Community-Acquired Pneumonia Associated with Exposure to Contaminated Water

  • Todd F. Hatchette


Chronic Granulomatous Disease Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Pulmonary Hemorrhage Vibrio Species Pulmonary Manifestation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcamo, I. E. (1997). Fundamentals of Microbiology, 5th ed. New York: Benjamin/Cummings, pp. 57–58.Google Scholar
  2. Auerbach, P. S., Yajko, D. M., Nassos, P. S., Kizer, K. W., Morris, J. A., & Hadley, W. K. (1987). Bacteriology of the freshwater environment: implications for clinical therapy. Ann. Emerg. Med., 16, 1016–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddour, L. M., & Baselski, V. S. (1998). Pneumonia due to Aeromonas hydrophilia complex: epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic features. South. Med. J., 81, 461–463.Google Scholar
  4. Bornstein, N., Marmet, D., Surgot, M., Nowicki, M., Arslan, A., Esteve, J., & Fleurette, J. (1989). Exposure to Legionella-ceae at a hot spring spa: a prospective clinical and serological study. Epidemiol. Infect., 102, 31–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Casalta, J. P., Peloux, Y., Raoult, D., Brunet, P., & Gallais, H. (1989). Pneumonia and meningitis caused by a new nonfermentative unknown gram-negative bacterium. J. Clin. Microbiol, 27, 1446–1448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995). Outbreak of acute febrile illness and pulmonary hemorrhage—Nicaragua, 1995. JAMA, 274, 1668.Google Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997). Outbreak of leptospirosis among white water rafters—Costa Rica, 1996. MMWR, 46, 577–579.Google Scholar
  8. Chuang, Y. C., Yuan, C. Y., Liu, C. Y., Lan, C. K., & Huang, A. H. M. (1992). Vibrio vulnificus infection in Taiwan: report of 28 cases and review of clinical manifestations and treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis., 15, 271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Drazen, J. M., & Weinberger, S. E. (1998). Approach to the patient with disease of the respiratory system, in: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed. (A. S. Fauci, E. Braunwald, K. J. Isselbacher, J. D. Wilson, J. B. Martin, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, & D. L. Longo, eds.). New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 1407–1417.Google Scholar
  10. Ender, P. T., & Dolan, M. J. (1997). Pneumonia associated with near-drowning. Clin. Infect. Dis., 25, 896–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Faine, S. (1999). Leptospira species, in: Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines (V. Yu, T. C. Merigan, S. L. Barriere, A. M. Suga, D. Raoult, C. Peloquin, & M. Iseman, eds.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 272–275.Google Scholar
  12. Farr, R. W. (1995). Leprospirosis. Clin. Inject. Dis., 21, 1–8.Google Scholar
  13. Farrar, W. E. (1995). Leptospira species (Leptospirosis), in Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett, & R. Dolin, eds.). New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 2137–2143.Google Scholar
  14. Goncalves, J. R., Brum, G., Fernandes, A., Biscaia, I., Correia, M. J. S., & Bastardo, J. (1992). Aeromonas hydrophila fulminant pneumonia in a fit young man. Thorax, 47, 482–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gussenhoven, G. C., van der Hoorn, M. A. W. G., Goris, M. G. A., Terpstra, W. J., Hartskeerl, R. A., Mol, B. W., van Ingen, C. W., & Smits, H. L. (1997). LEPTO dipstick, a dipstick assay for detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies in human sera. J. Clin. Microbiol, 35, 92–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, A. A., Goodman, L., & Levin, S. (1984). Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia associated with the use of a home humidifier. West. J. Med., 141, 521–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hlady, W. G., & Klontz, K. C. (1996). The epidemiology of Vibrio infections in Florida, 1981–1993. J. Infect. Dis., 173, 1176–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Holmes, B., Pickett, M. J., & Hollis, D. G. (1995). Unusual gram negative bacteria, in: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. (P. R. Murray, B. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, & R. M. Yolken, eds.). Washington: ASM Press, pp. 503.Google Scholar
  19. Hubert, B., DeMahenge, A., Grimont, F., Richard, C., Peloux, Y., DeMahenge, C., Fleurette, J., & Grimont, P. A. D. (1991). An outbreak of pneumonia and meningitis caused by a previously undescribed gram-negative bacterium in a hot spring spa. Epidemiol. Infect., 107, 373–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Im, J. G., Yeon, K. M., Han, M. C., Kim, C. W., Webb, W. R., Lee, J. S., Han, Y. C., Chang, W. D., & Chi, J. G. (1989). Leptospirosis of the lung: radiographic findings in 58 patients. Am. J. Roentgenol, 152, 955–959.Google Scholar
  21. Kelly, M. T, & Avery, D. M. (1980). Lactode-positive Vibrio in seawater: a cause of pneumonia and septicemia in a drowning victim. J. Clin. Microbiol, 11, 278–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ko, W. C., & Chuang, Y. C. (1999). Aeromonas species, in: Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines (V. Yu, T. C. Merigan, S. L. Barriere, A. M. Suga, D. Raoult, C. Peloquin, & M. Iseman, eds.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 22–28.Google Scholar
  23. Koneman, E. W., Alien, S. D., Janda, W. M., Schreckenberger, P. C., & Winn, W. C. (eds.) (1997a). The families Vibrionaceae and “Aeromonadaceae,” in: Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 339–361.Google Scholar
  24. Koneman, E. W., Alien, S. D., Janda, W. M., Schreckenberger, P. C., & Winn, W. C. (eds.) (1997b). Spirochetal infections, in: Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 953–981.Google Scholar
  25. Lang, S. D. R., & Morris, A. J. (1999). Chrornobacterium violaceum, in: Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines (V. Yu, T. C. Merigan, S. L. Barriere, A. M. Suga, D. Raoult, C. Peloquin, & M. Iseman, eds.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 114–120.Google Scholar
  26. Macher, A. M., Casale, T. B., & Fauci, A. S. (1982). Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood and Chromobacterium violaceum infections in the southeastern United States. Ann. Intern. Med., 97, 51–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Merien, F., Amouriaux, P., Perolat, P., Baranton, G., & Girons, I. S. (1992). Polymerase chain reaction in detection of Leptospira spp. In clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol., 30, 2219–2224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Merien, F., Perolat, P., Mancel, E., Persan, D., & Baranton, G. (1993). Detection of Leptospira DNA by polymerase chain reaction in aqueous humor of a patient with unilateral uveitis. J. Infect. Dis., 168, 1335–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Merien, F., Baranton, G., & Perolat, P. (1995). Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with microagglutination test and culture for diagnosis of leptospirosis. J. Infect. Dis., 172, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Midani, S., & Rathore, M. (1998). Chromobacterium violaceum infection. South. Med. J., 91, 464–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nicodemo, A. C., Duarte, M. I. S., Alves, V. A. F, Takakura, C. F. H., Santos, R. T. M., & Nicodemo, E. L. (1997). Lung lesions in human leptospirosis: microscopic immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features related to thrombo-cytopenia. Am. J. Trap. Med. Hyg., 65, 181–187.Google Scholar
  32. O’Neil, K. M., Rickman, L. S., & Lazarus, A. A. (1991). Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis. Rev. Infect. Dis., 13, 705–709.Google Scholar
  33. Paganin, F, Gauzere, B. A., Lugagne, H., Blanc, P., & Roblin, X. (1996). Bronchoalveolar lavage in rapid diagnosis of lepto-spirosis. Lancet, 347, 1562–1563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Park, S. K., Lee, S. H., Rhee, Y. K., Kang, S. K., Kim, K. J., Kim, M. C., Kim, K. W., & Chang, W. H. (1989). Leptospirosis in Chonbuk province of Korea in 1987: a study of 93 patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 41, 345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Perani, V., Farina, C., Maggi, L., Mitchetti, G., Moioli, F., Pizzocaro, P., & Pugliese, C. (1998). Pneumonia due to Leptospira spp.: results of an epidemiological and clinical study. int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2, 766–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rose, H. O., Franson, T. R., Sheth, N. K., Chusid, M. J., Macher, A., & Zeirdt, C. H. (1983). Pseudomonas pneumonia associated with use of a home whirlpool spa. JAMA, 250, 2027–2029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rudi, K., Skulberg, O. M., & Jakobsen, K. S. (1998a). The evolution of cyanobacteria by exchange of genetic material among phletically related strains. J. Bacteriol., 180, 3453–3461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rudi, K., Skulberg, O. M., Larsen, F., & Jakobsen, K. S. (1998b). Quantification of toxic cyanobacteria in water by the use of competitive PCR followed by sequence-specific labeling of oligonucleotide probes. App. Env. Microbiol., 64, 2639–2643.Google Scholar
  39. Rusin, P. A., Rose, J. B., Haas, C. N., & Gerba, C. P. (1997). Risk assessment of opportunistic bacterial pathogens in drinking water. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 152, 57–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sasaki, D. M., Pang, L., Minette, H. P., Wakida, C. K., Fujimoto, W. J., Manea, S. J., Kunioka, R., & Middleton, C. R. (1993). Active surveillance and risk factors for leptospirosis in Hawaii. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 48, 35–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Savio, M. L., Rossi, C., Fusi, P., Tagliabue, S., & Pacciarini, M. L. (1994). Detection and identification of Leptospira interrogans serovars by PCR coupled with restriction endo-nuclease analysis of amplified DNA. J. Clin. Microbiol., 32, 935–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Scott, E. G., Russell, C. M., Noell, K. T., & Sproul, A. E. (1978). Aeromonas hydrophilia sepsis in a previously healthy man. JAMA, 239, 1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Seas, C., & Gotuzzo, E. (1999). Vibrio cholerae and other species, in: Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines (V. Yu, T. C. Merigan, S. L. Barriere, A. M. Suga, D. Raoult, C. Peloquin, & M. Iseman, eds.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 474–480.Google Scholar
  44. Sims, J. K., Enomoto, P. I., Frankel, R. I., & Wong, L. M. F. (1983). Marine bacteria complicating seawater near-drowning and marine wounds: a hypothesis. Ann. Emerg. Med., 12, 212–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Slatkin, D. N., Stoner, R. D., & Adams, W. H. (1983). Atypical pulmonary thrombosis caused by a toxic cyanobacterial peptide. Science, 220, 1383–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Straus, W. L., Plouffe, J. F., File, T. M., Lipman, H. B., Hackman, B. H., Salstrom, S. J., Benson, R. F., & Breiman, R. F. (1996). Risk factors for domestic acquisition of Legionnaires disease. Arch. Intern. Med., 156, 1685–1692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Takafuji, E. T., Kirkpatrick, J. W., Miller, R. N., Karwacki, J. J., Kelly, P. W., Gray, M. R., McNeill, K. M., Timboe, H. L., Kane, R. E., & Sanchez, J. L. (1984). An efficacy trial of doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against leptospirosis. N. Engl. J. Med., 310, 497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Trevejo, R. T., Rigau-Perez, J. G., Ashford, D. A., McClure, E. M., Jarquin-Gonzalez, C., Amador, J. J., de los Reyes, J. O., Gonzalez., A., Zaki, S. R., Shieh, W. J., McLean, R. G., Nasci, R. S., Weyant, R. S., Bolin, C. A., Bragg, S. L., Perkins, B. A., & Spiegel, R. A. (1998). Epidemic leptospirosis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage—Nicaragua, 1995. J. Infect. Dis., 178, 1457–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Turner, J. S., & Willcox, P. A. (1989). Respiratory failure in leptospirosis. Quart. J. Med., 296, 841–847.Google Scholar
  50. Turner, P. C., Gammie, A. J., Hollinrake, K., & Codd, G. A. (1990). Pneumonia associated with contact with cyanobacteria. Br. Med. J., 300, 1440–1441.Google Scholar
  51. VanDemark, P. J., & Batzing, B. L. (1986). The Microbes: An Introduction to their Nature and Importance. Reading, MA: Benjamin/Cummings, pp. 523–532; 901.Google Scholar
  52. Wenger, J. D., Hollis, D. G., Weaver, R. E., Baker, C. N., Brown, G. R., Brenner, D. J., & Broome, C. V. (1989). Infection caused by Francisella philomiragia (formerly Yersinia philomiragia). Ann. Intern. Med., 110, 888–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Winslow, W. E., Merry, D. J., Pirc, M. L., & Devine, P. L. (1997). Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in diagnosis of human leptospiral infection. J. Clin. Microbiol., 35, 1938–1942.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd F. Hatchette
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations