Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Between Microorganisms and Higher Plants of Natural Ecosystems



Nitrogen Fixation Symbiotic Association Royal Botanic Garden Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Plant Conservation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahern CP, Staff IA (1994) Symbiosis in cycads: The origin and development of coralloid roots in Macrozamia communis (Cycadaceae). American Journal of Botany 81, 1559–1570.Google Scholar
  2. Akimov VN, Dobritsa SV, Stupar OS (1990) Grouping of Frankia strains by DNA homology: How many genospecics are in the genus Frankia? In ‘Abstracts of the V th international symposium on nitrogen fixation with non-legumes.’ (Florence, Italy)Google Scholar
  3. Allen MJ (1992) ‘Mycorrhizal functioning. An integrated plant-fungal process.’ (Chapman Hall: New York, London)Google Scholar
  4. Allen ON, Allen EK (1981) The Leguminosae. A source book of characteristics, uses and nodulation.’(The University of Wisconsin Press: Madison)Google Scholar
  5. Aziz, T, Sylvia DM (1993) Utilisation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the establishment of nitrogen-fixing trees. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 167–194. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  6. Becking JH (1977) Dinitrogen-fixing associations in higher plants other than legumes. In ‘A treatise on dinitrogen fixation. Section II. Biology.’ (Eds RWF Hardy and WS Silver) pp. 763. (Wiley: New York)Google Scholar
  7. Benson DR, Silvester WB (1993) Biology of Frankia strains, actinomycete symbionts of actinorhizal plants. Microbiological Review 57, 293–319.Google Scholar
  8. Bergman B, Matyeyev A, Rasmussen U (1996) Chemical signalling in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses. Trends in Plant Science 1. 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergman B, Rai AN, Johansson C, Soderback E (1992) Cyanobacterial-plant symbioses. Symbiosis 14, 61–81.Google Scholar
  10. Berry AM (1994) Recent developments in the actinorhizal symbioses. In ‘Symbiotic nitrogen fixation.’ (Eds PH Graham, MJ Sadowsky and CP Vance) pp. 118–215. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  11. Bloom RA, Mullin BC, Tate RL (1989) DNA restriction patterns and DNA-DNA solution hybridization studies of Frankia isolates from Myrica pennsylvanica (bayberry). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 2155–2160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond G (1963) The root nodules of non-leguminous Angiosperms. In ‘Symbiotic associations.’ (Eds PS Nutman and B Moss) pp. 72–91. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  13. Bond G (1967) Fixation of nitrogen by higher plants other than legumes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 18, 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bond G (1974) Root nodule symbioses with actinomycete-like organisms. In ‘The biology of nitrogen fixation.’ A Quispel (ed.) pp. 342–378. (Elsevicr/North Holland Publications: Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  15. Brundrett MC, Abbott LK (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant communities. In ‘Microorganisms in plant conservation and biodiversity.’ (Eds K Sivasithamparam, KW Dixon and RL Barrett) pp. 151–193. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  16. Bryan JA, Berlyn, GP, Gordon JC (1996) Toward a new concept of the evolution of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the Leguminosae. Plant and Soil 186, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burdon JJ, Gibson AH, Searle SD, Woods MJ, Brockwell J (1999) Variation in the effectiveness of symbiotic associations between native rhizobia and temperate Australian Acacia: within-species interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology 36, 398–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callahan D, DelTredici P, Torrey JG (1978) Isolation and cultivation in vitro of the actinomycete causing root nodulation in Comptonia. Science 199, 899–902.Google Scholar
  19. Clawson ML, Caru M, Benson DR (1998) Diversity of Frankia strains in root nodules of plants from the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae. Applied Environmental Microbiology 64, 3539–3543.Google Scholar
  20. Corby HDL (1981) The systematic value of leguminous root nodules. In ‘Advances in legume systematics. Part 2.’ (Eds RM Polhill and PH Raven) pp. 657–669. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  21. Costa J-L, Paulsrud P, Rikkinen J, Lindblad P (2001) Genetic diversity of Nostoc symbionts endophytically associated with two bryophyte species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, 4393–4396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crews TE (1993) Phosphorus regulation of nitrogen fixation in a traditional Mexican agroecosystem. Biogeochemistry 21, 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crews TE (1999) The presence of nitrogen fixing legumes in terrestrial communities: Evolutionary vs. ecological considerations. Biogeochemistry 46, 233–246.Google Scholar
  24. Crisp MD, Doyle J (1995) (eds) ‘Advances in legume systematics. Part 5. Phylogeny.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  25. Dawson JO (1990) Interaction among actinorhizal and associated plant species. In ‘The biology of Frankia and actmorhizalplants.’ (Eds CR Schwintzer and JD Tjepkema) pp. 299–316. (Academic Press: San Diego)Google Scholar
  26. Dinkelaker B, Hengeler C, Maischner H (1995) Distribution and function of proteoid roots and other root clusters. Botanica Acta 108, 183–200.Google Scholar
  27. Dobereiner J (1984) Nodula¢o e fixa¢ao de nitrogenie em leguminosas florestais. Pesq. Agrop. Brasilia 19, 83–90.Google Scholar
  28. Doyle JJ (1998) Phylogenetic perspectives on nodulation: evolving views of plants and symbiotic bacteria. Trends in Plant Science 3, 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H (1997) A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: Taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation. American Journal of Botany 84, 541–554.Google Scholar
  30. Duhoux E, Prin Y, Dommergues YR (1993) Comparison of aerial nodulation of Casuarina sp. with legume stem nodulation. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 85–94. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  31. Duhoux E, Rinaudo G. Diem HG. Auguy F, Fernandez D, Bogusz D, Franche C, Dommergues Y (2001) Angiosperm Gymnostoma trees produce root nodules colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi related to Glomus. New Phytologist 149, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Egerton-Warburton LM, Allen EB, Allen MF (2002) Conservation of mycorrhizal fungal communities under elevated atmospheric CO 2 and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. In ‘Microorganisms in plant conservation and biodiversity.’ (Eds K Sivasithamparam, KW Dixon and RL Barrett) pp. 19–43. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  33. Erskine PD, Stewart GR, Schmidt S, Turnbull MH, Unkovich MJ, Pate JS (1996) Water availability-a physiological constraint on nitrate utilization in plants of Australian semi-arid mulga woodlands. Plant Cell and Environment 19, 1149–1159.Google Scholar
  34. Faria SM, Lewis GP, Sprent JI, Sutherland JM (1989) Occurrence of nodulation in the Leguminosae. New Phytologist 111, 607–619.Google Scholar
  35. Fowler D. Flechard C, Skiba U, Coyle M, Cape JN (1998) The atmospheric burden of oxidized nitrogen and its role in ozone formation and deposition. New Phytologist 139, 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Franco AA, Campello EFC, Dias LE, de Faria SM (1997) The use of nodulated and mycorrhizal legume trees for land reclamation in mining sites. In ‘Biological nitrogen fixation for the 21 st century.’ (Eds C Elmerich, A Kondorosi and WE Newton) pp. 623–624. (Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  37. Fred EB, Baldwin IL, McCoy E (1932) ‘Root nodule bacteria and leguminous plants.’ (Madison: Wisconsin, USA)Google Scholar
  38. Galiana A, Chaumont J, Diem H G, Dommergues YR (1990) Nitrogen-fixing potential of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium spp. Biology and Fertility of Soils 9, 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Galloway JN, Sehlesinger WH, Levy H, Michaels A, Schnoor JL (1995) Anthropogenic enhancement — environmental response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9, 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giddy C (1974) ‘Cycads of South Africa.’ (Purnell: Johannesburg, London)Google Scholar
  41. Grobbelaar N (1993) The cycad-cyanobacterium symbiosis. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 95–140. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  42. Grobbelaar N, Meyer JJM, Burchmore J (1988) Coning and sex ratio of Encephalartos transvenosus at the Modjadji Nature Reserve. South African Journal of Botany 55, 79–82.Google Scholar
  43. Grove TS, O’Connell AM. Malajezuk N (1980) Effects of fire on the growth, nutrient content and rate of nitrogen fixation of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei. Australian Journal of Botany 28, 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Halliday J, Pate JS (1976) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by coralloid roots of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei: physiological characteristics and ecological significance. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 3, 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hansen AP, Pate JS (1987a) Comparative growth and symbiotic performance of seedlings of Acacia spp. in defined pot culture or as natural understorey components of a eucalypt forest ecosystem in S.W. Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 13–25.Google Scholar
  46. Hansen AP, Pale JS (1987b) Evaluation of the 15 N natural abundance method and xylem sap analysis for assessing N, fixation of understorey legumes in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest in S.W. Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 1446–1458.Google Scholar
  47. Hansen AP, Pate JS, Atkins CA (1987a) Relationships between acetylene reduction activity, hydrogen evolution and nitrogen fixation in nodules of Acacia spp.: experimental background to assaying fixation by acetylene reduction under field conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 1–12.Google Scholar
  48. Hansen AP, Pate JS, Hansen A, Bell DT (1987b) Nitrogen economy of post fire stands of shrub legumes in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm) forest of SW Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 38, 26–41.Google Scholar
  49. Haukka K, Lindstrom K, Young JPW (1998) Three phylogenetic group of nodA and nifH genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium isolates from leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. Applied Environmental Microbiology 64, 419–426.Google Scholar
  50. Herendeen PS, Ditcher DL (eds) (1992) ‘Advances in legume systematics. Part 4. The fossil record.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  51. Herrera MA, Salamananca P, Barea JM (1993) Mycorrhizal associations and their functions in nodulating nitrogen-fixing trees. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 141–165. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  52. Hill KD (1998a) Cycadophyta. In ‘Flora of Australia. Volume 48. Ferns, gymnosperms and allied groups.’ (Ed. PM McCarthy) pp. 597–661. (ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Collingwood)Google Scholar
  53. Hill RS (1998b) The fossil record of cycads in Australia. In ‘Flora of Australia. Volume 48. Ferns, gymnosperms and allied groups.’ (Ed. PM McCarthy) pp. 539–544. (ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Collingwood)Google Scholar
  54. Hingston FJ, Malajczuk NA, Grove TS (1982) Acetylene reduction (N 2-fixation) by Jarrah forest legumes following fire and phosphate application. Journal of Applied Ecology 19, 631–646.Google Scholar
  55. Israel JW (1987) Investigation of the role of phosphorus in symbiotic dinitrogen fixation. Plant Physiology 84, 835–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jenkinson DS (1990) An introduction to the global nitrogen cycle. Soil Use Magazine 6, 56–61.Google Scholar
  57. Jenkinson DS (2001) The impact of humans on the nitrogen cycle, with focus on temperate arable agriculture. Plant and Soil 228, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jones DL (1993) ‘Cycads of the world, Ancient plants in today’s landscape.’ (William Heinemann Australia: Chatswood)Google Scholar
  59. Jordan CD (1984) The Rhizobiaceae. In ‘Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology.’ 9th edn. Volume 1. (Eds JG Holt and NR Kreig). pp. 24–43. (Williams and Wilkins: London)Google Scholar
  60. Kohls SJ, Thimmapuram J, Buschena A, Pashke MW, Dawson JO (1994) Nodulation patterns of actinorhizal plants in the family Rosaceae. Plant and Soil 162, 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lafay B, Burdon JJ (1998) Molecular diversity of rhizobia occurring on native shrubby legumes in southeastern Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 3989–3997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Laguerre G, van Berkum P, Amarger N, Pr’evost D (1997) Genetic diversity of rhizobial symbionis isolated from legume species within the genera Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Onobrychis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 4748–4758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lamont BB (1982) Mechanisms for enhancing nutrient uptake in plants with particular reference to mediterranean South Africa and Western Australia. Botanical Review 48, 597–689.Google Scholar
  64. Lamont BB (1993) Why are hairy root clusters so abundant in the most nutrient-impoverished soils of Australia? Plant and Soil 155/156, 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lamont BB, Ryan RA (1977) Formation of coralloid roots by Cycas under sterile conditions. Phytomorphology 27, 426–429.Google Scholar
  66. Langkamp PJ, Dalling MJ (1982) Nutrient cycling in a stand of Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex Don. 11. Phosphorus and endomycorrhizal associations. Australian Journal of Botany 30, 107–119.Google Scholar
  67. Lawrie AE (1981) Nitrogen fixation by native Australian legumes. Australian Journal of Botany 29, 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Layzell DB, Weagle GE, Canvin DT (1984) A highly sensitive flow-through H 2 gas analyzer for use in nitrogen fixation studies. Plant Physiology 75, 582–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lee HM (1978) Studies of the family Proteaceae. II. Further observations on the root morphology of some Australian genera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 90, 251–256.Google Scholar
  70. Lieberman MT, Mallory LM, Simkins S, Alexander M (1985) Numerical taxonomic analysis of cross-inoculation patterns of legumes and Rhizobium. Plant and Soil 84, 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lindblad P, Atkins CA, Pate JS(1991) N 2 -fixation by freshly isolated Nostoc from coralloid roots of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Fisch. ex Gaud.) Gardn. Plant Physiology 95, 753–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mabberley DJ (1997) ‘The plant book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants.’ 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  73. Mansfield TA, Goulding KWT, Sheppard LJ (1998) ‘Disturbance of the nitrogen cycle.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  74. Marshall J, Huang TC, Grobbelaar N (1989) Comparative morphological and physiological studies on cyanobionts of Encephalartos transvenosus. South African Journal of Botany 55, 574–580.Google Scholar
  75. Maunder M, Culham A, Bordeu A, Allanguillame J, Wilkinson M, (1999) Genetic diversity and pedigree for Sophora toromiro (Leguminosae): a tree extinct in the wild. Molecular Ecology 8, 725–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McLuckie J (1922) Studies in symbiosis. II. The apogeotropic roots of Macrozamia spiralis and their physiological significance. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 47, 319–328.Google Scholar
  77. McLuckie J (1923) Contribution to the morphology and physiology of the root nodules of Podocarpus spinulosa and P. elata. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 48, 82–93.Google Scholar
  78. Miller IM, Baker DD (1986) Nodulation of actinorhizal plants by Frankia strains capable of both root hair infection and intercellular penetration. Protoplasma 131, 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Monk D, Pate JS, Loneragan WA (1981) Biology of Acacia pulchella R.Br. with a special reference to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Australian Journal of Botany 29, 570–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morrison TM, English DA (1967) The significance of mycorrhizal nodules of Agathis australis. New Phytologist 66, 245–250.Google Scholar
  81. Nathanielsz CP, Staff IA (1975a) On the occurrence of intracellular blue-green algae in cortical cells of the apogeotropic roots of Macrozamia communis L. Johnson. Annals of Botany 39, 363–368.Google Scholar
  82. Nathanielsz CP, Staff IA (1975b) A mode of entry of blue-green algae into the apogeotropic roots of Macrozamia communis. American Journal of Botany 62, 232–235.Google Scholar
  83. Newman EI (1995) Phosphorus inputs to terrestrial ecosystems. Journal of Ecology 83, 713–726.Google Scholar
  84. Normand P, Bousquet J (1989) Phylogeny of nitrogenase sequences in Frankia and other nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Journal of Molecular Evolution 29, 436–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Norstog NK (1987) Cycads and the origin of insect pollination. American Scientist 75, 270–279.Google Scholar
  86. Norstog NK, Fawcett PKS (1989) Insect-Cycad symbiosis and its relation to the pollination of Zamia furfuracea (Zamiaceae) by Rhopalotria mollis (Curculionidae). American Journal of Botany 76, 1380–1394.Google Scholar
  87. Odee DW, Sprent Jl (1992) Acacia brevispica: a non-nodulated mimosoid legume? Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24, 717–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ornduff, R (1985) Male-biased sex ratios in the cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Zamiaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112,393–397.Google Scholar
  89. Padmanabhan S, Hirtz R-D, Broughton WJ (1990) Rhizobia in tropical legumes: cultural characteristics of Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium sp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22, 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Parker MA (2001) Mutualism as a constraint on invasion success for legumes and rhizobia. Diversity and Distributions 7, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pate JS (1977) Nodulation and nitrogen metabolism. In ‘The physiology of the garden pea.’ (Eds JF Sutcliffe and JS Pale) pp. 469–489. (Academic Press: London)Google Scholar
  92. Pate JS (1986) Xylem-to-phloem transfer — vital component of the nitrogen-partitioning system of a nodulated legume. In ‘Phloem transport.’ (Eds J Cronshaw, WJ Lucas and RT Giaquinta) pp. 445–462. (A.R. LissInc.: New York)Google Scholar
  93. Pate JS (1993) Biology of the S.W. Australian cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Fisch. ex Gaud.) C.A.Gardn. In ‘Cycad 90, second international conference on the biology of cycads.’ (Ed. K Norstog) pp. 33–45. (New York Botanic Gardens: New York)Google Scholar
  94. Pate JS (1999) Partitioning of carbon and nitrogen in a legume. In ‘Plants in action.’ (Eds B Atwell, P Kriedmann and C Turnbull) pp. 161–164. (MacMillan Education Australia: Melbourne)Google Scholar
  95. Pate JS, Atkins CA (1983) Nitrogen uptake, transport and utilization. In ‘Nitrogen fixation. Volume 3: Legumes.’ (Ed. WJ Broughton) pp. 245–298. (Oxford University Press: Oxford)Google Scholar
  96. Pate JS, Layzell DB (1990) Energetics and biological costs of nitrogen assimilation. In ‘The biochemistry of plants.’ (Eds PK Stumpf and EE Conn) pp. 1–42. (Academic Press, Inc.: California)Google Scholar
  97. Pate JS, Lindblad P, Atkins CA (1988) Pathway of assimilation and transfer of fixed nitrogen in coralloid roots of cycad-Nostoc symbioses. Planta 176, 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pate JS, Unkovich MJ (1998) Measuring symbiotic nitrogen fixation: case studies of natural and agricultural ecosystems in a Western Australian setting. In ‘Physiological plant ecology.’ (Eds MC Press, JD Scholes and MG Baker) pp. 153–173. (Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford)Google Scholar
  99. Pate JS, Unkovich MJ, Erskine, PD, Stewart GR (1998) Australian mulga ecosystems-13C and 15N natural abundance of biota components and their ecophysiological significance. Plant, Cell and Environment 21, 1231–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pate JS, Verboom WH, Gallagher PD (2001) Co-occurrence of Proteaceae, laterite and related oligotrophic soils: coincidental associations or causative inter-relationships? Australian Journal of Botany 49, 529–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pate JS, Watt M (2001) Roots of Banksia spp. (Proteaceae) with special reference to functioning of their specialised proteoid root clusters. In ‘Roots: the hidden half.’ (3rd edition) (Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel and U Kafkafi) (Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York)Google Scholar
  102. Paulsrud P, Rikkinen J, Lindblad P (1998) Cyanobiont specificity in some Nostoc-containing lichens and in a Peltigera aphthosa photosymbiodeme. New Phytologist 139, 517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Paulsrud P, Rikkinen J, Lindblad P (2000) Spatial patterns of photobiont diversity in some Nostoc-containing lichens. New Phytologist 146, 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Peoples MB, Palmer B, Boddey RM (2001) The use of 15 N to study biological nitrogen fixation by perennial legumes. In ‘Stable isotope techniques in the study of biological processes and functioning of ecosystems.’ (Eds MJ Unkovich, JS Pate, AM McNeill and J Gibbs)pp. 119–144. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  105. Polhill RM, Raven PH (eds) (1981) ‘Advances in legume systematics, Part 1.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  106. Purnell HM (1960) Studies of the family Proteaceae. I. Anatomy and morphology of the roots of some Victorian species. Australian Journal of Botany 8, 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Quispel A, Rodriques-Barrucco, C and Subba Rao, NS (1993) Some general considerations on symbioses of nitrogen-fixing trees. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 1–32. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  108. Racette S, Torrey JG (1989) Root nodule initiation in Gymnostoma (Casuarinaceae) and Shepherdia (Elaeagnaceae) induced by Frankia strain HFPGpI1. Canadian Journal of Botany 67, 2873–2879.Google Scholar
  109. Raich JW, Russell AE, Crews TE, Farrington H, Vitousek PM (1996) Both nitrogen and phosphorus limit plant production on young Hawaiian lava flows. Biogeochemistry 32, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reddell P (1993) Soil constraints to the growth of nitrogen-fixing trees in tropical environments. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 65–83. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  111. Richardson DM, Allsopp N, D’Antonio CM, Milton SJ, Rejmanek M (2000) Plant invasions — the role of mutualisms. Biological Reviews 75, 65–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Robson AD (1983) Mineral nutrition. In ‘Nitrogen fixation. Volume 3: Legumes.’ (Ed. WJ Broughton) pp. 36–55. (Clarendon Press: Oxford)Google Scholar
  113. Rodriguez-Barrueco C, Cervantes E, Subba Rao NS (1993) Host specificity in Frankia symbiosis. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 195–210. (International SciencePublisher: New York)Google Scholar
  114. Roughley RJ (1987) Acacias and their root-nodule bacteria. In ‘Australian Acacias in developing countries.’ (Ed. JW Turnbull) ACIAR Proceedings no. 16. pp. 45–49. (ACIAR: Canberra)Google Scholar
  115. Schlesinger WH, Hartley AE (1992) A global budget for atmospheric NH 3. Biogeochemistry 15,191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schwintzer CR, Tjepkema JD (1990) ‘The biology of Frankia and actinorhizal plants.’ (Academic Press: San Diego)Google Scholar
  117. Skene KR (1998) Cluster roots: some ecological considerations. Journal of Ecology 86, 1060–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith SE and Read DJ (1997) ‘Mycorrhizal symbiosis.’ 2nd edn. (Academic Press: San Diego)Google Scholar
  119. Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Morgan DR. Swensen SM, Mullin BC, Dowd JM, Martin PG (1995) Chloroplast gene sequence data suggest a single origin of the predisposition for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, United States of America 92, 2647–2651.Google Scholar
  120. Spratt ER (1919) A comparative account of the root nodules of the Leguminosae. Annals of Botany 33, 189–200.Google Scholar
  121. Sprent JI (1981) Functional evolution in some papilionoid root nodules. In ‘Advances in legume systematics. Part 2.’ (Eds RM Polhill and PH Raven) pp. 671–676. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  122. Sprent JI (1994) Evolution and diversity in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis: Chaos theory. In ‘Symbiotic nitrogen fixation.’ (Eds PH Graham, MJ Sadowsky and CP Vance) (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht)Google Scholar
  123. Sprent JI (1999) Nitrogen fixation and growth of non-crop legume species in diverse environments. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2, 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sprent JI (2000) Nodulation as a taxonomic tool. In ‘Advances in legume systematics. Part 9.’ (Eds PS Herendeen and A Bruneau) pp. 21–44. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  125. Sprent JI (2001) ‘Nodulation in legumes.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew)Google Scholar
  126. Sprent JI (2002) Knobs, knots and nodules — the renaissance in legume symbiosis research. New Phytologist 153, 2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sprent JI, Raven JA (1992) Evolution of nitrogen fixing symbioses. In ‘Biological nitrogen fixation.’ (Eds G Stacey, RH Burris and HJ Evans) (Chapman and Hall: New York)Google Scholar
  128. Sprent JI, Sutherland JM, de Faria SM (1989) Structure and function of root nodules from woody legumes. In ‘Advances in legume biology.’ (Eds CH Stirton and JL Zarucchi) Monographs of the Systematic Botany Society of the Missouri Botanic Gardens 29, 559–578.Google Scholar
  129. Stevenson DW (1992) A formal classification of the extant cycads. Brittonia 44, 220–223.Google Scholar
  130. Stevenson FJ, Cole MA (1999) ‘Cycles of soil.’ (Wiley: New York)Google Scholar
  131. Subba Rao NS (1993) Interaction of nodulated tree species with other microorganisms and plants. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subba Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 233–258. (International SciencePublisher: New York)Google Scholar
  132. Sutherland JM, Sprent, JI (1993) Nitrogen fixation by legume trees. In ‘Symbioses in nitrogen-fixing trees.’ (Eds NS Subha Rao and C Rodriques-Barrueco) pp. 33–63. (International Science Publisher: New York)Google Scholar
  133. Swensen SM (1996) The evolution of actinorhizal symbioses: evidence for multiple origins of the symbiotic association. American Journal of Botany 83, 1503–1521.Google Scholar
  134. Swensen SM, Mullin BC (1997) The impact of molecular systematics on hypotheses for the evolution of root nodule symbioses and implications for expanding symbioses to new host plant genera. Plant and Soil 194, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tang W (1987) Heat and odour production in cycad cones. Fairchild Tropical Garden Bulletin July: 12–14.Google Scholar
  136. Tang W (1989) Seed dispersal in the cycad Zamia pumila in Florida. Canadian Journal of Botany 67, 2066–2070.Google Scholar
  137. Tennakoon KU, Pate JS, Arthur D (1997) Ecophysiological aspects of the woody root hemiparasite Santalum acuminatum (R. Br.) A. DC. And its common hosts in south western Australia. Annals of Botany 80, 245–256.Google Scholar
  138. Thrall PH, Burdon JJ, Woods MJ (2000) Variation in the effectiveness of symbiotic associations between native rhizobia and temperate Australian legumes: interactions within and between genera. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Torrey JG (1978) Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. Bioscience 28, 589–592.Google Scholar
  140. Trinick MJ (1979) Structure and functioning of nitrogen fixing root nodules formed on Parasponia andersonii Planch. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 25, 565–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Trinick MJ (1980) Effects of oxygen, temperature and other factors on the reduction of acetylene by root nodules formed by Rhizobium on Parasponia andersonii Planch. New Phytologist 86, 27–38.Google Scholar
  142. Trinick MJ (1982) Biology. In ‘Nitrogen fixation. Volume 2.’ (Ed. WJ Broughton) pp. 76–146. (Clarendon Press: Oxford)Google Scholar
  143. Trinick MJ, Hadobas PA (1988) Biology of the Paraspoma-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis. Plant and Soil 110, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Unkovich MJ, Pate JS, Lefroy EC, Arthur DJ (2000) Nitrogen isotope function in the fodder tree legume tagasaste (Chamaecytisusproliferus) and assessment of N 2 fixation inputs in deep sandy soils of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 921–929.Google Scholar
  145. Vitousek PM, Howarth RW (1991) Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: how can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13, 87–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Walker BA, Pate JS, Kuo J (1983) Nitrogen fixation by nodulated roots of Viminaria juncea (Schrad. & Wendl.) Hoffmans (Fabaceae) when submerged in water. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 10, 409–421.Google Scholar
  147. Webb DT, Nevarez M, de Jesus S (1984) Further in vitro studies of light-induced root nodulation in the Cycadales. Environmental and Experimental Botany 24, 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wheeler CT, Miller IM (1990) Current and potential uses of actinorhizal plants in Europe. In ‘The biology of Frankia and actinorhizal plants.’ (Eds CR Schwintzer and JD Tjepkema) pp. 365–389. (Academic Press: San Diego)Google Scholar
  149. Young JM (2001) Implications of alternative classifications and horizontal gene transfer for bacterial taxonomy. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 51, 945–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Young JM, Kuykendall LD, Martinez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada H (2001) A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an emended description of the genus, and the inclusion of all species of Agrobacterium Conn 1942 and Allorhizobium undicola de Lajudie et al. 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola and R. vitis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 51, 89–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Young JPW (1991) Classification of nitrogen fixing organisms. In ‘Biological nitrogen fixation.’ (Eds G Stacey, RH Burns and HJ Evans) (Chapman and Hall: New York)Google Scholar
  152. Young JPW (1996) Phylogeny and taxonomy of rhizobia. Plant and Soil 186, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley

Personalised recommendations