Viral Pneumonia Due to Influenza and Parainfluenza Viruses and Adenoviruses

  • Thomas R. Cate


Influenza Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Influenza Virus Infection Adenovirus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abzug, M. J., Beam, A. C., Gyorkos, E. A., & Levin, M. J. (1990). Viral pneumonia in the first month of life. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 9, 881–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrian, T., Schafer, G., Cooney, M. K., Fox, J. P., & Wigand, R. (1988). Persistent enteral infections with adenovirus types 1 and 2 in infants: no evidence of reinfection. Epidemiol. Infect., 101, 508–509.Google Scholar
  3. Aebi, C., Headrick, C. L., McCracken, G. H., & Lindsay, C. A. (1997). Intravenous ribavirin therapy in a neonate with disseminated adenovirus infection undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: pharmacokinetics and clearance by hemofiltration. J. Pediatr., 130, 612–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akizuki, S., Nasu, N., Setoguchi, M., Yoshida, S., Higuchi, Y., & Yamamoto, S. (1991). Parainfluenza virus pneumonitis in an adult. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 115, 824–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Apalsch, A. M., Green, M., Ledesma-Medina, J., Nour, B., & Wald, E. R. (1995). Parainfluenza and influenza virus infections in pediatric organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis., 20, 394–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arden, N. H., Patriarca, P. A., Fasano, M. B., Lui, K. J., Harmon, M. W., Kendal, A. P., & Rimland, D. (1988). The roles of vaccination and amantadine prophylaxis in controlling an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a nursing home. Arch. Intern. Med., 148, 865–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aschan, J., Ringden, O., Ljungman, P., Andersson, J., Lewensohn-Fuchs, I., & Forsgren, M. (1989). Influenza B in transplant patients. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 21, 349–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson, W. L., Arden, N. H., Patriarca, P. A., Leslie, N., Lui, K. J., & Gohd, R. (1986). Amantadine prophylaxis during an institutional outbreak of type A (H1NI) influenza. Arch. Intern. Med., 146, 1751–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atmar, R. L., Baxter, B. D., Dominguez, E. A., & Taber, L. H. (1996). Comparison of reverse transcription-PCR with tissue culture and other rapid diagnostic assays for detection of type A influenza virus. J. Clin. Microbiol., 34, 2604–2606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Atmar, R. L., Guy, E., Guntupalli, K. K., Zimmerman, J. L., Bandi, V. D., Baxter, B. D., & Greenberg, S. B. (1998). Respiratory tract viral infections in inner-city asthmatic adults. Arch. Intern. Med., 158, 2453–2459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajanowski, T, Wiegand, P., Cecchi, R., Pring-Akerblom, P., Adrian, T., Jorch, G., & Brinkmann, B. (1996). Detection and significance of adenoviruses in cases of sudden infant death. Virchows Arch., 428, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barker, W. H., & Mullooly, J. P. (1982). Pneumonia and influenza deaths during epidemics: implications for prevention. Arch. Intern. Med., 142, 85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartlett, J. G., & Mundy, L. M. (1995). Community-acquired pneumonia [see comments]. N. Engl. J. Med., 333, 1618–1624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baxter, B. D., Couch, R. B., Greenberg, S. B., & Kasel, J. A. (1977). Maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 6, 19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Belshe, R. B., Burk, B., Newman, F., Cerruti, R. L., & Sim, I. S. (1989). Resistance of influenza A virus to amantadine and rimantadine: results of one decade of surveillance. J. Infect. Dis., 159, 430–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Belshe, R. B., Mendelman, P. M., Treanor, J., King, J., Gruber, W. C., Piedra, P., Bernstein, D. I., Hayden, F. G., Kotloff, K., Zangwill, K., Lacuzio, D., & Wolff, M. (1998). The efficacy of live attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent, intranasal influenzavirus vaccine in children [see comments]. N. Engl. J. Med., 338, 1405–1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bisno, A. L., Griffin, J. P., Van Epps, K. A., Niell, H. B., & Rytel, M. W. (1971). Pneumonia and Hong Kong influenza: a prospective study of the 1968–1969 epidemic. Am. J. Med. Sci., 261, 251–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brinker, J. P., & Doern, G. V. (1992). A comparison of commercially available monoclonal antibodies for direct and indirect immunofluorescence culture confirmation and direct detection of parainfluenza viruses. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15, 669–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brocklebank, J. T., Court, S. D., McQuillin, J., & Gardner, P. S. (1972). Influenza-A infection in children. Lancet, 2, 497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brummitt, C. F., Cherrington, J. M., Katzenstein, D. A., Juni, B. A., Van Drunen, N., Edelman, C., Rhame, F. S., & Jordan, M. C. (1988). Nosocomial adenovirus infections: molecular epidemiology of an outbreak due to adenovirus 3a. J. Infect. Dis., 158, 423–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Calfee, D. P., & Hayden, F. G. (1998). New approaches to influenza chemotherapy. Neuraminidase inhibitors. Drugs, 56, 537–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassano, W. F. (1991). Intravenous ribavirin therapy for adenovirus cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant, 7, 247–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Caul, E. O., Waller, D. K., & Clarke, S. K. (1976). A comparison of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections among infants admitted to hospital with acute respiratory infections. J. Hyg. (London), 77, 383–392.Google Scholar
  24. Centers for Disease Control (1998a). Civilian outbreak of adenovirus acute respiratory disease—South Dakota, 1997. MMWR, 47, 567–570.Google Scholar
  25. Centers for Disease Control (1998b). Influenza A—Florida and Tennessee, July–August 1998, and virologic surveillance of influenza, May–August 1998. MMWR, 47, 756–759.Google Scholar
  26. Centers for Disease Control (2000). Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR, 49, 1–38.Google Scholar
  27. Chapman, R. S., Henderson, F. W., Clyde, W. A. J., Collier, A. M., & Denny, F. W. (1981). The epidemiology of tracheobronchitis in pediatric practice. Am. J. Epidemiol., 114, 786–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen, F. E., Liang, R. H., Lo, J. Y., Yuen, K. Y, Chan, T. K., & Peiris, M. (1997). Treatment of adenovirus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis with ganciclovir. Bone Marrow Transplant, 20, 97–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Claas, E. C., Osterhaus, A. D., van Beek, R., De Jong, J. C., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Senne, D. A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K. F., & Webster, R. G. (1998). Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus [see comments] [published erratum appears in Lancet 1998 Apr. 25; 351(9111), 1292]. Lancet, 351, 471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clover, R. D., Crawford, S., Glezen, W. P., Taber, L. H., Matson, C. C., & Couch, R. B. (1991). Comparison of heterotypic protection against influenza A/Taiwan/86 (HIN1) by attenuated and inactivated vaccines to A/Chile/83-like viruses. J. Infect. Dis., 163, 300–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Couch, R. B., & Kasel, J. A. (1983). Immunity to influenza in man. Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 37, 529–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Couch, R. B., Chanock, R. M., Cate, T. R., Lang, D. J., Knight, V., & Huebner, R. J. (1963). Immunization with types 4 and 7 adenovirus by selective infection of the intestinal tract. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 88, 394–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Couch, R. B., Cate, T. R., Douglas, R. G. J., Gerone, P. J., & Knight, V. (1966). Effect of route of inoculation on experimental respiratory viral disease in volunteers and evidence for airborne transmission. Bacteriol. Rev., 30, 517–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cox, N. J., & Fukuda, K. (1998). Influenza. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am., 12, 27–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. D’Angelo, L. J., Hierholzer, J. C., Holman, R. C., & Smith, J. D. (1981). Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus type 8: epidemiologic and laboratory aspects of a large outbreak. Am. J. Epidemiol., 113, 44–49.Google Scholar
  36. Dolin, R., Reichman, R. C., Madore, H. P., Maynard, R., Linton, P. N., & Webber-Jones, J. (1982). a controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N. Engl. J. Med., 307, 580–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Douglas, R. G. J. (1990). Prophylaxis and treatment of influenza [see comments]. N. Engl. J. Med., 322, 443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Douglas, R. G. J., Alford, R. H., Cate, T. R., & Couch, R. B. (1966). The leukocyte response during viral respiratory illness in man. Ann. Intern. Med., 64, 521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Drinka, P. J., Gravenstein, S., Schilling, M., Krause, P., Miller, B. A., & Shult, P. (1998). Duration of antiviral prophylaxis during nursing home outbreaks of influenza A: a comparison of 2 protocols. Arch. Intern. Med., 158, 2155–2159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dudding, B. A., Wagner, S. C., Zeller, J. A., Gmelich, J. T., French, G. R., & Top, F. H. J. (1972). Fatal pneumonia associated with adenovirus type 7 in three military trainees. N. Engl. J. Med., 286, 1289–1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dudding, B. A., Top, F. H. J., Winter, P. E., Buescher, E. L., Lamson, T. H., & Leibovitz, A. (1973). Acute respiratory disease in military trainees: the adenovirus surveillance program, 1966–1971. Am. J. Epidemiol., 97, 187–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Echevarria, J. E., Erdman, D. D., Swierkosz, E. M., Holloway, B. P., & Anderson, L. J. (1998). Simultaneous detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses I, 2, and 3 from clinical samples by multiplex PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36, 1388–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Edwards, K. M., Thompson, J., Paolini, J., & Wright, P. F. (1985). Adenovirus infections in young children. Pediatrics, 76, 420–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ellenbogen, C., Graybill, J. R., Silva, J. J., & Homme, P. J. (1974). Bacterial pneumonia complicating adenovirus pneumonia. A comparison of respiratory tract bacterial culture sources and effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis against bacterial pneumonia. Am. J. Med., 56, 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Englund, J. A., Champlin, R. E., Wyde, P. R., Kantarjian, H., Atmar, R. L., Tarrand, J., Yousuf, H., Regnery, H., Klimov, A. I., Cox, N. J., & Whimbey, E. (1998). Common emergence of amantadine-and rimantadine-resistant influenza a viruses in symptomatic immunocompromised adults. Clin. Infect. Dis., 26, 1418–1424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fiore, A. E., Iverson, C., Messmer, T., Erdman, D., Lett, S. M., Talkington, D. F., Anderson, L. J., Fields, B., Carlone, G. M., Breiman, R. F., & Cetron, M. S. (1998). Outbreak of pneumonia in a long-term care facility: antecedent human parainfluenza virus I infection may predispose to bacterial pneumonia. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 46, 1112–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fox, J. P., Hall, C. E., & Cooney, M. K. (1977). The Seattle Virus Watch. VII. Observations of adenovirus infections. Am. J. Epidemiol., 105, 362–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fox, J. P., Cooney, M. K., Hall, C. E., & Foy, H. M. (1982). Influenzavirus infections in Seattle families, 1975–1979. II. Pattern of infection in invaded households and relation of age and prior antibody to occurrence of infection and related illness. Am. J. Epidemiol., 116, 228–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Maletzky, A. J., & Grayston, J. T. (1973a). Incidence and etiology of pneumonia, croup and bronchiolitis in preschool children belonging to a prepaid medical care group over a four-year period. Am. J. Epidemiol., 97, 80–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., McMahan, R., & Grayston, J. T. (1973b). Viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia in a prepaid medical care group during an eight-year period. Am. J. Epidemiol., 97, 93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Foy, H. M., Hall, C., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I., & Fox, J. P. (1979a). Influenza surveillance by age and target group. Am. J. Epidemiol., 109, 582–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I., & Kenny, G. E. (1979b) Rates of pneumonia during influenza epidemics in Seattle, 1964 to 1975. JAMA, 241, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I. D., & Albrecht, J. K. (1987). Influenza B in households: virus shedding without symptoms or antibody response. Am. J. Epidemiol., 126, 506–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Wells, C. R., Wells, J. M., Glezen, W. P., & Paredes, A. (1981). Patterns of shedding of myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in children. J. Infect. Dis., 144, 433–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fujimoto, S., Kobayashi, M., Uemura, O., Iwasa, M., Ando, T., Katoh, T., Nakamura, C., Maki, N., Togari, H., & Wada, Y. (1998). PCR on cerebrospinal fluid to show influenza-associated acute encephalopathy or encephalitis. Lancet, 352, 873–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gamboa, E. T., Eastwood, A. B., Hays, A. P., Maxwell, J., & Penn, A. S. (1979). Isolation of influenza virus from muscle in myoglobinuric polymyositis. Neurology, 29, 1323–1335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. George, R. B., Ziskind, M. M., Rasch, J. R., & Mogabgab, W. J. (1966). Mycoplasma and adenovirus pneumonias. Comparison with other atypical pneumonias in a military population. Ann. Intern. Med., 65, 931–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gilbert, B. E., Wilson, S. Z., Knight, V., Couch, R. B., Quarles, J. M., Dure, L., Hayes, N., & Willis, G. (1985). Ribavirin small-particle aerosol treatment of infections caused by influenza virus strains A/Vicloria/7/83 (HIN1) and B/ Texas/1/84. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 27, 309–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilbert, B. E., Wyde, P. R., Ambrose, M. W., Wilson, S. Z., & Knight, V. (1992). Further studies with short duration ribavirin aerosol for the treatment of influenza virus infection in mice and respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats. Antiviral Res., 17, 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Glezen, W. P. (1982). Serious morbidity and mortality associated with influenza epidemics. Epidemiol. Rev., 4, 25–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Glezen, W. P., & Couch, R. B. (1978). Interpandemic influenza in the Houston area, 1974–76. N. Engl. J. Med., 298, 587–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Glezen, W. P., Paredes, A., & Taber, L. H. (1980). Influenza in children. Relationship to other respiratory agents. JAMA, 243, 1345–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Glezen, W. P., Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., & Kasel, J. A. (1984). Parainfluenza virus type 3: seasonality and risk of infection and reinfection in young children. J. Infect. Dis., 150, 851–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gorse, G. J., & Belshe, R. B. (1990). Enhancement of anti-influenza A virus cytotoxicity following influenza A virus vaccination in older, chronically ill adults. J. Clin. Microbiol., 28, 2539–2550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gorse, G. J., Otto, E. E., Powers, D. C., Chambers, G. W., Eickhoff, C. S., & Newman, F. K. (1996). Induction of mucosal antibodies by live attenuated and inactivated influenza virus vaccines in the chronically ill elderly. J. Infect. Dis., 173, 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Greenbaum, E., Morag, A., & Zakay-Rones, Z. (1998). Isolation of influenza C virus during an outbreak of influenza A and B viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36, 1441–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Grondahl, B., Puppe, W., Hoppe, A., Kuhne, I., Weigl, J. A., & Schmitt, H. J. (1999). Rapid identification of nine micro-organisms causing acute respiratory tract infections by single-tube multiplex reverse transcription-PCR: feasibility study. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gross, P. A., Green, R. H., & Curnen, M. G. (1973). Persistent infection with parainfluenza type 3 virus in man. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 108, 894–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hall, C. B., Dolin, R., Gala, C. L., Markovitz, D. M., Zhang, Y. Q., Madore, P. H., Disney, F. A., Talpey, W. B., Green, J. L., & Francis, A. B. (1987). Children with influenza A infection: treatment with rimantadine. Pediatrics, 80, 275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hamory, B. H., Sande, M. A., Sydnor, A. J., Seale, D. L., & Gwaltney, J. M. J. (1979). Etiology and antimicrobial therapy of acute maxillary sinusitis. J. Infect. Dis., 139, 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Han, B. K., Son, J. A., Yoon, H. K., & Lee, S. I. (1998). Epidemic adenoviral lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients: radiographic and clinical characteristics. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol, 170, 1077–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hayase, Y., & Tobita, K. (1997). Influenza virus and neurological diseases. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 51, 181–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hayden, F. G. (1997). Antivirals for pandemic influenza. J. Infect. Dis., 176(Suppl. 1), S56–S61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hayden, F. G., & Palese, P. (1997). Influenza virus, in: Clinical Virology (D. D. Richman, R. J. Whitley, & F. G. Hayden, eds.). New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 911–942.Google Scholar
  75. Hayden, F. G., Fritz, R., Lobo, M. C., Alvord, W., Strober, W., & Straus, S. E. (1998). Local and systemic cytokine responses during experimental human influenza A virus infection. Relation to symptom formation and host defense. J. Clin. Invest., 101, 643–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Heidemann, S. M. (1992). Clinical characteristics of para-influenza virus infection in hospitalized children. Pediatr. Putmonol., 13, 86–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Henrickson, K. J., Kuhn, S. M., & Savatski, L. L. (1994). Epidemiology and cost of infection with human parainfluenza virus types 1 and 2 in young children. Clin. Infect. Dis., 18, 770–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hierholzer, J. C. (1992). Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 5, 262–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hingtgen, C. M., & Siemers, E. (1998). The treatment of Parkinson’s disease: current concepts and rationale. Compr. Ther., 24, 560–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hogg, J. C., Williams, J., Richardson, J. B., Macklem, P. T., & Thurlbeck, W. M. (1970). Age as a factor in the distribution of lower-airway conductance and in the pathologic anatomy of obstructive lung disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 282, 1283–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Houck, P., Hemphill, M.., LaCroix, S., Hirsh, D., & Cox, N. (1995). Amantadine-resistant influenza A in nursing homes. Identification of a resistant virus prior to drug use. Arch. Intern. Med., 155, 533–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Howell, M. R., Nang, R. N., Gaydos, C. A., & Gaydos, J. C. (1998). Prevention of adenoviral acute respiratory disease in Army recruits: cost-effectiveness of a military vaccination policy. Am. J. Prev. Med., 14, 168–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ito, Y., Tsurudome, M., Hishiyama, M., & Yamada, A. (1987). Immunological interrelationships among human and non-human paramyxoviruses revealed by immunoprecipitation. J. Gen. Virol., 68, 1289–1297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ito, T., Couceiro, J. N., Kelm, S., Baum, L. G., Krauss, S., Castrucci, M. R., Donatelli, I., Kida, H., Paulson, J. C., Webster, R. G., & Kawaoka, Y. (1998). Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J. Virol., 72, 7367–7373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jameson, J., Cruz, J., & Ennis, F. A. (1998). Human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte repertoire to influenza A viruses. J. Virol., 72, 8682–8689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Johansson, B. E., Grajower, B., & Kilbourne, E. D. (1993). Infection-permissive immunization with influenza virus neuraminidase prevents weight loss in infected mice. Vaccine, 11, 1037–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Johnston, S. L., & Siegel, C. S. (1991). A comparison of direct immunofluorescence, shell vial culture, and conventional cell culture for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 14, 131–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kajon, A. E., & Wadell, G. (1992). Characterization of adenovirus genome type 7h: analysis of its relationship to other members of serotype 7. Intervirology, 33, 86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kasel, J. A., Frank, A. L., Keitel, W. A., Taber, L. H., & Glezen, W. P. (1984). Acquisition of serum antibodies to specific viral glycoproteins of parainfluenza virus 3 in children. J. Virol., 52, 828–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kawakami, M., Ueda, S., Maeda, T., Karasuno, T., Teshima, H., Hiraoka, A., Nakamura, H., Tanaka, K., & Masaoka, T. (1997). Vidarabine therapy for virus-associated cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant., 20, 485–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Keller, M. A., Aftandelians, R., & Connor, J. D. (1980). Etiology of pertussis syndrome. Pediatrics, 66, 50–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kerr, A. A., McQuillin, J., Downham, M. A., & Gardner, P. S. (1975). Gastric’ flu influenza B causing abdominal symptons in children. Lancet, 1, 291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kim, J. S., Han, H. S., Park, S. H., Chun, Y. K., Lee, H. J., & Chi, J. G. (1997). Neonatal adenoviral pneumonia—report of three autopsy cases. J. Kor. Med. Sci., 12, 146–150.Google Scholar
  94. Kinney, J. S., Hierholzer, J. C., & Thibeault, D. W. (1994). Neonatal pulmonary insufficiency caused by adenovirus infection successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J. Pediatr., 125, 110–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kitabayashi, A., Hirokawa, M., Kuroki, J., Nishinari, T., Niitsu, H., & Miura, A. B. (1994). Successful vidarabine therapy for adenovirus type 11-associated acute hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant., 14, 853–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Klimov, A. I., Rocha, E., Hayden, F. G., Shult, P. A., Roumillat, L. F., & Cox, N. J. (1995). Prolonged shedding of amantadine-resistant influenzae A viruses by immunodeficient patients: detection by polymerase chain reaction-restriction analysis. J. Infect. Dis., 172, 1352–1355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Knight, V, McClung, H. W., Wilson, S. Z., Waters, B. K., Quarles, J. M., Cameron, R. W., Greggs, S. E., Zerwas, J. M., & Couch, R. B. (1981). Ribavirin small-particle aerosol treatment of influenza. Lancet, 2, 945–949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Knott, A. M., Long, C. E., & Hall, C. B. (1994). Parainfluenza viral infections in pediatric outpatients: seasonal patterns and clinical characteristics. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 13, 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Korppi, M., Leinonen, M., Makela, P. H., & Launiala, K. (1990). Bacterial involvement in parainfluenza virus infection in children. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 22, 307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Korppi, M., Leinonen, M., Makela, P. H., & Launiala, K. (1991). Mixed infection is common in children with respiratory adenovirus infection. Acta Paediatr. Scand., 80, 413–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kurokawa, M., Imakita, M., Kumeda, C. A, & Shiraki, K. (1996). Cascade of fever production in mice infected with influenza virus. J. Med. Virol., 50, 152–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lamb, R. A., & Kolakofsky, D. (1996a). Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fundamental Virology, 3rd ed. (B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, T. P. Monath, B. Roizman, & S. E. Straus, eds.) Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, pp. 577–604.Google Scholar
  103. Lamb, R. A., & Krug, R. M. (1996b). Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fundamental Virology, 3rd ed. (B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, T. P. Monath, B. Roizman, & S. E. Straus, eds.) Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, pp. 605–647.Google Scholar
  104. Lasky, T., Terracciano, G. J., Magder, L., Koski, C. L., Ballesteros, M., Nash, D., Clark, S., Haber, P., Stolley, P. D., Schonberger, L. B., & Chen, R. T. (1998). The Guillain-Barre syndrome and the 1992–1993 and 1993–1994 influenza vaccines [see comments]. N. Engl. J. Med., 339,1797–1802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Leclair, J. M., Freeman, J., Sullivan, B. F., Crowley, C. M., & Goldmann, D. A. (1987). Prevention of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections through compliance with glove and gown isolation precautions. N. Engl. J. Med., 317, 329–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lengyel, A., Adam, E., & Nasz, I. (1993). Latex agglutination and adenoviruses. II. Detection of antigens. Acta Microbiol. Hung., 40, 85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Leonardi, G. P., Costello, P., & Harris, P. (1995). Use of continuous human lung cell culture for adenovirus isolation. Intervirology, 38, 352–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lewis, V. A., Champlin, R., Englund, J., Couch, R., Goodrich, J. M., Rolston, K., Przepiorka, D., Mirza, N. Q., Yousuf, H. M., Luna, M., Bodey, G. P., & Whimbey, E. (1996). Respiratory disease due to parainfluenza virus in adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis., 23, 1033–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lindquist, S. W., Darnule, A., Istas, A., & Demmler, G. J. (1997). Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 16, 34–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lindsay, M. I. J., Herrmann, E. C. J., Morrow, G. W. J., & Brown, A. L. J. (1970). Hong Kong influenza: clinical, microbiologic, and pathologic features in 127 cases. JAMA, 214, 1825–1832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Little, J. W., Hall, W. J., Douglas, R. G. J., Hyde, R. W., & Speers, D. M. (1976). Amantadine effect on peripheral airways abnormalities in influenza. A study in 15 students with natural influenza A infection. Ann. Intern. Med., 85, 177–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Little, J. W., Hall, W. J., Douglas, R. G. J., Mudholkar, G. S., Speers, D. M., & Patel, K. (1978). Airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza A infection. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 118, 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Louria, D. B., Blumenfeld, H. L., Ellis, J. T., Kilbourne, E. D., & Rogers, D. E. (1959). Studies on influenza in the pandemic of 1957–1958. II. Pulmonary complications of influenza. J. Clin. Invest., 38, 213–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lyytikainen, O., Hoffmann, E., Timm, H., Schweiger, B., Witte, W., Vieth, U., Ammon, A., & Petersen, L. R. (1998). Influenza A outbreak among adolescents in a ski hostel. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 17, 128–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Maassab, H. F., & DeBorde, D. C. (1985). Development and characterization of cold-adapted viruses for use as live virus vaccines. Vaccine, 3, 355–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. MacDonald, K. L., Osterholm, M. T., Hedberg, C. W., Schrock, C. G., Peterson, G. F., Jentzen, J. M., Leonard, S. A., & Schlievert, P. M. (1987). Toxic shock syndrome. A newly recognized complication of influenza and influenzalike illness. JAMA, 257, 1053–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Macek, V., Sorli, J., Kopriva, S., & Marin, J. (1994). Persistent adenoviral infection and chronic airway obstruction in children [see comments]. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 150, 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Madore, H. P., Reichman, R. C., & Dolin, R. (1983). Serum antibody responses in naturally occurring influenza A virus infection determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition, and complement fixation. J. Clin. Microbiol., 18, 1345–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mahafzah, A. M., & Landry, M. L. (1989). Evaluation of immunofluorescent reagents, centrifugation, and conventional cultures for the diagnosis of adenovirus infection. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 12, 407–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mahmood, W., & Sacks, S. L. (1995). Anti-infective therapy for viral pneumonia. Semin. Respir. Infect., 10, 270–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Makela, M. J., Puhakka, T., Ruuskanen, O., Leinonen, M., Saikku, P., Kimpimaki, M., Blomqvist, S., Hyypia, T., & Arstila, P. (1998). Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold. J. Clin. Microbiol, 36, 539–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mann, D., Moreb, J., Smith, S., & Gian, V. (1998). Failure of intravenous ribavirin in the treatment of invasive adenovirus infection following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a case report. J. Infect., 36, 227–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Martin, C. M., Kunin, C. M., Gottlieb, L. S., Barnes, M. W., Liu, C., & Finland, M. (1959). Asian influenza A in Boston, 1957–1958. I. Observations in thirty-two influenza-associated fatal cases. Arch. Intern. Med., 103, 515–531.Google Scholar
  124. Marx, A., Torok, T. J., Holman, R. C., Clarke, M. J., & Anderson, L. J. (1997). Pediatric hospitalizations for croup (laryngotracheobronchitis): biennial increases associated with human parainfluenza virus I epidemics. J. Infect. Dis., 176, 1423–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Maslo, C., Girard, P. M., Urban, T., Guessant, S., & Rozenbaum, W. (1997). Ribavirin therapy for adenovirus pneumonia in an AIDS patient. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 156, 1263–1264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Mast, E. E., Harmon, M. W., Gravenstein, S., Wu, S. P., Arden, N. H., Circo, R., Tyszka, G., Kendal, A. P., & Davis, J. P. (1991). Emergence and possible transmission of amantadineresistant viruses during nursing home outbreaks of influenza A (H.3N2). Am. J. Epidemiol., 134, 988–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Matsuse, T., Matsui, H., Shu, C. Y., Nagase, T., Wakabayashi, T., Mori, S., Inoue, S., Fukuchi, Y., & Orimo, H. (1994). Adenovirus pulmonary infections identified by PCR and in situ hybridisation in bone marrow transplant recipients. J. Clin. Pathol., 47, 973–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McElhaney, J. E., Meneilly, G. S., Lechelt, K. E., Beattie, B. L., & Bleackley, R. C. (1993). Antibody response to whole-virus and split-virus influenza vaccines in successful ageing. Vaccine, II, 1055–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McMichael, A. J., Gotch, F. M., Noble, G. R., & Beare, P. A. (1983). Cytotoxic T-cell immunity to influenza. N. Engl. J. Med., 309, 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Meyer, T. A., & Warner, B. W. (1997). Extracorporeal life support for the treatment of viral pneumonia: collective experience from the ELSO registry. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. J. Pediatr. Surg., 32, 232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Millet, V. M., Dreisbach, M., & Bryson, Y. J. (1982). Doubleblind controlled study of central nervous system side effects of amantadine, rimantadine, and chlorpheniramine. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 21, 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Monto, A. S., Ohmit, S. E., Hornbuckle, K., & Pearce, C. L. (1995). Safety and efficacy of long-term use of rimantadine for prophylaxis of type A influenza in nursing homes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 39, 2224–2228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Moriuchi, H., Katsushima, N., Nishimura, H., Nakamura, K., & Numazaki, Y. (1991). Community-acquired influenza C virus infection in children. J. Pediatr., 118, 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Moser, M. R., Bender, T. R., Margolis, H. S., Noble, G. R., Kendal, A. P., & Ritter, D. G. (1979). An outbreak of influenza aboard a commercial airliner. Am. J. Epidemiol., 110, 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Muchmore, H. G., Parkinson, A. J., Humphries, J. E., Scott, E. N., McIntosh, D. A., Scott, L. V, Cooney, M. K., & Miles, J. A. (1981). Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding during isolation at the South Pole. Nature, 289, 187–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Munoz, F. M., Piedra, P. A., & Demmler, G. J. (1998). Disseminated adenovirus disease in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children [in process citation]. Clin. Infect. Dis., 27, 1194–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Murphy, B. R., & Clements, M. L. (1989). The systemic and mucosal immune response of humans to influenza A virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 146, 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Murphy, G. F., Wood, D. P. J., McRoberts, J. W., & Henslee-Downey, P. J. (1993). Adenovirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis treated with intravenous ribavirin. J. Urol., 149, 565–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Nelson, K. E., Gavitt, F., Batt, M. D., Kallick, C. A., Reddi, K. T., & Levin, S. (1975). The role of adenoviruses in the pertussis syndrome. J. Pediatr., X6, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Neuzil, K. M., Reed, G. W., Mitchel, E. F., Simonsen, L., & Griffin, M. R. (1998). Impact of influenza on acute cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women. Am. J. Epidemiol., 148, 1094–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Neuzil, K. M., Reed, G. W., Mitchel, E. F. J., & Griffin, M. R. (1999). Influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in young and middle-aged women. JAMA, 281, 901–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nicholson, K. G. (1996). Use of antivirals in influenza in the elderly: prophylaxis and therapy. Gerontology, 42, 280–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nicholson, K. G., Kent, J., Hammersley, V., & Cancio, E. (1997). Acute viral infections of upper respiratory tract in elderly people living in the community: comparative, prospective, population based study of disease burden. Br. Med. J., 315, 1060–1064.Google Scholar
  144. Oseasohn, R., Adelson, L., & Kaji, M. (1959). Clinicopathologic study of thirty-three fatal cases of Asian influenza. N. Engl. J. Med., 260, 509–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Osiowy, C. (1998). Direct detection of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus in clinical respiratory specimens by a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36, 3149–3154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Oswald, N. C., Shooter, R. A., & Curwen, M. P. (1958). Pneumonia complicating Asian influenza. Br. Med. J., 2, 1305–1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Palladino, G., Mozdzanowska, K., Washko, G., & Gerhard, W. (1995). Virus-neutralizing antibodies of immunoglobulin G (IgG) but not of IgM or IgA isotypes can cure influenza virus pneumonia in SCID mice. J. Virol., 69, 2075–2081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Patriarca, P. A., Weber, J. A., Parker, R. A.., Hall, W. N., Kendal, A. P., Bregman, D. J., & Schonberger, L. B. (1985). Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes. Reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. JAMA, 253, 1136–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Patriarca, P. A., Weber, J. A., Parker, R. A., Orenstein, W. A., Hall, W. N., Kendal, A. P., & Schonberger, L. B. (1986). Risk factors for outbreaks of influenza in nursing homes. A case-control study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 124, 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Patriarca, P. A., Arden, N. H., Koplan, J. P., & Goodman, R. A. (1987). Prevention and control of type A influenza in nursing homes. Benefits and costs of four approaches using vaccination and amantadine. Ann. Intern. Med., 107, 732–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Pemberton, R. M., Jennings, R., Potter, C. W., & Oxford, J. S. (1986). Amantadine resistance in clinical influenza A (H3N2) and (H1NI) virus isolates. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 18(Suppl. B), 135–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Petersdorf, R. G., Fusco, J. J., Harter, D. H., & Albrink, W. S. (1959). Pulmonary infections complicating Asian influenza. Arch. Intern. Med., 103, 262–272.Google Scholar
  153. Piedra, P. A., Englund, J. A., & Glezen, W. P. (1997). Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses, in: Clinical Virology. (D. D. Richman, R. J. Whitley, & F. G. Hayden, eds.). New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 787–819.Google Scholar
  154. Pinto, A., Beck, R., & Jadavji, T. (1992). Fatal neonatal pneumonia caused by adenovirus type 35. Report of one case and review of the literature. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 116, 95–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Player, V., & Westmoreland, D. (1989). Rapid diagnosis of adenovirus pharyngoconjunctival fever: use of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA test during an outbreak. J. Virol. Methods, 24, 307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Potter, J., Stott, D. J., Roberts, M. A., Elder, A. G., O’Donnell, B., Knight, P. V, & Carman, W. F. (1997). Influenza vaccination of health care workers in long-term-care hospitals reduces the mortality of elderly patients [see comments]. J. Infect. Dis., 175, 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pregliasco, F., Mensi, C., Camorali, L., & Anselmi, G. (1998). Comparison of RT-PCR with other diagnostic assays for rapid detection of influenza viruses. J. Med. Virol., 56, 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pribble, C. G., Black, P. G., Bosso, J. A., & Turner, R. B. (1990). Clinical manifestations of exacerbations of cystic fibrosis associated with nonbacterial infections. J. Pediatr., 117, 200–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Proby, C. M., Hackett, D., Gupta, S., & Cox, T. M. (1986). Acute myopericarditis in influenza A infection. Quart. J. Med., 60, 887–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Prud’homme, I. T., Zoueva, O., & Weber, J. M. (1997). Amantadine susceptibility in influenza A virus isolates:determination methods and lack of resistance in a Canadian sample, 1991–94. Clin. Diagn. Virol., 8, 41–51.Google Scholar
  161. Putto, A., Ruuskanen, O., & Meurman, O. (1986). Fever in respiratory virus infections. Am. J. Dis. Child, 140, 1159–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ray, C. G., Icenogle, T. B., Minnich, L. L., Copeland, J. G., & Grogan, T. M. (1989). The use of intravenous ribavirin to treat influenza virus-associated acute myocarditis [published erratum appears in J. Infect. Dis. 1989 Sept.; 160, 564]. J. Infect. Dis., 159, 829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ray, R., Glaze, B. J., & Compans, R. W. (1988a). Role of individual glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 in the induction of a protective immune response. J. Virol., 62. 783–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Ray, R., Glaze, B. J., Moldoveanu, Z., & Compans, R. W. (1988b). Intranasal immunization of hamsters with envelope glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3. J. Infect. Dis., 157, 648–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Ray, R., Matsuoka, Y., Burnett, T. L., Glaze, B. J., & Compans, R. W. (1990). Human parainfluenza virus induces a type-specific protective immune response. J. Infect. Dis., 162, 746–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Reina, J., Munar, M., & Blanco, I. (1996). Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence assay, dot-blot enzyme immuno-assay, and shell vial culture in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A virus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 25, 143–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rowe, W. P., Huebner, R. J., Gilmore, L. K., Parrott, R. H., & Ward, T. G. (1953). Isolation of a cytopathic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 84, 570–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Rubin, E. E., Quennec, P., & McDonald, J. C. (1993). Infections due to parainfluenza virus type 4 in children, Clin. Infect. Dis.. 17, 998–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Ruuskanen, O., Sarkkinen, H., Meurman, O., Hurme, P., Rossi, T., Halonen, P., & Hanninen, P. (1984). Rapid diagnosis of adenoviral tonsillitis: a prospective clinical study. J. Pediatr., 104, 725–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ruuskanen, O., Meurman, O., & Sarkkinen, H. (1985). Adenoviral diseases in children: a study of 105 hospital cases. Pediatrics, 76, 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Ruuskanen, O., Mertsola, J., & Meurman, O. (1988). Adenovirus infection in families. Arch. Dis. Child. 63, 1250–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Ruuskanen, O., Meurman, O., & Akusjarvi, G. (1997). Adenoviruses, in: Clinical Virology (D. D. Richman, R. J. Whitley, & F. G. Hayden, eds.). New York: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 525–547.Google Scholar
  173. Safranek, T. J., Lawrence, D. N., Kurland, L. T., Culver, D. H., Wiederholt, W. C., Hayner, N. S., Osterholm, M. T., O’Brien, P., & Hughes, J. M. (1991). Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barre syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976–1977: results of a two-state study. Expert Neurology Group. Am. J. Epidemiol, 133, 940–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Scheiblauer, H., Reinacher, M., Tashiro, M., & Rott, R. (1992). Interactions between bacteria and influenza A virus in the development of influenza pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis., 166, 783–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Schmitz, H., Wigand, R., & Heinrich, W. (1983). Worldwide epidemiology of human adenovirus infections. Am. J. Epidemiol., 117, 455–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Schwarzmann, S. W., Adler, J. L., Sullivan, R. J. J., & Marine, W. M. (1971). Bacterial pneumonia during the Hong Kong influenza epidemic of 1968–1969. Arch. Intern. Med., 127, 1037–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Shenk, T. (1996). Adenoviridae: the viruses and their replication, in: Fundamental Virology, 3rd ed. (B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, T. P. Monath, B. Roizman, & S. E. Straus, eds.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, pp. 979–1016.Google Scholar
  178. Shortridge, K. F., Zhou, N. N., Guan, Y., Gao, P., Ito, T., Kawaoka, Y., Kodihalli, S., Krauss, S., Markwell, D., Murti, K. G., Norwood, M., Senne, D., Sims, L., Takada, A., & Webster, R. G. (1998). Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virology, 252, 331–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Singh-Naz, N., Willy, M., & Riggs, N. (1990). Outbreak of parainfluenza virus type 3 in a neonatal nursery. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 9, 31–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Sly, P. D., Soto-Quiros, M. K., Landau, L. I., Hudson, I., & Newton-John, H. (1984). Factors predisposing to abnormal pulmonary function after adenovirus type 7 pneumonia. Arch. Dis. Child, 59, 935–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Smith, C. B., Purcell, R. H., Bellanti, J. A., & Chanock, R. M. (1966). Protective effect of antibody to parainfluenza type I virus. N. Engl J. Med., 275, 1145–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Smith, C. B., Kanner, R. E., Golden, C. A., Klauber, M. R., & Renzetti, A. D. J. (1980). Effect of viral infections on pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. J. Infect. Dis., 141, 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Sutton, R. N., Pullen, H. J., Blackledgc, P., Brown, E. H., Sinclair, L., & Swift, P. N. (1976). Adenovirus type 7; 1971–74. Lancet, 2, 987–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Teichtahl, H., Buckmaster, N., & Pertnikovs, E. (1997). The incidence of respiratory tract infection in adults requiring hospitalization for asthma. Chest, 112, 591–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Treanor, J. J., Tierney, E. L., Zebedee, S. L., Lamb, R. A., & Murphy, B. R. (1990). Passively transferred monoclonal antibody to the M2 protein inhibits influenza A virus replication in mice. J. Virol., 64, 1375–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Treanor, J. J., Mattison, H. R., Dumyati, G., Yinnon, A., Erb, S., O’Brien, D., Dolin, R., & Betts, R. F. (1992). Protective efficacy of combined live intranasal and inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in the elderly. Ann. Intern. Med., 117, 625–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Valette, M., Allard, J. P., Aymard, M., & Millet, V. (1993). Susceptibilities to rimantadine of influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses isolated during the epidemics of 1988 to 1989 and 1989 to 1990. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 37, 2239–2240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Ward, M. R. (1997). Reye’s syndrome: an update. Nurse Pract., 22, 45–50, 52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Webster, R. G. (1997). Predictions for future human influenza pandemics. J. Infect. Dis., 176(Supp. 1), S14–S19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Wendt, C. H., and Hertz, M. I. (1995). Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections in the immunocompromised host. Semin. Respir. Infect., 10, 224–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Wendt, C. H., Weisdorf, D. J., Jordan, M. C., Balfour, H. H. J., & Hertz, M. I. (1992). Parainfluenza virus respiratory infection after bone marrow transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med., 326, 921–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wendt, C. H., Fox, J. M., & Hertz, M. I. (1995). Paramyxovirus infection in lung transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant., 14, 479–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Wenzel, R. P., McCormick, D. P., & Beam, W. E. J. (1972). Parainfluenza pneumonia in adults. JAMA, 221, 294–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wildin, S. R., Chonmaitree, T., & Swischuk, L. E. (1988). Roentgenographic features of common pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Am. J. Dis. Child, 142, 43–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Wilson, S. Z., Knight, V., Wyde, P. R., Drake, S., & Couch, R. B. (1980). Amantadine and ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza A and B infection in mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 17, 642–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Wilson, S. Z., Gilbert, B. E., Quarles, J. M., Knight, V., McClung, H. W., Moore, R. V., & Couch, R. B. (1984). Treatment of influenza A (HIN1) virus infection with ribavirin aerosol. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 26, 200–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Winterbauer, R. H., Ludwig, W. R., & Hammar, S. P. (1977). Clinical course, management, and long-term sequelae of respiratory failure due to influenza viral pneumonia. Johns Hopkins Med. J., 141, 148–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Wintermeyer, S. M., & Nahata, M. C. (1995). Rimantadine: a clinical perspective. Ann. Pharmacother., 29, 299–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Wirsing, V. K. C., Rott, H., Bogaerts, H., & Schmitt, H. J. (1998). A serologic study of organisms possibly associated with pertussis-like coughing. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 17, 645–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Yamadera, S., Yamashita, K., Akatsuka, M., Kato, N., Hashido, M., Inouye, S., & Yamazaki, S. (1995). Adenovirus surveillance, 1982–1993, Japan. A report of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Agents in Japan. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol., 48, 199–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Yang, E., & Rubin, B. K. (1995). “Childhood” viruses as a cause of pneumonia in adults. Semin. Respir. Infect., 10, 232–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas R. Cate
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHouston

Personalised recommendations