Endocrinology, 137(4), 1212–1218.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, S., Wiener, S. G., & Coe, C. L. (1993). Temporal and social factors influencing behavioral and hormonal responses to separation in mother and infant squirrel monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 18(4), 297–306.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lieberman, A. F. (2003). The treatment of attachment disorder in infancy and early childhood: Reflections from clinical intervention with later-adopted foster care children. Attachment & Human Development, 5(3), 279–282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linehan, M. M., Schmidt, H., III, Dimeff, L. A., Craft, J. C., Kanter, J., & Comtois, K. A. (1999). Dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder and drug-dependence. American Journal of Addiction, 8, 279–292.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, D., Caldji, C., Sharma, S., Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (2000). Influence of neonatal rearing conditions on stress-induced adrenocorticotropin responses and norepinepherine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 12(1), 5–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, D., Diorio, J., Tannenbaum, B., Caldji, C., Francis, D., Freedman, A. et al. (1997). Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science, 277(5332), 1659–1662.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lopez, J. F., Akil, H., & Watson, S. J. (1999). Neural circuits mediating stress. Biological Psychiatry, 46(11), 1461–1471.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543–562.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Luthar, S. S., Doernberger, C. H., & Zigler, E. (1993). Resilience is not a unidimensional construct: Insights from a prospective study of inner-city adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 5(4), 703–717.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61(1), 6–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maccari, S., Piazza, P. V., Kabbaj, M., Barbazanges, A., Simon, H., & Le Moal, M. (1995). Adoption reverses the long-term impairment in glucocorticoid feedback induced by prenatal stress, Part 1. Journal of Neuroscience, 15(1), 110–116.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maier, S. F., & Watkins, L. R. (1998). Cytokines for psychologists: Implications of bidirectional immuneto-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychological Review, 105(1), 83–107.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Malberg, J. E., Eisch, A. E., Nestler, E. J., & Duman, R. S. (2000). Chronic antidepressant treatment increases neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 9104–9110.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Manji, H. K., Quiroz, J. A., Sporn, J., Payne, J. L., Denicoff, K., Zarate, C. A., Jr., & Charney, D. S. (2003). Enhancing neuronal plasticity and cellular resilience to develop novel, improved therapeutics for difficult-to-treat depression. Biological Psychiatry, 53(8), 707–742.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53(2), 205–220.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S., Hubbard, J. J., Gest, S. D., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N. & Ramirez, M. (1999). Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 11(1), 143–169.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maughan, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). Impact of child maltreatment and interadult violence on chidren’s emotion regulation abilities and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73(5), 1525–1542.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McAlpine, C., Marshall, C. C., & Doran, N. H. (2001). Combining child welfare and substance abuse services: A blended model of intervention. Child Welfare, 80, 129–149.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCurdy, K., & Daro, D. (1992). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: The results of the 1992 annual fifth state survey. Report of the National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research. Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • McEwen, B. S., & Magarinos, A. M. (2001). Stress and hippocampal plasticity: Implications for the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Human Psychopharmacology, 16(S1), S7–S19.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLeer, S. V., Callaghan, M., Henry, D., & Wallen, J. (1994). Psychiatric disorders in sexually abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(3), 313–319.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meaney, M. J., Aitken, D. H., Bhatnagar, S., & Sapolsky, R. M. (1991). Postnatal handling attenuates certain neuroendocrine, anatomical, and cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging in female rats. Neurobiology of Aging, 12(1), 31–38.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meaney, M. J., Bhatnagar, S., Diorio, J., Larocque, S., Francis, O’Donnell, D. et al. (1993). Molecular basis for the development of individual differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response. Cell and Molecular Neurobiology, 13(4), 321–347.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meier, E. G. (1965). Current circumstances of former foster children. Child Welfare, 44, 196–206.

    Google Scholar 

  • Menzaghi, F., Heinrichs, S. C., Pich, E. M., Weiss, F., & Koob, G. F. (1993). The role of limbic and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor in behavioral responses to stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 697, 142–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newton, R. R., Litrownik, A. J., & Landsverk, J. A. (2000). Children and youth in foster care: Distangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements. Child Abuse Neglect, 24, 1363–1374.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ongur, D., An, X., & Price, J.L. (1998). Prefrontal cortical projections to the hypothalamus in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 401(4), 480–505.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Owens, M. J., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1991). Physiology and pharmacology of corticotropin-releasing factor. Pharmacological Review, 43(4), 425–473.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pacak, K., Palkovits, M., Kopin, I. J., & Goldstein, D. S. (1995). Stress-induced norepinephrine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal activity: In vivo microdialysis studies. Front Neuroendocrinology, 16(2), 89–150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Page, M. E., & Abercrombie, E. D. (1999). Discrete local application of corticotropin-releasing factor increases locus coeruleus discharge and extracellular norepinephrine in rat hippocampus. Synapse, 33(4), 304–313.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pittman, R. K., Sanders, K. M., Zusman, R. M., Healy, A. R., Cheema, F., Lasko, N. B. et al. (2002). Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biological Psychiatry, 51(2), 189–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Plotsky, P. M., Cunningham, E. T., Jr., & Widmaier, E. P. (1989). Catecholaminergic modulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin secretion. Endocrinology Review, 10(4), 437–458.

    Google Scholar 

  • Plotsky, P. M., & Meaney, M. J. (1993). Early, postnatal experience alters hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA, median eminence CRF content and stress-induced release in adult rats. Brain Research and Molecular Brain Research, 18(3), 195–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pynoos, R., Steinberg, A., & Wraith, R. (1995). A developmental model of childhood traumatic stress. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 2, pp. 72–95). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenblum, L. A., Coplan, J. D., Friedman, S., Bassoff, T., Gorman, J. M., & Andrews, M. W. (1994). Adverse early experiences affect noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning in adult primates. Biological Psychiatry, 35(4), 221–227.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J. E. Rolf & A. S. Masten (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181–214).

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1995). Psychosocial adversity: Risk, resilience and recovery. Southern African Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(2), 75–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1996). Stress research: Accomplishments and tasks ahead. In Robert J. Haggerty & Lonnie R. Sherrod (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions. (pp. 354–385). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sapolsky, R. M. (1996). Stress, glucocorticoids, and damage to the nervous system: The current state of confusion. Stress, 1(1), 1–19.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sapolsky, R. M. (2000). The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: A primer on neuron death. Biologicaly Psychiatry, 48(8), 755–765.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C., & McEwen, B. C. (1985). Prolonged glucocorticoid exposure reduces hippocampal neuron number: Implications for aging. Journal of Neuroscience, 5(5), 1222–1227.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Scafidi, F., & Field, T. (1997). HIV-exposed newborns show inferior orienting and abnormal reflexes on the Brazelton scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22(1), 105–112.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schanberg, S. M., & Field, T. M. (1987). Sensory deprivation stress and supplemental stimulation in the rat pup and preterm human neonate. Child Development, 58(6), 1431–1447.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schuff, N., Neylan, T. C., Lenoci, M. A., Du, A. T., Weiss, D. S., Marmar, C. R. et al. (2001). Decreased hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in the absence of atrophy in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 50(12), 952–959.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Semidei, J., Radel, L. F., & Nolan, C. (2001). Substance abuse and child welfare: Clear linkages and promising responses. Child Welfare, 80, 109–128.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Steimer, T., Escorihuela, R. M., Fernandez-Teruel, A., & Driscoll, P. (1998). Long-term behavioural and neuroendocrine changes in Roman high-(RHA/Verh) and low-(RLA-Verh) avoidance rats following neonatal handling. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 16(3–4), 165–174.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stein, M. B., Koverola, C., Hanna, C., Torchia, M. G., & McClarty, B. (1997). Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Medicine, 27(4), 951–959.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi, L. K., & Kalin, N. H. (1991). Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups. Brain Research, 558(1), 75–78.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uno, H., Eisele, S., Sakai, A., Shelton, S., Baker, E., DeJesus, O. et al. (1994). Neurotoxicity of glucocorticoids in the primate brain. Hormones and Behaviour, 28(4), 336–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Urenjak, J., Williams, S. R., Giadian, D. G., & Noble, M. (1993). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies different neuronal cell types. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 981–989.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Child maltreatment 2001: Reports from the states to the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaidya, V. A., & Duman, R. S. (2001). Depression—emerging insights from neurobiology. British Medical Bulletin, 57, 61–79.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Valentino, R. J., Curtis, A. L., Page, M. E., Pavcovich, L. A., & Florin-Lechner, S. M. (1998). Activation of the locus ceruleus brain noradrenergic system during stress: Circuitry, consequences, and regulation. Advances in Pharmacology, 42, 781–784.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S. M., Charney, D. S., & Bremner, J. D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54(7), 693–702.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Villarreal, G., Hamilton, D. A., Petropoulos, H., Driscoll, I., Rowland, L. M., Griego, J. A. et al. (2002). Reduced hippocampal volume and total white matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 119–125.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vythilingam, M., Heim, C., Newport, J., Miller, A. H., Anderson, E., Bronen, R. et al. (2002). Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(12), 2072–2080.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Watanabe, Y., Gould, E., & McEwen, B. S. (1992). Stress induces atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Brain Research, 588(2), 341–345.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E. (1992). The children of Kauai: Resiliency and recovery in adolescence and adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13(4), 262–268.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E. (1993). Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai longitudinal study. Development & Psychopathology, 5(4), 503–515.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E. (1995). Resilience in development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(3), 81–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wheeden, A., Scafidi, F. A., Field, T. & Ironson, G. (1993). Massage effects on cocaine-exposed preterm neonates. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(5), 318–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Widom, C. S. (1991). The role of placement experiences in mediating the criminal: Consequences of early childhood victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 195–209.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wiener, S. G., Johnson, D. F., & Levine, S. (1987). Influence of postnatal rearing conditions on the response of squirrel monkey infants to brief perturbations in mother-infant relationships. Physiology and Behavior, 39(1), 21–26.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, M. A. (1996). GABA physiology: Modulation by benzodiazepines and hormones. Critical Reviews in Neurobiology, 10(1), 1–37.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Windle, M., Windle, R. C., Scheidt, D. M., & Miller, G. B. (1995). Physical and sexual abuse and associated mental disorders among alcoholic inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(9), 1322–1328.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfner, G. D., & Gelles, R. J. (1993). A profile of violence toward children: A national study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17(2), 197–212.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woolley, C. S., Gould, E., & McEwen, B.S. (1990). Exposure to excess glucocorticoids alters dendritic morphology of adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain Research, 531(1–2), 225–231.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zaharia, M. D., Kulczycki, J., Shanks, N., Meaney, M. J., & Anisman, H. (1996). The effects of early postnatal stimulation on Morris water-maze acquisition in adult mice: Genetic and maternal factors. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 128(3), 227–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeanah, C. H., Larrieu, J. A., Heller, S. S., Valliere, J., Hinshaw-Fuselier, S., Aoki, Y. et al. (2001). “Evaluation of a preventive intervention for maltreated infants and toddlers in foster care.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 214–221.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, R. B. (1982). Foster care in retrospect. Tulane Studies in Social Welfare, 14, 7–13.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Houshyar, S., Kaufman, J. (2005). Resiliency in Maltreated Children. In: Goldstein, S., Brooks, R.B. (eds) Handbook of Resilience in Children. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48572-9_12

Download citation