Transcriptional Organisation and Regulation of E. coli Group 2 Capsule Expression

  • Ian S. Roberts
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 485)


Therefore as a consequence of our studies to date a picture is beginning to emerge of a complex integrated regulatory system involving a number of interacting regulatory proteins and over-arching regulatory control circuits (Fig. 1). The key questions that we need to address are how is transcription from the region 1 and 3 promoters co-ordinated? What is the role of global regulators such as H-NS in repressing transcription at 20ºC? How is capsule expression regulated in vivo and is capsule expression co-ordinated with the expression of other cell surface structures involved in disease?Answering these questions represents a fascinating biological problem.


Polysialic Acid Integration Host Factor Transcriptional Organisation Capsule Gene Capsule Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Whitfield, C., and Valvano, M., 1993, Biosynthesis and expression of cell surface polysaccharides in gram-negative bacteria. Adv. Micro Phyiol. 35: 135–246.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moxon, E.R., and Kroll, J.S., 1990, The role of bacterial polysaccharide capsules as virulence factors. Curr Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150 65–86.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cross, AS., 1990, The biologic significance of bacterial encapsulation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150: 87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Michalek, M., Mold, C., and Bremer, E., 1988, Inhibition of the alternative pathway of human complement by structural analogues ofsialic acid. J. Immunol. 140 1588–1599.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Finne, J., 1982, Occurrence of unique polysialosyl carbohydrate units in glycoproteins of developing brain. J. Biol. Chem 257: 11966–11970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lindahl, U., Lidholt, Y., Spillmann, D., and Kjellen, L., 1994, More to “heparin” that anticoagulation. Thrombin Res. 75: 1–32.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lifely, M.R., Moreno, C., Lindon, J.C., 1987, Anintegrated molecular and immunological approach towards a meningococcal group B vaccine. Vaccine 5: 11–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Costerton, J.W., Chjeng, K-J, Geesey, G.G., Ladd, T.I., Nickel, J.C., Dasgupta, M., and Marrie T., 1987, Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 41: 435–64.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lam, J., Cham, R., Lam, K., and Costeron, J.W., 1980, Production of mucoid microcolonies by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within infected lungs in cystic fibrosis. Infect. Immunol. 28: 546–556.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jann, K., and Jann, B., 1992, Capsules of Escherichia coli expression and biological significance. Can J. Microbiol. 38: 705–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts, I.S., 1995, Bacterial polysaccharides in sickness and in health. Microbiology 141: 2023–2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roberts I.S., 1996, The biochemistry and genetics of capsular polysaccharide production in bacteria. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 50: 285–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Whitfield, C., and Roberts, I.S., 1999, Structure, assembly and regulation of expression of capsules in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 1307–1320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gransden, W.R., Eykyn, S.J., Phillips, I., and Rowe, B., 1990, Bactermia due to Escherichia coli: a study of 861 episodes. J. Infect. Dis. 12: 1008–1018.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mekalanos, J., 1992, Environmental signals controlling expression of virulence determinants in bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pazzani, C., Rosenow, C., Boulnois, G.J., Jann, K., and Roberts, I.S., 1993, Molecular analysis of region 1 of the Escherichia coli K1. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 20149–20158.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simpson, D., Hammarton, T., and Roberts, I.S., 1993, Transcriptional organisation and regulation of expression of region 1 of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster. J. Bacteriol. 178: 6466–6474.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stevens, M.P., Clarke, B.R., and Roberts, I.S., 1997, Regulation of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster by transcription anitermination. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 1001–1012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petit, C., Rigg, G.P., Pazzani, C., Smith, A., Sieberth, V., Stevens, M., Boulnois, G.J., Jann, K., and Roberts, I.S., 1995, Region 2 of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide. Mol. Microbiol. 17: 611–620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bliss, J.M., and Silver, R.P., 1996, Coating the surface: a model for expression of capsular polysialic acid in Escherichia coli K1. Mol. Microbiol. 21: 221–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rigg, G.P., Barrett, B., and Roberts, I.S., 1998, The localisation of KpsC, S and T and Kfia, C and D proteins involved in the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide: evidence for a membrane-bound complex. Microbiology 144: 2905–2914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosenow, C., Roberts, I.S., and Jann, K., 1995, Isolation from recombinant Escherichia coli and characterisation of CMP-Kdo synthetase, involved in the expression of the capsular K5 polysaccharide (K-CKS). FEMS Microbiol. Lett 125: 159–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Griffiths, G., Cook, N. J., Gottfridson, E., Lind, T., Lidholt, K., and Roberts, I.S., 1998, Characterisation of the glycosyltransferase enzyme from the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster and identification and characterisation of the glucuronyl active site. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 11752–11757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sieberth, V., Rigg, G., Roberts, I.S., and Jann, K., 1995, Expression and characterisation of UDPGlc dehydrogenase (KfiD), which is encoded in the type-specific region 2 of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule genes. J. Bacteriol. 177: 4562–4565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stevens, M., 1995, PhD Thesis Regulation of Escherichia coli K5 capsule production. University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stevens, M., Hanfling, P., Jann, B., Jann, K., and Roberts, I.S., 1994, Regulation of Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide expression: evidence for involvement of RfaH in the expression of group II capsules. FEMS Microbiol. Letts. 124: 93–98.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goosen, N., and van de Putte, P., 1995, The regulation of transcription initiation by integration host factor. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bailey, M.J., Hughes, C., and Koronakis, V., 1997, RfaH and the ops element, components of a novel system controlling bacterial transcription elongation. Mol. Microbiol. 26: 845–851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian S. Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations