ATM Multicast Routing

  • Gill Waters
  • John Crawford
Part of the The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 557)


Several multicast routing heuristics have been proposed to support multimedia services, both interactive and distribution, in high speed networks such as B-ISDN/ATM. Since such services may have large numbers of members and have real-time constraints, the objective of the heuristics is to minimise the multicast tree cost while maintaining a bound on delay. They should also be fast to compute and may need to be suitable for dynamic groups.

We present an introduction to the problem and some key heuristic solutions and compare their performance. We show that the specific efficiency of a heuristic solution depends on the topology of both the network and the multicast, and that it is difficult to predict.

Because of this unpredicatability, we propose the integration of two heuristics with Dijkstra’s shortest path tree algorithm to produce a hybrid that consistently generates efficient multicast solutions for all possible multicast groups in any network. The hybrid shows good performance over a wide range of networks, (both flat and hierarchical) and multicast groups, within differing delay bounds. We also discuss how heuristics can be deployed within the PNNI framework and briefly examine other issues related to multicast routing and PNNI.


routing multicast Steiner tree Quality of Service delay constrained tree algorithms heuristics PNNI 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barakat, S. and Rougier, J. (1998). Optimization of Hierarchical Multicast Trees in ATM Networks. In Sixth IFIP Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM Networks, pages 44/1–44/10.Google Scholar
  2. Bertsekas, D. and Gallager, R. (1987). Data Networks. Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Crawford, J. (1994). Multicast Routing: Evaluation of a New Heuristic. Master’s thesis, University of Kent at Canterbury.Google Scholar
  4. Crawford, J. and Waters, A. (1997). Low Cost Quality of Service Multicast Routing in High Speed Networks. Technical Report 13-97, University of Kent at Canterbury.Google Scholar
  5. Doar, J. (1993). Multicast in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode Environment. Technical Report No. 298, University of Cambridge Computing Laboratory.Google Scholar
  6. Floyd, R. (1962). Algorithm 97: Shortest path. Communications of the ACM, 5(6):345.Google Scholar
  7. Gibbons, A. (1989). Algorithmic Graph Theory. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Gilbert, E. and Pollack, H. (1968). Steiner Minimal Trees. S1AM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 16.Google Scholar
  9. Kadirire, J. (1994). Minimising packet copies in multicast routing by exploiting geographic spread. Computer Communications Review, 24(3):47–62.Google Scholar
  10. Koandur, S. Doar, M. and Mosse, D. (1998). The Domainserver Hierarchy for Multicast Routing in ATM Netwrorks. In Sixth IFIP Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM Networks, pages 48/1–48/6.Google Scholar
  11. Kompella, V, P. (1993). Multicast Routing Algorithms for Multimedia Traffic. PhD thesis, University of California, San Diego, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Kompella, V., Pasquale, J., and Polyzos, G. (1993). Multicast Routing for Multimedia Communications. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 1(3):286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moy, J. (1994). Multicast Extensions to OSPF. RFC 1584.Google Scholar
  14. Rougier, J. and Kofman, D. (1998). Optimization of Hierarchical Routing Protocols. In Sixth IFIP Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM Networks, pages 43/1–43/10.Google Scholar
  15. Salama, H., Reeves, D., Vinitos, I., and Sheu, T.-L. (1995). Evaluation of Multicast Routing Algorithms for Real-Time Communication on High-Speed Networks. In Proceedings of the 6th IFIP Conference on High-Performance Networks (HPN’95).Google Scholar
  16. Salama, H., Reeves, D., and Vinitos, Y. (1997), Evaluation of multicast routing alogorithms for real-time communication on high-speed networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areaa in Communications, 15(3):332–345.Google Scholar
  17. Sun, Q. and Langendoerfer, H. (1995). Efficient Multicast Routing for Delay-Sensitive Applications. In Second Internatiopnal Workshop on Protocols for Multimedia Systems (PROMS’95), pages 452–458.Google Scholar
  18. The ATM Forum Technical Committee (1996). Private Network-Network Interface Soecification, Version 1.0. The ATM Forum.Google Scholar
  19. Tode, H. Yamauchi, H. and Ikeda, H. (1998). Copy node allocation algorithms for multicast routing in large scale ATM networks. In Sixth IFIP Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM Networks, pages 47/1–47/10.Google Scholar
  20. Waters, A. (1994). A New Heuristic for ATM Multicast Routing. In 2nd IFIP Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM Networks, pages 8/1–8/9.Google Scholar
  21. Waters, A. and Crawford, J. (1996). Low-cost ATM Multimedia Routing with Constrained Delays. In Multimedia Telecommunications and Applications (3rd COST 237 Workshop, Barcelona, Spain), pages 23–40. Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Waxman, B. (1988). Routing of Multipoint Connections. IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, 6(9): 1617–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Widyono, R. (1994). The Design and Evaluation of Routing Algorithms for Real-time Channels. Tr-94-024, University of California at Berkeley and International Computer Science Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Zhu, Q., Parsa, M., and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. (1995). A Source-Based Algorithm for Near-Optimum Delay-Constrained Multicasting. In Proceedings of INFOCOM, pages 377–385.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gill Waters
    • 1
  • John Crawford
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Kent at CanterburyCanterburyEngland

Personalised recommendations