Advertisement

Ericoid Mycorrhizas in Plant Communities

Chapter
  • 408 Downloads

6. Summary and conclusions

The study of the microbial endophytes of Ericaceae may help us to understand the evolution and distribution of the taxa within the Ericales world-wide. It will also indicate whether the fungal associates moved with their plant hosts or whether new associations with resident strains were formed as the plants spread. This information is also likely to tell us whether the genetic diversity of the fungal associates could help to determine the taxonomic relationships within the host order.

Much needs to be done on the determination of the role ericoid fungi play in the successful establishment of horticulturally important members of the Ericaceae such as species of Rhododendron (see Jansa and Vosètka 2000) and Vaccinium that are difficult to establish in certain environments. The ecological importance of hair roots in certain environments is poorly understood. In the Western Australian Banksia woodlands, for example, their occurrence in the soil profile is often constrained because of excessive competition by the persuasiveness of cluster roots in the Proteaceae (Pate and Watt 2001). Studies by Hutton et al. (1994) for instance showed that the dominant activity of hair roots and endophytes is restricted to the cooler wet months in the highly seasonal mediterranean-type climate of south western Australia. These same mycorrhizas are also unusually sensitive to soil disturbance with long periods elapsing before recolonisation (Hutton et al. 1997).

Finally, while horticulturally important Ericaceae are often translocated, little attention is paid to concurrently including the mycorrhizal partner in the translocation or conservation process (especially with rare and endangered taxa) as has been done with members of the Orchidaceae (Batty et al. 200la). The importance of the ericoid association for the long term sustainable management and recovery of rare or threatened Ericaceae remains an important issue for conservation practitioners.

Keywords

Hair Root Gaultheria Shallon Fungal Endophyte Plant Conservation Mycological Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albersheim P (1976) The primary cell wall. In ‘Plant biochemistry.’ 3rd edn. (Eds J Bonner and JE Varner) pp. 226–277. (Academic Press: New York)Google Scholar
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) (1998) An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 85, 531–553.Google Scholar
  3. Bardi L, Perotto S, Bonfante P (1999) Isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from two strains of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius: sensitivity to chemicals and heavy metals. Microbiological Research 154, 105–111.Google Scholar
  4. Batty AL, Dixon KW, Brundrett MC, Sivasithamparam K (2001a) The long-term storage of mycorrhizal fungi and seed as a tool for the conservation of endangered Western Australian terrestrial orchids. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 619–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batty AL, Dixon KW, Brundrett MC. Sivasithamparam K (2001b) Constraints to symbiotic germination of terrestrial orchid seed in a mediterranean bushland. New Phytologist 152, 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beijerinck W (1940) ‘Calluna: a monograph on the Scotch heather.’ Communication of the Biological Station, Wijster, Holland. No. 20. (Noord-Hollandische Uitgevers: Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  7. Bell TL, Pate JS, Dixon KW (1994) Response of mycorrhizal seedlings of SW Australian sandplain Epacridaceae to added nitrogen and phosphorus. Journal of Experimental Botany 45, 779–790.Google Scholar
  8. Bell TL, Pate JS, Dixon KW (1996) Relationships between fire response, morphology, root anatomy and starch distribution in south-west Australian Epacridaceae. Annals of Botany 77, 357–364.Google Scholar
  9. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (1993) Dating the evolutionary radiations of the true fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany 71, 1114–1127.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley R, Burt AJ, Read DJ (1982) The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericaceae. VIII. The role of mycorrhizal infection in heavy metal resistance. New Phytologist 91, 197–209.Google Scholar
  11. Burt AJ, Hashem AR, Shaw G, Read DJ (1986) Comparative analysis of metal tolerance in ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi. In ‘Proceedings of the first European symposium on mycorrhizas.’ (Eds V Gianinazzi-Pearson and S Gianinazzi) pp. 683–687. (INRA: Paris)Google Scholar
  12. Cairney JWG (2000) Evolution of mycorrhiza systems. Naturwissenschaften 87, 467–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers SM, Liu G, Cairney JWG (2000) ITS rDNA sequence comparison of ericoid mycorrhizal endophytes from Woollsia pungens. Mycological Research 104, 168–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cullings KW (1996) Single phylogenetic origin of ericoid mycorrhizae within the Ericaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 74, 1869–1909.Google Scholar
  15. Dixon KW (1991) Seedcr/clonal concepts in Western Australian orchids. In ‘Population ecology of terrestrial orchids.’ (Eds TCE Wells and JH Willems). pp. 111–124. (SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague)Google Scholar
  16. Duckett JG, Read DJ (1991) The use of fluorescent dye, 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide, for selective staining of ascomycete fungi associated with liverwort rhizoids and ericoid mycorrhizal roots. New Phytologist 118, 259–272.Google Scholar
  17. Duckett JG, Read DJ (1995) Ericoid mycorrhizas and rhizoid-ascomycete associations in liverworts share the same mycobiont: isolation of the partners and resynthesis of the associations in vitro. New phytologist 129, 439–447.Google Scholar
  18. Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Bonfante-Fasolo P (1986) Variability in wall structure and behaviour of ericoid fungal isolates. In ‘Physiological and genetical aspects of mycorrhizae,’ (Eds V Gianinazzi-Pearson and P Bonfante-Fasolo) pp. 563–568. (INRA Press: Paris)Google Scholar
  19. Gimingham CH (1972) ‘Ecology of heathlands.’ (Chapman and Hall: London)Google Scholar
  20. Giovannetti M, Mosse B (1980) An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist 84, 89–500.Google Scholar
  21. Harley JL (1959) ‘The biology of mycorrhiza.’ (Leonard Hill: London)Google Scholar
  22. Haselwandter K, Bobleter O, Read DJ (1990) Utilisation of lignin by ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Arch Mikrobiology 153, 352–354.Google Scholar
  23. Heil GW, Diemont WM (1983) Raised nutrient levels change heathland into grassland. Vegetatio 53, 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hutton BJ, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K (1994) Ericoid endophytes of Western Australian heaths (Epacridaceae). New Phytologist 127, 557–556.Google Scholar
  25. Hutton BJ, Sivasithamparam K, Dixon KW, Pate JS (1996) Pectic zymograms and water stress tolerance of endophytie fungi isolated from Western Australian heaths (Epacridaceac). Annals of Botany 77, 399–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hutton BJ, Sivasithamparam K, Dixon KW, Pate JS (1997) Effect of habitat disturbance on inoculum potential of ericoid endophytes of Western Australian heaths (Epacridaceae). New Phytologist 135, 739–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jalal MAF, Read DJ (1983a) The organic acid composition of Calluna heathland soil with special reference to phyto-and fungi-toxicity. I. Isolation and identification of organic acids. Plant and Soil 70, 257–272.Google Scholar
  28. Jalal MAF, Read DJ (1983h) The organic acid composition of Calluna heathland soil with special reference to phyto-and fungi-toxicity. II. Monthly quantitative determination of the organic acid content of Calluna and spruce dominated soils. Plant and Soil 70, 273–286.Google Scholar
  29. Jansa J, Vosátka M (2000) In vitro and post vitro inoculation of micropropagated Rhododendrons with cricoid mycorrhizal fungi. Applied Soil Ecology 15, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koch R (1912) ‘Complete works, vol. 1.’ (George Thieme: Leipzig)Google Scholar
  31. Kron KA (1996) Phylogenetic relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal 18s sequence data. Annals of Botany 77, 293–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leake JR, Read DJ (1991) Experiments with ericoid mycorrhiza. In ‘Methods in microbiology 23.’ (Eds JR Norris, DJ Read and AK Varma). pp. 435–459. (Academic Press: London)Google Scholar
  33. Liu G, Chambers SM, Cairney JWG (1998) Molecular diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal endophytes isolated from Woollsia pungens (Cav.) F. Muell. (Epacridaceae) New Phytologist 140, 145–154.Google Scholar
  34. Mabberley D (1997) The plant book. 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  35. Martino E, Coisson JD, Lacourt I, Favaron F, Bonfante P, Perotto S (2000a) Influence of heavy metals on production and activity of pectinolytic enzymes in ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Mycological Research 104, 825–833.Google Scholar
  36. Martino E, Turnau K, Girlanda M, Bonfante P, Perotto S (2000b) Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi from heavy metal polluted soils: their identification and growth in the presence of zinc ions. Mycological Research 104, 338–344.Google Scholar
  37. McLennan EI (1935) Non-symbiotic development of seedlings of Epacris impressa Labill. New Phytologist 34, 55–63.Google Scholar
  38. McLean CB, Cunnington JH, Lawrie AC (1999) Molecular diversity within and between ericoid endophytes from the Ericaceae and Epacridaceae. New Phytologist 144, 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Monreal M, Berch SM, Berbee M (1999) Molecular diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany 77, 1580–1594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nixon KC, Crepet WL (1993) Late Cretaceous fossil flowers of ericalean affinity. American Journal of Botany 80, 616–623.Google Scholar
  41. Parry RA, McLean CB, Alderton MR, Coloe PJ, Lawrie AC (2000) Polyclonal antisera to epacrid mycorrhizae and to Hymenoscyphus ericae display specificity. Canadian Journal of Botany 78, 841–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pate JS, Watt M (2001) Roots of Banksia spp. (Proteaceae) with special reference to functioning of their specialised proteoid root clusters. In ‘Roots: the hidden half.’ 3rd edn. (Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel and U Kafkafi) (Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York)Google Scholar
  43. Pearson V, Read DJ (1975) The physiology of the mycorrhizal endophyte Calluna vulgaris. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 64, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Petrini O (1991) Fungal endophytes of tree leaves. In ‘Microbial ecology of leaves.’ (Eds JH Andrews and SS Hirano) pp. 179–187. (Springer-Verlag: New York)Google Scholar
  45. Pisano E (1983) The Magellanic tundra complex. In ‘Ecosystems of the world 4B mires swamp bog, fen and moor.’ (Ed. AJP Gore) pp. 295–230. (Elsevier: Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  46. Ramsay RR, Dixon KW, Sivasithamparam K (1986) Patterns of infection and endophytes associated with Western Australian orchids. Lindeyana 1, 203–214.Google Scholar
  47. Read DJ (1983) The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericales. Canadian Journal of Botany 61, 985–1004.Google Scholar
  48. Read DJ (1989) Mycorrhiza and nutrient cycling in sand dune ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh B96, 80–110.Google Scholar
  49. Read DJ (1996) The structure and function of the ericoid mycorrhizal root. Annals of Botany 77, 365–374.Google Scholar
  50. Read DJ, Kerley SJ (1999) The status and function of ericoid mycorrhizal systems. In ‘Mycorrhiza: structure, function, molecular biology and biotechnology.’ 2nd edn. (Eds A Varma and B Hock) pp. 499–520. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)Google Scholar
  51. Reed ML (1987) Ericoid mycorrhiza of Epacridaceae in Australia. In ‘Mycorrhiza in the next decade.’ (Eds DM Sylvia, LL Hung and JH Graham) pp. 335. (Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences: Gainesville)Google Scholar
  52. Sharpies JM, Chambers SM, Meharg AA, Cairney JWG (2000a) Genetic diversity of root-associated fungal endophytes from Calluna vulgaris at contrasting field sites. New Phytologist 148, 153–162.Google Scholar
  53. Sharpies JM, Meharg AA, Chambers SM, Cairney JWG (2000b) Symbiotic solution to arsenic contamination. Nature 404, 951–952.Google Scholar
  54. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 2nd edn. (Academic Press: London)Google Scholar
  55. Specht RL, Rundel PW (1990) Sclerophylly and foliar nutrient status of mediterranean-climate plant communities in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 459–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stevens PF (2001 onwards) Angiosperm phylogeny website. Version 2 August 2001. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
  57. Stewart GR, Pate JS, Unkovich M (1993) Characteristics of inorganic nitrogen assimilation of plants in fire-prone mediterranean type vegetation. Plant, Cell and Environment 16, 351–363.Google Scholar
  58. Stone JK, Bacon CW, White JF Jr (2000) An overview of endophytic microbes: endophytism defined. In ‘Microbial endophytes.’ (Eds CW Bacon and JF White Jr) pp. 3–29. (Marcel Dekke, Inc.: New York)Google Scholar
  59. Straker CJ (1996) Ericoid mycorrhiza: ecological and host specificity. Mycorrhiza 6, 215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Turnau K, Wenhrynowicz O, Miskiewicz A, Mierzenska M (1998) Ericoid mycorrhizas in heavily polluted environments — strategies of plants, liverworts and fungi. In ‘Second international conference on trace elements — effects on organisms and environment. Cieszyn, Poland, 1998.’ pp. 27–32.Google Scholar
  61. van Leerdam, DM, Williams PA, Cairney JWG (2001) Phosphate-solubilising abilities of ericoid mycorrhizal endophytes of Woolsia pungens (Epacridaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 49, 75–80.Google Scholar
  62. Vrålstad T, Schumacher T, Taylor AFS (2002) Mycorrhizal synthesis between fungal strains of Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate and potential ectomycorrhizal and ericoid hosts. New Phytologist 153, 143–152.Google Scholar
  63. Wardle P (1991) ‘Vegetation of New Zealand.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  64. Whittaker SP, Cairney, JWG (2001) Influence of amino acids on biomass production by ericoid mycorrhizal endophytes from Woollsia pungens (Epacridaceae). Mycological Research 105, 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Xiao G, Berch SM (1996) Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi of Gaultheria shallon. Mycologia 84, 470–471.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kings Park & Botanic GardenBotanic Gardens & Parks AuthorityWest Perth
  2. 2.Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley
  3. 3.Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley
  4. 4.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations