Applied Aspects of Azolla-Anabaena Symbiosis

  • Charles van Hove
  • André Lejeune


Paddy Field Botanical Review Rice Field Methane Emission Nile Tilapia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdel-Hafez, A.M., Zidan, Z.H., Abdel-Megeed, M.I., el-Emam, M.A., Ragab, F.M. and el-Deeb, F.A. (1997) Effect of the plant Azolla pinnata on survival, growth rate, fecundity and hatchability of egg-masses of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 27, 825–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adhya, T.K., Bharati, K., Mohanty, S.R., Ramakrishnan, B., Rao, V.R., Sethunathan, N. and Wassmann, R. (2000) Methane emission from rice fields at Cuttack, India, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 58, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almazan, G.J, Pullin, R.S.V., Angeles, A.F., Manalo, T.A., Agbyani, R.A. and Trono, M.T.B. (1986) Azolla. pinnata as a dietary component for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon and L.V. Hosillos (eds), The First Asian Fisheries Forum, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, pp. 523–528.Google Scholar
  4. Antunes, A.P.M., Watkins, G.M. and Duncan, J.R. (2001) Batch studies on the removal of gold (III) from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides, Biotechnology Letters 23, 249–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aulakh, M.S., Wassmann, R. and Rennenberg, H. (2001) Methane emissions from rice fields-quantification, mechanisms, role of management, and mitigation options, Advances in Agronomy 70, 193–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayala-Silva, T. and Al-Hamdani, S. (1997) Interactive effects of polylactic acid with different aluminium concentrations on growth, pigment concentrations, and carbohydrate accumulation of Azolla, American Fern Journal 87, 120–126.Google Scholar
  7. Balakrishnan, N. and Sharma, S.K. (2000) Role of water fern, Azolla microphylla in controlling the larval breeding of mosquitoes in paddy fields at Coimbatore (South India), Journal of Entomological Research 24, 39–42.Google Scholar
  8. Bharati, K., Mohanty, S.R., Singh, D.P., Rao, V.R. and Adhya, T.K. (2000) Influence of incorporation or dual cropping of Azolla on methane emission from a flooded alluvial soil planted to rice in Eastern India, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 79, 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braemer, P. (1927) La culture des Azolla au Tonkin, Revue de Botanique Appliquée et d’ Agriculture. Coloniale 7, 816–819.Google Scholar
  10. Cagauan, A.G. (1999) Production, economics and ecological effects of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), a hybrid aquatic fern Azolla (Azolla microphylla Kaulf. × Azolla filiculoides Lam.) and Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) in integrated lowland irrigated rice-based farming systems in the Philippines, Ph. D. thesis in applied natural sciences, Institute of Applied Natural Sciences, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, 404 p.Google Scholar
  11. Cagauan, A.G., Branckaert, R.S.D. and Van Hove, C. (1999) Rice-duck farming in Asia: Increasing its production potentials by integration with fish and the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern Azolla, in The First INFPD/FAO Electronic Conference on Family Poultry, Free communication 4,
  12. Cagauan, A.G., Branckaert, R.D. and Van Hove, C. (2000) Integrating fish and Azolla into rice-duck farming in Asia, Naga (ICLARM quaterly) 23, 4–10.Google Scholar
  13. Cagauan, A.G., Van Hove, C., Orden, E.A., Ramilo, N.M. and Branckaert, R.D. (1996) Preliminary results of a case study on integrated rice-fish-Azolla ducks production system in the Philippines, in H. Hayakawa, M. Sasaki and K. Kimura (eds.), Integrated Systems of Animal Production in the Asian Region, Japanese Society of Zootechnical Science and Food and Agriculture Organization, pp. 35–61Google Scholar
  14. Chen, G.X., Huang, G.H., Huang, B., Yu, K.W., Wu, J. and Xu, H. (1997) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil-plant systems, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49, 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, M., Bian, Z., Zhang, C., Liu, H. and Chen, B. (1999) Effects of Azolla on the change of O 2-CO 2-concentration under controlled airtight system, Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 14, 56–61. (In Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  16. Chen, M., Liu, X. and Liu, Z. (2000) The equipment of using Azolla for O2-suppementation and its test, Space. Medicine & Medical engineering 13, 14–18. (In Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  17. Cisse, M. (2001) Impact of Azolla on urea-N cycling in flooded rice in comparison to and in combination with fertilizer placement, application of potassium chloride (KCl) and biocides, Ph. D. thesis in agricultural science, Faculty of Agriculture, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany, 124 p.Google Scholar
  18. Costa, M.L., Santos, M.C. and Carrapiço, F. (1999) Biomass characterization of Azolla filiculoides grown in natural ecosystems and wastewater, Hydrobiologia 415, 323–327.Google Scholar
  19. Crevost, Ch. and Lemarié, Ch. (1917) Catalogue des produits de l’ Indochine, Tome 1, p. 426.Google Scholar
  20. Cuello, J.L., Rodriguez-Eaton, S., Stryjewski, E.C. and Sager, J.C. (1998) Azolla-Anabaena symbionts and microbial mat as nitrogen-fixing biocatalysts for bioregenerative space life support, Life Support & Biosphere science 5, 375–388.Google Scholar
  21. de Macale, M.A.R., Vlek, P.L.G., Eberhardt, U. and San Valentin, G.O. (1997) The role of Azolla in curbing ammonia volatilisation from flooded rice environments under Philippine conditions, MSc. thesis in agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany, 53 p.Google Scholar
  22. de Macale, M.A.R., Vlek, P.L.G. and San Valentin, G.O. (2002) The role of Azolla cover in improving the nitrogen use efficiency of lowland rice, Proceedings of the conference on Sustaining food security and managing natural resources in Southeast Asia, 8–11 January 2002, Chiang Mai, Thailand.Google Scholar
  23. Diara, H.F. and Van Hove, C. (1983) The influence of Azolla on rice productivity: preliminary results obtained at WARDA Richard-Toll project, Senegal, Warda Technical Newsletter 4, 7–8Google Scholar
  24. El-Sayed, A.-F.M. (1992) Effects of substituting fish meal with Azolla pinnata in practical diets for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 23, 167–173.Google Scholar
  25. Fasakin, A.E. and Balogun, A.M. (1998) Evaluation of dried water fern (Azolla pinnata) as a replacer for soybean dietary components for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings, Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 13, 57–64.Google Scholar
  26. Feng, S.L. (1994) Effect of green Azolla flour as feed for rabbits, Journal of Rabbit Breeding 4, 7–8. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  27. Feuillée, L. (1725) Histoire des plantes médicinales de Perou et Chily, Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques et botaniques faites sur l’ordre du roi sur les côtes orientales dans l’Amérique méridionale et dans les Indes occidentales depuis 1707-12, Griffart, Paris, vol. 3, 426 p.Google Scholar
  28. Fillery, I.R.P. and Vlek, P.L.G. (1986) Reappraisal of the significance of ammonia volatilisation as an N loss mechanism in flooted rice fields, Fertilizer Research 9, 79–98.Google Scholar
  29. Forni, C., Chen, J., Tancioni, L. and Grilli-Caiola, M., (2001) Evaluation of the fern Azolla for growth, nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater, Water Research 35, 1592–1598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Furuno, T. (2001) The power of duck. Integrated rice and duck farming, Tagari Publications, Sisters Creek, Tasmania, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  31. Ge, S.A., Xu, D.X. and Shen, Z.H. (1980) Salt tolerance of Azolla filiculoides and its effects on the growth of paddy in Xinwei Haitu, Zhejiang Nongye Kexue 1, 17–20. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  32. Gratwicke, B. and Marshall, B.E. (2001) The impact of Azolla filiculoides Lam. on animal biodiversity in streams in Zimbabwe, African Journal of Ecology 39, 216–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hill, M.P. (1997) The potential for the biological control of the floating aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides Lamarck (Red water fern/Rooivaring) in South Africa, Report to the Water Research Commission by the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council,WRC Report n° KV 100/97.Google Scholar
  34. Hill, M.P. (1998a) Life history and laboratory host range of Stenopelmus rufinasus, a natural enemy for Azolla. filiculoides in South Africa, Biocontrol 43, 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hill, M.P. (1998b) Azolla filiculoides the first step towards biological control, Plant Protection News 51, 1–3.Google Scholar
  36. Hill, M.P. (1999) Biological control of red water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lamarck (Pteridophyta: Azollaceae), in South Africa, African Entomology Memoir 1, 119–124.Google Scholar
  37. Hill, M.P. and Cilliers, C.J. (1999) Azolla filiculoides Lamarck (Pteridophyta: Azollaceae), its status in South Africa and control, Hydrobiologia 415, 203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kanangire, C.K. (2001) Effets de l’alimentation des poissons avec Azolla sur la production d’un écosystème agro-piscicole en zones marécageuses au Rwanda, Ph.D.thesis, Faculté des Sciences, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur, Belgium, 220 p.Google Scholar
  39. Kannaiyan, S, Aruna, S.J., Kumari, S.M.P. and Hall D.O. (1997a) Immobilized cyanobacteria A. Azollae, a symbiont of Azolla as a biofertilizer for rice crops, Journal of Applied Phycology 7, 1–9.Google Scholar
  40. Kannaiyan, S, Aruna, S.J., Kumari, S.M.P. and Hall D. O. (1997b), Immobilized cyanobacteria as a biofertilizer for rice crops, Journal of Applied Phycology 9, 167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karr, P.P., Mishra, S. and Singh D.P. (1999) Influence of gibberellic acid on the sporulation of Azolla. caroliniana, Azolla microphylla and Azolla pinnata, Biology and Fertility of Soils 29, 424–429.Google Scholar
  42. Kar, P.P., Mishra, S. and Singh D.P. (2000) Variability in Azolla sporulation in response to phosphorus application, Biology and Fertility of Soils 32, 458–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kar, P.P., Mishra, S. and Singh, D.P. (2001) Influence of different phosphorus management strategies on the sporulation and growth of Azolla, Experimental Agriculture 37, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khatun, A., Ali, M.A. and Dingle, J.G. (1999) Comparison of the nutritive value for laying hens of diets containing atolls (Azolla pinnata) based on formulation using digestible protein and digestible amino acid versus total protein and total amino acid, Animal Feed Science and Technology 81, 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. King, G.M. and Schnell S. (1994) Ammonium and nitrite inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylobacter. albus BG8 and Methylosinus trichosporum OB3b at low methane concentrations, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 3508–2513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kishida, Y (1996) Integrated farming system of crossbred duck meat-rice production in paddy fields utilizing Azolla, in H. Hayakawa, M. Sasaki and K. Kimura (eds.), Integrated Systems of Animal Production in the Asian Region, Japanese Society of Zootechnical Science and Food and Agriculture Organization, pp.93–101.Google Scholar
  47. Kishida, Y. and Okazaki, A. (1999) Integrated farming system of Azolla-Aigamo duck meat-rice production in paddy fields. 3. Seasonal nutritive value of aquatic fern Azolla, Research Association of Sôgô-Nôgaku 46, 6–10. (In Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  48. Kishida, Y. and Utsumiya, N. (1998a) Integrated farming system of Azolla-Aigamo duck meat-rice production in paddy fields. 1. Effects of aquatic fern Azolla on growth of Aigamo duck and rice yield, Research. Association of Sôgô-Nôgaku 46, 19–23. (In Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  49. Kishida, Y. and Utsumiya N.(1998b) Integrated farming system of Azolla-Aigamo duck meat-rice production in paddy fields. 2. Effects of aquatic fern Azolla on behavioral characteristics of Aigamo duck, Research. Association of Sôgô-Nôgaku 46, 30–35. (In Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  50. Kitoh, S., Shiomi, N. and Uheda, E. (1993) The growth and nitrogen fixation of Azolla filiculoides Lam. in polluted water, Aquatic Botany 46, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kröck, T., Alkämper, J. and Watanabe, I. (1988) Effect of an Azolla cover on the conditions in floodwater, Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 161, 185–189.Google Scholar
  52. Ladha, J.K., Dawe, D., Ventura, T.S., Singh, U., Ventura, W. and Watanabe, I. (2000) Long-term effects of urea and green manure on rice yields and nitrogen balance, Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 1993–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lejeune, A., Cagauan, A. and Van Hove, C. (1999) Azolla research and development: recent trends and priorities, Symbiosis 27, 333–351.Google Scholar
  54. Lejeune, A., Peng, J.L., Le Boulengé, E., Larondelle, Y. and Van Hove, C. (2000) Carotene content of Azolla and its variations during drying and storage treatments, Animal Feed Science and Technology 84, 295–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lé Mer, J. and Roger, P. (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: A review, European Journal of Soil Biology 37, 25–50.Google Scholar
  56. Léonard, V., Breyne, C., Micha, J.C. and Larondelle, Y. (1998) Digestibility and transit time of Azolla. filiculoides Lamarck in Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner), Aquaculture Research 29, 159–165.Google Scholar
  57. Liu, R.Q., Ou, X.M., Xie, L.W., Xiao, S.Y., Xia, H.A., Huang, Y.B., Wen, H.B., Chen, Y.G. and Huang, D.F. (2000) Technique and application of the Azolla-fish system in row planted rice fields, Soils and Fertilizers 1, 38–41. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  58. Liu, X., Takayama, K., Yamashita, K., Nakanishi, Y., Manda, M. and Inanaga, J. (1998) Cultivation condition and nutritive value of Azolla as feed resource, Grassland Science 44, 266–271. (In Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  59. Liu, Y., Fan, T. and Tang, X. (2000) Cultivation techniques of Azolla with high yield and protein, Agricultural Research in the Arids Areas 18, 109–112. (In Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  60. Liu Z.Z. (1979) Use of Azolla in rice production in China, in I. Watanabe (ed.), Nitrogen and Rice, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp. 375–394.Google Scholar
  61. Liu, Z.Z. (1987) Reevaluation of Azolla utilization in agricultural production, in Azolla Utilization, Proceedings of the Workshop on Azolla Use, 31 March–5 Apr 1985, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp. 67–76.Google Scholar
  62. Lumpkin, T.A. and Plucknett, D.L. (1982) Azolla as a green manure: use and management in crop. production, Series N°I5, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
  63. Ly, J. and Preston, T.R. (2001) In vitro estimates of nitrogen digestibility for pigs and water-soluble nitrogen are correlated in tropical forage feeds, Livestock Research for Rural Development 13, 1–6.Google Scholar
  64. Maejima, K., Kitoh, S., Uheda, E. and Shiomi, N. (2001) Response of 19 Azolla strains to a high concentration of ammonium ions, Plant and Soil 234, 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mandal, B., Bhattacharya, K. and Mete, P.K. (1997) Effects of Sesbania rostrata and Azolla microphylla incorporation on transformation of applied zinc and copper in lateritic rice soils with different flooding regimes, Biology and Fertility of Soils 24, 394–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mandal, B., Vlek, P.L.G. and Mandal, L.N. (1999) Beneficial effects of blue-green algae and Azolla, excluding supplying nitrogen, on wetland rice fields: a review, Biology and Fertility of Soils 28, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Marsh, B.H., Corbin, J.L. and Peters G.A. (1998) Changes in soluble amino acid and polyamine composition associated with increasing plant density and the onset of sporulation in Azolla, Symbiosis 24, 315–326.Google Scholar
  68. Nguyen, C.T. (1930) L’Azolle cultivée comme engrais vert, Bulletin Econonomique de l’Indochine 33, 335–350.Google Scholar
  69. Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A. (1990) Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis: use in agriculture, in A.N. Rai (ed.), Handbook of. Symbiotic Cyanobacteria, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.119–136.Google Scholar
  70. Noraho, N. and Gaur, J.P.(1996) Cadmium adsorption and intracellular uptake by two macrophytes, Azolla. pinnata and Spirodela polyrhiza. Archives für Hydrobiologie 136, 135–144.Google Scholar
  71. Pilon-Smits, E.A.H., De Souza, M.P., Hong, G., Amini, A., Bravo, R.C., Payabyab, S.T. and Terry, N. (1999), Wetlands and aquatic processes: selenium volatilization and accumulation by twenty aquatic plant species, Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 1011–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Plessner, O.E., Chen, Y., Shenker, M. and Tel-Or, E. (1998) Iron-enriched Azolla as a slow-release biofertilizer for cucumber plants grown in a hydroponic system, Journal of Plant Nutrition 21, 2357–2367.Google Scholar
  73. Powel, G.M., Nimmo, D.W.R., Flickinger, S.A. and Brinkman, S.F. (1998) Use of Azolla to assess toxicity and accumulation of metals from artificial and natural sediments containing cadmium, copper, and zinc, in E.E. Little, A.J. DeLonay and B.M. Greenberg (eds), Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Seventh Volume, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 184–199.Google Scholar
  74. Pullen, E.M. and Pullen, M.D. (1998) Control of aquatic vegetation with surfactant and terpene oil, Patent classifications: Main IPC: A01N025-30, U.S.: 504150000, Secondary IPC: A01N031-04, A01N061-02, 4 p.Google Scholar
  75. Rai, A.N., Borthakur, M. and Paul, D. (1996) Symbiotic Cyanobacteria: biotechnological applications, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 55, 742–752.Google Scholar
  76. Rai, V. and Rai, A.K. (1999) Growth behaviour of Azolla pinnata at various salinity levels and induction of high salt tolerance, Plant and Soil 206, 79–84.Google Scholar
  77. Rajini, V.S. and Subramanian, G. (1997) The effect of immobilization on carbon flow through Anabaena. variabilis and Anabaena azollae, Photosynthetica 34, 137–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Redding, T., Todd, S. and Midlen, A. (1997) The treatment of aquaculture wastewaters: a botanical approach, Journal of Environmental Management 50, 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roger P.A. (1993) Les biofertilisants fixateurs d’azote en riziculture: potentialités, facteurs limitants et perspectives d’utilisation, in M. Raunet (ed.), Bas-fonds et riziculture, Cirad, Montpellier, France, pp. 327–348.Google Scholar
  80. Sajwan, K.S. and Ornes, W.H. (1997) Potential of mosquito fern (Azolla caroliniana willd.) plants as a biofilter for cadmium removal from wastewater, in D.W. Tedder and F.G. Pohland (eds), Emerging Technologies in Hazardous Waste Management, Plenum, New york, pp. 167–177.Google Scholar
  81. Sakamoto, H. (1996) Duck-paddy together growing way as a developed system in organic farming, Geographical Journal of Nara University 2, 1–12. (In Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  82. Sanyahumbi, D., Duncan, J.R., Zhao, M, and Van Hille, R. (1998) Removal of lead from solution by the nonviable biomass of the water fern Azolla filiculoides. Biotechnology Letters 20, 745–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sela, M., Garty, J. and Tel-Or, E. (1989) The accumulation and the effect of heavy metals on the water fern Azolla filiculoides, New Phytologist 112, 7–12.Google Scholar
  84. Shepelev, Y.Y., Thyoc, N.H., Kordyum, V.A., Meleshko, G.I., Galkina, T.B. and Manko, V.G. (1983) Study of effect of weightlessness on the water fern, Azolla, USSR Report: Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine 16, 94–96.Google Scholar
  85. Shepelev, Y.Y., Thyok, N., Meleshko, G.I., Antonyan, A.A., Galkina, T.B. and Naydina V.P. (1984), Physiological and ecological characteristics of the water fern, Azolla pinnata, and prospects of using it in biological life-support system for man, USSR Report: Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine 17, 96–101.Google Scholar
  86. Shi, D.J. and Hall, D.O. (1988a) The Azolla-Anabaena association: historical perspective, symbiosis and energy metabolism, Botanical Review 54, 353–386.Google Scholar
  87. Shi, D.J. and Hall, D.O. (1988b) Azolla and immobilized cyanobacteria (blue-green algae): from traditional agriculture to biotechnology, Plants Today 1, 5–12.Google Scholar
  88. Shiomi, N. and Kitoh, S. (1987) Nutrient absorption capacity of Azolla from waste water and use of Azolla plant as biomass, Journal of Plant Nutrition 10, 1663–1670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shiomi, N. and Kitoh, S. (1996) The growth, nitrogen fixation and nutrient removal capacity of Azolla in polluted water, Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 2, 175–179.Google Scholar
  90. Shiomi, N. and Kitoh S. (2001) Culture of Azolla in a pond, nutrient composition, and use as fish feed, Soil. Science and Plant Nutrition 47, 27–34.Google Scholar
  91. Sinha, R.P., Vaishampayan, A. and Hader, D.P. (1998) Plant-cyanobacterial symbiotic somaclones as a potential bionitrogen-fertilizer for paddy agriculture: biotechnological approaches, Microbiological Research 153, 297–307.Google Scholar
  92. Vlek, P.L.G., Fugger, W. And Biker, U. (1992) The fate of fertilizer N under Azolla in wetland rice, in Proc. 2nd ESA Meeting, August 1992, Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, J.B. (1910) Azolla vs. mosquitoes, Entomological News 21, 437–440.Google Scholar
  94. Tang, L.F., Huang, Y.B., Weng, B.Q., Liu, Z.Z. and Liu, X.S. (2000) Sustainable agricultural model of high output, low input and less pollution in paddy field, Scientia Agricultura Sinica 33, 60–66. (In Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  95. Tel-Or, E., Sela, M. and Ravid, S. (1997) Biofiltration of heavy metals by the aquatic fern Azolla, in D. Rosen, E. Tel-Or, Y. Hadar and Y. Chen (eds), Modern Agriculture and the Environment, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Great Britain, pp. 431–442.Google Scholar
  96. Uma, D. and Kannaiyan, S. (1996) Effect of the systemic fungicide, bavistin on the nitrogen status of cyanobacteria under immobilized state in polyurethane foam, South African Journal of Botany 62, 127–132.Google Scholar
  97. Vaishampayan, A., Reddy, Y.R., Singh, B.D. and Singh, R.M. (1992) Reduced phosphorus requirement of a mutant Azolla-Anabaena symbiotic N2 fixing complex, Journal of Experimental Botany 43, 851–856.Google Scholar
  98. Vaishampayan, A., Dey, T., Sinha, R.P. and Häder, D.-P. (1998) Successful rice cultivation with genetically manipulated thermo-tolerant Azolla as a bio-N fertilizer, Acta Hydrobiologica 40, 207–213.Google Scholar
  99. Van Coppenolle, B., McCouch, S.R., Watanabe, I., Huang, N. and Van Hove, C. (1995) Genetic diversity and phylogeny analysis of Anabaena azollae based on RFLPs detected in Azolla-Anabaena azollae DNA complexes using nif gene probes, Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91, 589–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Hove C. (1989) Azolla and its multiple uses with emphasis on Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Hove, C. and Lejeune, A. (1996) Does Azolla have any future in agriculture? in M. Rahman (ed.), Biological Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Rice Production, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, pp. 83–94.Google Scholar
  102. Vermaat, J.E. and Hanif, M.K. (1998) Performance of common duckweed species (Lemnaceae) and the waterfern Azolla filiculoides on different types of waste water, Water Research 32, 2569–2576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vlek, P.L.G. and Craswell E.T. (1981) Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils, Fertilizer Research, 2, 227–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wagner, G.M. (1997) Azolla: a review of its biology and utilization, Botanical Review 63, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Walterbeek, H.Th. and van der Meer, A.J.G.M. (1996) A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of γ-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 33, 237–254.Google Scholar
  106. Wilson, G. and Al-Hamdani, S. (1997) Effects of chromium (VI) and humic substances on selected physiological responses of Azolla caroliniana, American Fern Journal 87, 17–27.Google Scholar
  107. Ying, Z., Boeckx, P., Chen, G.X. and Van Cleemput, O. (2000) Influence of Azolla on CH 4 emission from rice fields, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 58, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhao, M. and Duncan, J.R. (1997a) Batch removal of sexivalent chromium by Azolla filiculoides, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 26, 179–182.Google Scholar
  109. Zhao, M. and Duncan, J.R. (1997b) Column sorption and desorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution and electroplating effluent using Azolla filiculoides, Ressource and Environmental Biotechnology 2, 51–64.Google Scholar
  110. Zhao, M. and Duncan, J.R. (1998a) Removal and recovery of nickel from aqueous solution and electroplating rinse effluent using Azolla filiculoides. Process Biochemistry 33, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhao, M. and Duncan, J.R. (1998b) Bed depth service time analysis on column removal of ZN 2+ using Azolla filiculoides. Biotechnology Letters 20, 37–39.Google Scholar
  112. Zhao, M., Duncan, J.R. and Sanyahumbi, D. (1999a) Competitive sorption of multiple heavy metals by Azolla filiculoides. Resource in Environment and Biotechnology 2, 173–183.Google Scholar
  113. Zhao, M, Duncan, J.R. and Van Hille, R.P. (1999b) Removal and recovery of zinc from solution and electroplating effluent using Azolla filiculoides, Water Research 33, 1516–1522.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles van Hove
    • 1
  • André Lejeune
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Biology, Faculty of SciencesCatholic University of LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations