Advertisement

Guidelines for Time Use Data Collection and Analysis

  • Andrew S. Harvey

Conclusions

Time diaries provide the opportunity to carry out a wide range of studies, explore a wide variety of issues, and present temporal and activity information in many different ways. This chapter has only touched on some of the many interesting ways the time use data can be analyzed and presented. Above all, in the collection and storing of time-diary data, it is important to preserve as far as possible the precise detail attendant with the activity as recorded in a diary. While the aggregate times and participation rates are interesting and useful, the real value of time-diary studies is in their ability to provide insight into the very fine grain of human activity and to link objective and subjective states. There is no area of human behavior for which time use studies cannot provide valuable and interesting data. As such, they provide any researcher a complex and fascinating opportunity and challenge.

Keywords

Social Contact Activity Setting Time Budget Diary Data Social Indicator Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aas, D. (1982). Designs for large scale, time-use studies of the 24-hour day. In A. Staikov (Ed.), It’s about time (pp. 17–53). Sofia: Bulgarian Sociological Association and Institute of Sociology.Google Scholar
  2. Barker, R. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blânke, K. (1994, June 15–18). The “with whom” coding. Paper presented at the 15th reunion of the International Association for Tie Use Research, (pp. 211–222). Amsterdam, Holland. NIMMO.Google Scholar
  4. Clark, S. M., Elliott, D. H., & Harvey, A. S. (1982). Hypercodes and composite variables: Simple techniques for the reduction and analysis of time budget data. In It’s about time 7th Reunion of Research Group on Time Budgets and Social Activities. 1980, 66–92.Google Scholar
  5. Clark, S. M., Harvey, A. S., & Shaw, S. M. (1990). Time-use and leisure: Subjective and objective aspects. Social Indicators Research, 23, 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Converse, P. E. (1972). Country differences time-use. In A. Szalai (Ed.), The use of time: Daily activities of urban and suburban population in twelve countries (pp. 145–147). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  7. Cosper, R., Elliott, D., & Harvey, A. S. (1986, August). Drinking context: Analysis of Canadian time budget codes. Paper presented at International Medical Advisory Conference, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Cullen, I. (1972, May). Space, time and the disruption of behaviour in cities. Paper presented at Conference Research Group on Tie Budgets and Social Activities of the European Coordination Centre for Research and Documentation in the Social Sciences, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  9. Cullen, I., Godson, V., & Major, S. (1972). The structure of activity patterns. In A. Wilson (Ed.), Patterns and processes in urban and regional systems (pp. 281–295). Thematic Issue of Papers in Regional Science 3. London.Google Scholar
  10. Elliott, D., & Cosper, R. (1982). The time budget study of tavern-going: A validation. Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 43(3), 397–403.Google Scholar
  11. Elliott, D., Harvey, A. S., & Procos, D. (1976). An overview of the Halifax time-budget study. Society and Leisure, 3, 145–159.Google Scholar
  12. EUROSTAT. (1996). Pilot survey on time-use: Guidelines on the survey design (revised final version, May). Luxembourg: Statistical Office of the European Community.Google Scholar
  13. Fraire, M. (1993). Coding approaches, tables and graphs of time-budget data towards identifying temporal sequences of daily events. In Time-use methodology: Towards consensus (pp. 129–140). Rome: Instituto Nazionale di Statistics.Google Scholar
  14. Frederick, J. A. (1995). As time goes by... time-use of Canadians. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  15. Gershuny, J. (1991). International comparison of time budget surveys: Methods and opportunities. In The changing use of time: Report from an international workshop (pp. 11–44). Dublin, Ireland: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.Google Scholar
  16. Hamermesh, D. S. (1995). Who works when? Evidence from the U.S. and Germany. Working Paper 5208. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  17. Harvey, A. S. (1982). Role and context: Shapers of behaviour. Studies of Broadcasting, 18, 69–92.Google Scholar
  18. Harvey, A. S. (1983, March). Time-use studies for national and transnational leisure analysis. Paper prepared for the Calgary Sociology Symposium, The Challenge of Leisure and Its Diversity in a Pluralistic Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  19. Harvey, A. S. (1984). Analysis and description of time budget data. In A. S. Harvey, A. Szalai, D. H. Elliott, P. H. Stone, & S. M. Clark (Eds.), Time budget research: An ISSC workbook in comparative analysis (pp. 62–76). Frankfurt & New York: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  20. Harvey, A. S. (1993a). Objective and subjective approaches to the measurement of work. In Time-use methodology: Towards consensus (pp. 189–203). Rome: Instituto Nazionale Statistical (INSTAT).Google Scholar
  21. Harvey, A.S. (1993b). Guidelines for time-use collection. Social Indicators Research, 30, 197–228.Google Scholar
  22. Harvey, A. S. (1996a). The measurement of household time allocation: Data needs, analytical approaches, and standardization. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 17, 261–280.Google Scholar
  23. Harvey, A. S. (1996b, June 13–15). Paid work around the clock: A cross-national/cross-temporal perspective. Paper prepared for the Canadian Employment Research Forum Conference “Changes in Working Time in Canada and the United States.” Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  24. Harvey, A. S., & Pas, E. I. (1996). Time-use research and travel demand analysis and modelling. In P. Stopher & M. Lee-Gosselin, (Eds.), Understanding travel behaviour in an era of change (pp. 315–338). New York Elsevier.Google Scholar
  25. Harvey, A. S., Elliott, D. H., & Stone, P. J. (1977). Review of analytic and descriptive methods of time-use data: A working paper. Halifax: Institute of Public Affairs, Dalhousie University.Google Scholar
  26. Harvey, A. S., & Grønmo, S. (1984, August). Social contact and use of time: Canada and Norway. Paper presented at the International Research Group on Time Budgets and Social Activities, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  27. Harvey, A. S., & MacDonald W. S. (1976). Time diaries and time data for extension of economic accounts. Social Indicators Research, 3, 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harvey, A. S., & Niemi, I. (1994). An international standard classification (ISAC): Toward a framework, relevant issues. Paper presented at the 15th Reunion of the International Association for Time-use Research, Amsterdam, Holland.Google Scholar
  29. Harvey, A. S., & Procos, D. (1974). Suburb and satellite contrasted: An exploration of activity patterns and urban form. Report 25, presented to the 3rd Advanced Studies Institute in Regional Science, Karlsruhe, Germany.Google Scholar
  30. Hill, M. S. (1985). Patterns of time-use. In F. T. Juster & F P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods and well-being (pp. 133–176). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  31. INSTRAW. (1995). Measurement and valuation of unpaid contribution: Accounting through time and output. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Institute for Research and Training for the Advancement of Women.Google Scholar
  32. Juster, F. T. (1985a). Preferences for work and leisure. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 333–351). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  33. Juster, F.T. (1985b). The validity and quality of time-use estimates obtained from recall diaries. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 333–351). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  34. Kalton, G. (1985). Sample design issues in time diary studies. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 93–112). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  35. Keller, J., Kempter, D., Tier, S.G., & Young-Demarco, L. (Eds.). (1982, May 20–21). Proceedings of the International Time-Use Workshop. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  36. Kinsley, B. L., & O’Donnell, T. (1983). Marking time: Explorations in time-use (Vol. 1). Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada.Google Scholar
  37. Klevmarken, N.A. (1982). Household market and non-market activities (Hus): A pilot study. Goteborg, Sweden: University of Goteborg, Department of Statistics.Google Scholar
  38. Knulst, W., & Schoonderwoerd, L. (1983). Waar blijft de tijd. Onderzook naar de tijdobesteding van Netherlands. Rijswijk Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, Staatsuitgeverij, s’-Gravenhage.Google Scholar
  39. Lingsom, S. (1979). Advantages and disadvantages of alternative time diary: A working paper. Oslo, Norway: Central Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  40. Lyberg, I. (1989, March 19–22). Sampling, nonresponse and measurement issues in the 1984/85 Swedish time budget survey. Paper prepared for US Bureau of the Census 5th Annual Research Conference (ARC V), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. McCall, M. A., Pentland, W., Harvey, A. S., Walker, J., & Comis, J. (1993). The relationship between time-use patterns, health, and well-being in persons with longterm spinal cord injury. Kingston, Ontario: Queens University School of Occupational Therapy, funded by NHRDP.Google Scholar
  42. Michelson, W. (1986). The empirical merger of objective and subjective aspects of daily life. In D. Aas, A. S. Harvey, E. Wnuk-Lipinski, & I. Niemi (Eds.), Time-use studies: Dimensions and applications (pp. 176–188). Helsinki: Central Statistical Office of Finland.Google Scholar
  43. Michelson, W. (1988). Divergent convergence: The daily routines of employed spouses as a public affairs agenda. In C. Andrew & M. Milroy (Eds.), Life spaces: Gender, household, and employment (pp. 81–101). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  44. Michelson, W. (1991). Everyday life in contextual perspective. In I. Altman & A. Churchman (Eds.) Women and environment (pp. 17–42). New York Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  45. Michelson, W. (1996, September 2–4). Sampling through episodal data: Telecommuting. Paper presented at the International Association for Time Use Research Conference, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  46. Moss, M. & Lawton, C. P. (1982). Tie budgets of older people: A window on four lifestyles. Journal of Gerontology, 37(1), 115–123.Google Scholar
  47. Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK). (1995). Studies of broadcasting: An international annual of broadcast science. Tokyo: Theoretical Research Center, NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Niemi, I. (1983). The 1979 time-use study method. Helsinki: Central Statistical Office of Finland.Google Scholar
  49. Niemi, I., Pääkkönen, H., Rajaniemi, V., Laaksonen, S., & Lauri, J. (1991). Vuotuinen ajankäyttö: Ajankäyttötukimuksen 1987–88 tauluko. (Annual Time Use Study). Helsinki: Central Statistical Office of Finland.Google Scholar
  50. Pas, E. I. (1986). Multiday samples, parameter estimation precision, and data collection costs for least squares regression trip-generation models. Environment and Planning A, 10, 73–87.Google Scholar
  51. Robinson, J. P. (1977). How Americans use time: A sociul-psychological analysis of everyday behaviour. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  52. Robinson, J. P. (1983). Environmental differences in how Americans use time: The case for subjective and objective indicators. Journal of Community Psychology, 11(2), 171–181.Google Scholar
  53. Robinson, J. P. (1984a). Free time in Western countries: An analysis of time-use data collection in the period 1971–1981 in eleven Western countries. College Park: University of Maryland Survey Research Center.Google Scholar
  54. Robinson, J. P. (1984b). Work, free-time, and the quality of life. In M. D. Lee & R. N. Kanungo (Eds.), Management of work and personal life (pp. 133–142). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  55. Robinson, J. P. (1985). The validity and reliability of diaries versus alternative time use measures. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 33–62). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  56. Robinson, J. P., & Godby, G. (1993). The great American slowdown. American Demographics, 8(6), 42.Google Scholar
  57. Robinson, J. P., & Switzer, 0. (1996). Daily exposure to environmental tobacco. St. Mary’s Journal of Public Health, 86, 1303–1305.Google Scholar
  58. Rydenstam, K. (1994, July 18–24). Who takes care of household work after work? Paper presented at the International Association of International Research, Bielefeld, Germany.Google Scholar
  59. Sanik, M. M. (1983). Repeated measure design: A time-use application, Home Economics Journal, 12, 122–126.Google Scholar
  60. Sanik, M. M., & Stafford, K. (1983). Final report: Valuation of household production as exemplified by good production. Family Economics Research Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  61. Shapcott, M., & Steadman, P. (1978). Rhythms of urban society. In T. Carlstein & D. Parkes (Eds.), Human activity and time geography (pp. 49–74). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Shaw, S. M. (1986). Leisure, recreation or free time? Measuring time usage. Journal of Leisure Research, 18, 177–189.Google Scholar
  63. Statistics Canada. (1995). The 1992 General Social Survey: Cycle 7. Time-use. Ottawa: Author.Google Scholar
  64. Stone, P. J. (1972a). Childcare in twelve countries. In A. Szalai (Ed.), The use of time: Daily activities of urban and suburban population in twelve countries (pp. 249–264). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  65. Stone, P. J. (1972b). Analysis of time-budget data. In A. Szalai (Ed.), The use of time: Daily activities of urban and suburban population in twelve countries (pp. 249–264). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  66. Stone, P. J. (1984). Event analysis. In A. S. Harvey, A. Szalai, D. H. Elliott, P. H. Stone, & S. M. Clark (Eds.), Time budget research: An ISSC workshop in comparative analysis (pp. 136–156). Frankfurt & New York Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  67. Szalai, A. (1972). The use of time: Daily activities of urban and suburban populations in twelve countries. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  68. Wilson, C. (1998). Activity pattern analysis using sequence alignment methods. Environment and Planning A, 30,1017–1038.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew S. Harvey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsSt. Mary’s UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations