Vaccine Approaches for Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I

  • G. A. Dekaban
  • A. Peters
  • J. Arp
  • G. Franchini
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Virus Type Bovine Leukemia Virus Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Vaccine Approach Tropical Spastic Paraparesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Poiesz, B. J., Ruscetti, F. W., Gazdar, A. F., Bum, P. A., Minna, J. D., and Gallo, R. C., 1980, Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:7415–7419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yoshida, M., Miyoshi, I., and Hinuma, Y., 1992, Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:2031–2035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manns, A., and Blattner, W. A,, 1991, The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I and type 11: Etiologic role in human disease, Transfusion 31:67–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gessain, A., and de The, G., 1996, in: Advances in Virus Research (K. Maranorosch, F. A. Murphy, and A. J. Shatkin, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vernant, J.-C., Maurs, L., Gessain, A., Barin, F., Gout, O., Delaporte, K., Sanhadji, K., Buisson, G., and de The, G., 1987, Endemic tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I: A clinical and seroepidemiologic study of 25 cases, Ann. Neurol. 21:123–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Osame, M., Matsumoto, M., Usuku, K., Izumo, S., Ijichi, N., Amitani, H., Tara, M., and Igata, A., 1987, Chronic progressive myelopathy associated with elevated antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type I and adult T-cell leukemialike cells, Ann. Neurol. 21:117–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Osame, M., Usuku, K., Izumo, S., Ijuchi, N., Amatani, H., Igata, A., Matsumoto, M., and Tara, M., 1986, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity, Lancet 1:1031–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mann, D., DeSantis, P., Mark, G., Pfeifer, A., Newman, M., Gibbs, N., Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M., Gallo, R. C., Clark, J., and Blattner, W. A., 1987, HTLV-I-associated B-cell CLL: Indirect role for retrovirus in leukemogenesis, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 236:1103–1106.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nakada, K., Kohakura, M., Komoda, H., and Hinuma, Y., 1984, High incidence of HTLV antibody in carriers of Strongyloides stercoralis, Lancet 1:663.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katsuki, T., Katsuki, K., Imai, J., and Hinuma, Y., 1987, Immune suppression in healthy carriers of adult T-cell leukemia retrovirus (HTLV-1): Impairment of T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-cells, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 78:639–642.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsuzaki, H., Asou, N., Kawaguchi, Y., Hata, H., Yoshinaga, T., Kinuwaki, E., Ishii, T., Yamaguchi, K., and Takasuki, K., 1990, Human T-cell leukemiavirus type 1 associated with small cell lung cancer, Cancer 66:1763–1768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asou, N., Kumagai, T., Uekihara, S., Ishii, M., Sato, M., Sakai, K., Nishimura, H., Yamaguchi, K., and Takatsuki, K., 1986, HTLV-I seroprevalence in patients with malignancy, Cancer 58:903–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taguchi, H., Kobayashi, M., and Miyoshi, I., 1991, Immunosuppression by HTLV-I infection, Lancet 337:308–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Welles, S. L., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Shioiri, S., Ishihara, S., Murai, K., and Mueller, N. E., 1994, Decreased reactivity to PPD among HTLV-I carriers in relation to virus and hematological status, Int. J. Cancer 56:337–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Legrande, L., Hanchard, B., Fletcher, V., Cranston, B., and Blattner, W., 1990, Infective dermatitis of Jamaican children: A marker for HTLV-I infection, Lancet 3361345–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ijichi, S., Matsuda, T., Maruyama, I., Izumihara, T., Kojima, K., Niimura, T., Maruyama, Y., Sonoda, S., Yoshida, A., and Osame, M., 1990, Arthritis in a human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) carrier, Ann Rheum. Dis. 49:718–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mochizuki, M., Watanabe, T., Yamaguchi, K., Yoshimura, K., Nakashima, S., Shirao, M., Araki, S., Takatsuki, R, Mori, S., and Miyata, N., 1992, Uveitis associatedwith human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 114123–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mochizuki, M., Watanabe, T., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, R, Yoshimura, K, Shirao, M., Nakashima, S., Mori, S., Araki, S., and Miyata, N., 1991, HTLV-I uveitis: A distinct clinical entity caused by HTLV-I, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83:236–239.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mochizuki, M., Tajima, K., Watanabe, T., and Yamaguchi, K., 1994, Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 uveitis, Br.J. Ophthalmol. 78149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gessain, A., and Gout, O., 1992, Chronic myelopathy associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), Ann Intern. Med. 117:933–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaplan, J. E., Osame, M., Kubota, H., Nishitani, H., Maeda, Y., Khabbaz, R. F., and Janssen, R., 1990, The risk of development of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis among persons infected with HTLV-I,J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 3:1096–1101.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mueller, N., 1991, The epidemiology of HTLV-I infection, Cancer Causes Control Pap. Symp. 2:37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tajima, K., and The T-and B-Cell Malignancy Study Group and Coauthors, 1990, The 4th nation-wide study of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in Japan: Estimates of risk of ATL and its geographical and clinical features, Int. J.Cancer 45:237–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bomford, R., Kazanji, M., and de The, G., 1997, Vaccine against human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus type I: Progress and prospects, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 12:403–405.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kinoshita, K., Amagasaki, T., Hino, S., Doi, H., Yamanouchi, K., Ban, N., Momita, S., Ikeda, S., Kamihira, S., Ichimaru, M., Katamine, S., Miyamoto, T., Tsuji, Y., Ishimaru, T., Yamabe, T., Ito, M., Kamura, S., and Tsuda, T., 1987, Milk-borne transmission of HTLV-I from carrier mothers to their children, Jpn. J, Cancer Res. (Gann) 78:674–680.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Narita, M., Shibata, M., Togashi, T., and Koga, Y., 1991, Vertical transmission of human T cell leukemia virus type I, J. Infect. Dis. 163:204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stuver, S. O., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., and Mueller, N. E., 1996, Evaluation of morbidity among human T lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers in Miyazaki, Japan, J. Infect. Dis. 173:584–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams, A. E., Fang, C. T., Slamon, D., Poiesz, B. J., Sandler, S., Darr, W., Shulman, G., McGowan, E., Douglas, D., Bowman, R., Peetoom, F., Kleinman, S., Lenes, B., and Dodd, R., 1988, Seroprevalence and epidemiological correlates of HTLV-I infection in US. blood donors, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 240:643–649.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee, H. H., Swanson, P., Rosenblatt, J. D., Chen, I. S., Sherwood, W. C., Smith, D. E., Tegtmeier, G. E., Fernando, L. P., Fang, C. T., and Osame, M., 1991, Relative prevalence and risk factors of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in US blood donors, Lancet 337:1435–1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee, H. H., Weiss, S. H., Brown, L. S., Mildvan, D., Shorty, V., Saravolatz, L., Chu, A., Ginzburg, H. M., Markowitz, N., and Des, J. D., 1990, Patterns of HIV-1 and HTLV-I/II in intravenous drug abusers from the middle atlantic and central regions of the USA, J. Infect. Dis. 162:347–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee, H., Swanson, P., Shorty, V., Zack, J., Rosenblatt, J. D., and Chen, I. S. Y., 1989, High rate of HTLV-II infection in seropositive IV drug abusers in New Orleans, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 244:471–476.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stuver, S., Tachibana, S., Okayama, A., Shioiri, S., Tsunetoshi, Y., Tsuda, K., and Mueller, N., 1993, Heterosexual transmission of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I among married couples in southwestern Japan: An initial report from the Miyazaki Cohort Study, J. Infect. Dis. 167:57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dekaban, G. A., King, E., Waters, D., and Rice, G., 1992, Nucleotide sequence analysis of an HTLV-I isolate from a Chilean patient with HAM/TSP, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 8:1201–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Power, C., Weinshenker, B. G., Dekaban, G. A., Kaufman, J. C. E., and Rice, G. P. A., 1991, Pathological and molecular biologcal features of a myelopathy associated with HTLV-I infection, Can.J. Neurol. Sci. 18:352–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dekaban, G. A., Inwood, M., Waters, D., Drouin, J., and Teitel, J., 1992, Absence of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II infection in an Ontario hemophilia population, Transfusion 32:513–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Picard, F. J., Coulthart, M. B., Oger, J., King, E. E., Kim, S., Arp, J., Rice, G. P. A., and Dekaban, G. A., 1995, Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in coastal natives of British Columbia: Phylogenetic affinities and possible origins, J. Virol. 69:7248–7256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    The HTLV European Research Network, 1996, Seroepidemiology of the human T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma viruses in Europe, J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 13:68–77.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schechter, M., Moulton, L. H., and Harrison, L. H., 1997, HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts in subjects coinfected with HTLV-1 and HIV-1, J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 15308–311.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schechter, M., Harrison, L. H., Halsey, N. A., Trade, G., Santino, M., Moulton, L. H., and Quinn, T. C., 1994, Coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and HIV in Brazil. Impact on markers in HIV disease progression, JAMA 271:353–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yamamoto, N., Okada, M., Koyanagi, Y., Kannagi, M., and Hinuma, Y., 1982, Transformation of human leukocytes by cocultivation with an adult T cell leukemia producer cell line, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 217:737–739.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Okochi, K., and Sato, H., 1986, Transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) through blood transfusion and its prevention, AIDS Res. 2:S157–S161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fan, N., Gavalchin, J., Paul, B., Wells, R, Lane, M. J., and Poiesz, B. J., 1992, Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cell lines by cell-free human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:905–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clapham, P., Nagy, K., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Exley, M., and Weiss, R., 1983, Productive infection and cell-free transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus in a nonlymphoid cell line, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 222:1125–1127.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Macchi, B., Popovic, B., Allavena, P., Ortaldo, J., Gallo, R. C., and Bonmassar, E., 1987, In vitro susceptibility of different human T-cell subpopulations and resistance of large granular lymphocytes to HTLV-I infection, Int.J. Cancer 40:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Macchi, B., Popovic, M., Allavena, P., Rossi, P., Gallo, R. C., and Bonmassar, E., 1987, Differential susceptibility of human mononuclear cells to infection with HTLV-I, Int. J. Tiss. React. 9:195–198.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koyanagi, Y., Itoyama, Y., Nakamura, N., Takamatsu, K., Kira, J., Iwamasa, T., Goto, I., and Yamamoto, N., 1993, In vivo infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in non-T cells, Virology 196:25–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ho, D. D., Rota, T. R., and Hirsch, M. S., 1984, Infection of human endothelial cells by human T-lymphotropic virus type I, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:7588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoffman, P. M., Dhib-Jalbut, S., Mikovits, J. A., Robbins, D. S., Wolf, A. L., Bergey, G. K., Lohrey, N. C., Weislow, O. S., and Ruscetti, F. W., 1992, Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection of monocytes and microglial cells in primary human cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 89:11784–11788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Suga, T., Kameyama, T., Shimotohno, R, Matsumura, M., Tanaka, H., Kushida, S., Ami, Y., Uchida, M., Uchida, IC, and Miwa, M., 1991, Infection of rats with HTLV-I: A small-animal model for HTLV-I carriers, Int. J. Cancer 49:764–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cockerell, G. L., Lairmore, M. D., De, B., Rovnak, J., Hartley, T. M., and Miyoshi, I., 1990, Persistent infection of rabbits with HTLV-I: Patterns of anti-viral antibody reactivity and detection of virus by gene amplification, Int. J. Cancer 45:127–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Eguchi, T., Kubonishi, I., Daibata, M., Yano, S., Imamura, J., Ohtsuki, Y., and Miyoshi, I., 1988, Serial transplantation of an HTLV-I-transformed hamster lymphoid cell line into hamsters, Int. J. Cancer 41:868–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Seto, A., Kawanishi, M., Matsuda, S., Ogawa, R, Eguchi, T., and Miyoshi, I., 1987, Induction of preleukemic stage of adult T cell leukemia-like disease in rabbits, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 78:1150–1155.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yoshiki, T., Kondo, N., Chubachi, T., Tateno, M., Togashi, T., and Itoh, T., 1987, Rat lymphoid cell lines with HTLV-I production. III. Transmission of HTLV-I into rats and analysis of cell surface antigens associated with HTLV-I, Arch. Virol. 97:181–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nakamura, H., Hayami, M., Ohta, Y., Ishikawa, R, Tsujimoto, H., Kiyokawa, T., Yoshida, M., Sasagawa, A., and Honjo, S., 1987, Protection of cynomolgus monkeys against infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type I by immunization with viral env gene products produced in Escherichia coli, Int. J. Cancer 40:403–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Truckenmiller, M. E., Kulaga, H., Gugel, E., Dickerson, D., and Kindt, T. J., 1989, Evidence for dual infection of rabbits with the human retroviruses HTLV-I and HIV-I, Res. Immunol. 140:527–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ishiguro, N., Abe, M., Seto, R, Sakurai, H., Ikeda, H., Wakisaka, A., Togashi, T., Tateno, M., and Yoshiki, T., 1992, A rat model of human T lymphocyte virus type 1 (HTLV-I) infection. 1. Humoral antibody response, provirus integration, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis-like myelopathy in seronegative HTLV-I carrier rats, J. Exp. Med. 176:981–989.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, R., Terada, E., Koyanagi, Y., Miyano-Kurosaki, N., Yamamoto, N., Baba, E., Nakamura, M., and Shida, H., 1994, Induction of antibody responses that neutralize human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in vitro andin vivo by peptide immunization, J. Virol. 68:6323–6331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kalyanaraman, V. S., Sarngadharan, M. G., Bunn, P. A., Minna, J. D., and Gallo, R. C., 1981, Antibodies in human sera reactive against an internal structural protein of human T-cell lymphoma virus, Nature 294271–273.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Manns, A., Murphy, E. L., Wilks, R., Haynes, G., Figueroa, J., Hanchard, B., Barnett, M., Drummond, J., Waters, D., Cerney, M., Seals, J., Alexander, S. S., Lee, H., and Blattner, W. A., 1991, Detection of early human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I antibody patterns during seroconversion among transfusion recipients, Blood 77:896–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sinclair, A., Habeshaw, J., Muir, L., Chandler, P., Forster, S., Cruickshank, K., and Dalgleish, A. G., 1988, Antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Comparison between HTLV-I and HIV-I assays, AIDS 2:465–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Clapham, P., Nagy, K, and Weiss, R., 1984, Pseudotypes of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2: Neutralization by patient sera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:2886–2889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nagy, K., Clapham, P., Cheingsong-Popov, R., and Weiss, R., 1983, Human T-cell leukemia virus type I: Induction of syncytia and inhibition by patients’ sera, Int. J.Cancer 32:321–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jacobson, S., Shida, H., McFarlin, D. E., Fauci, A., and Koenig, S., 1990, Circulating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for HTLV-I pX in patients with HTLV-I associated neurological disease, Nature 348:245–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Parker, C. E., Daenke, S., Nightingale, S., and Bangham, C. R., 1992, Activated, HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are found in healthy seropositives as well as in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis, Virology 188:628–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kunitomi, T., Takigawa, H., Sugita, M., Nouno, S., Suemune, M., Inoue, M., Kodani, N., Oda, M., and Ikeda, M., 1990, Antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity and natural killer activity against HTLV-I infected cells, Acta Paediatr. Jpn. 32:16–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhang, X., Yang, L., Ho, D., Kuritzkes, D., Chen, I. S. Y., Ching, W., Chen, Y. M., and Schooley, R., 1992, Human T lymphotropic virus types I-and 11-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: Strain specificity and epitope mapping, J. Infect. Dis. 165:805–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Komurian, F., Pelloquin, F., and de The, G., 1991, In vivo genomic variability of human T-cell leukemia virus type I depends more upon geography than upon pathologies, J. Virol. 65:3770–3778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hoshino, H., Nakamura, T., Tanaka, Y., Miyoshi, I., and yanagihara, R., 1993, Functional conservation of the neutralizing domains on the external envelope glycoprotein of cosmopolitan and Melanesian strains of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I, J. Infect. Dis. 168:1368–1378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Benson, J., Tschachler, E., Gessain, A., Yanagihara, R., Gallo, R. C., and Franchini, G., 1994, Cross-neutralizing antibodies against cosmopolitan and Melanesian strains of human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I in sera from inhabitants of Africa and the Solomon Islands, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 10:91–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Levy, J. A., 1998, HIV and the Pathogenesis ofAIDS, 2nd ed., ASM Press, Chapter 7, pp. 137–174.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hoshino, H., Nakamura, T., Tanaka, Y., Miyoshi, I., and yanagihara, I., 1993, Functional conservation of the neutralizing domains on the external envelope glycoprotein of cosmopolitan and Melanesian strains of human T cell leukemia/lymphomavirus type 1, J. Infect. Dis. 168:1368–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tanaka, Y., Ishii, R, Sawada, T., Ohtsuki, Y., Hoshino, H., Yanagihara, R., and Miyoshi, I., 1993, Prophylaxis against a Melanesian variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in rabbits using HTLV-I immune globulin from asymptomatically infected Japanese carriers, Blood 82:3664–3667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jarrett, O., 1996, Efficacy of recombinant feline leukemia virus vaccines, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 12:435–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hoover, E. A., Mullins, J. I., Chu, H. J., and Wasmoen, T. L., 1997, Development and testing of an inactivated feline leukemia virus vaccine, Semin. Vet. Med. Surg. (Small Anim.) 10:238–243.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Earl, P., Moss, B., Morrison, B., Wehrly, K., Nishio, J., and Chesebro, B., 1986, T-Lymphotropic priming and protection against Friend leukemia by vaccinia-retrovirus env gene recombinant, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 234:728–731.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miyazawa, M., Nishio, J., and Chesebro, B., 1992, Protection against Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia by recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the gag gene, J. Virol. 66:4497–4507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Marx, P. A., Pederson, N. C., Lerche, N. W., Osborn, K. G., Lowenstine, L. J., Lacker, A. A., Maul, D. H., Kwang, H.-S., Kluge, J. D., Zaiss, C. P., Sharpe, V., Spinner, A. P., Allison, A. C., and Gardner, M. B., 1986, Isolation of a new serotype of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome type D retrovirus from Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra) with immune deficiency and retroperitoneal fibromatosis, J. Virol. 60:431–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brody, B. A., Hunter, E., Kluge, J. D., Lasarow, R., Gardner, M. B., and Marx, P. A., 1992, Protection of macaques against infection with simian type D retrovirus (SRV-1) by immunization with recombinant vaccine virus expressing the envelope glycoproteins of either SRV-1 or Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (SRV-3), J. Virol. 66:3950–3954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sarin, P., and Gallo, R. C., 1998, Lymphotropic retroviruses of animals and man, Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 32227–250.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hopkins, S. G., and DiGiacomo, R. F., 1997, Natural transmission of bovine leukemiavirus in dairy and beef cattle, Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13:107–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ohishi, K., Suzuki, H., Yamamoto, T., Maruyama, T., Miki, K., Ikawa, Y., Numakunai, S., Okada, K., Ohshima, K., and Sugimoto, M., 1991, Protective immunity against bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) induced in carrier sheep by inoculation with a vaccinia virus-BLV env recombinant: Association with cell-mediated immunity, J. Gen. Virol. 72:1887–1892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Callebaut, I., Voneche, V., Mager, A., Fumiere, O., Krchnak, V., Merza, M., Zavada, J., Mammerickx, M., Burny, A., and Portetelle, D., 1993, Mapping of B-neutralizing and T-helper cell epitopes on the bovine leukemia virus external glycoprotein gp51, J. Virol. 67:5321–5327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gatei, M. H., Naif, H. M., Kumar, S., Boyle, D. B., Daniel, R. C. W., Good, M. F., and Lavin, M. F., 1993, Protection of sheep against bovine leukemiavirus (BLV) infection byvaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing BLV envelope glycoproteins: Correlation of protection with CD4+ T-cell response to gp51 peptide 51–70, J. Virol. 67:1803–1810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gatei, M. H., Good, M. F., Daniel, R. C. W., and Lavin, M. F., 1993, T-cell responses to highly conserved CD4 and CD8 epitopes on the outer membrane protein of bovine leukemia virus: Relevance to vaccine development, J. Virol. 67:1796–1802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ohishi, K., and Ikawa, Y., 1996, T cell-mediated destruction of bovine leukemia virus-infected peripheral lymphocytes by bovine leukemia virus env-vaccinia recombinant vaccine, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir 12:393–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tanaka, Y., Tozawa, H., Koyanagi, Y., and Shida, H., 1990, Recognition of human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) gag and pXgene products by MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced in rats against syngeneic HTLV-I-infected cells, J. Immunol. 144:4202–4211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Noguchi, Y., Tateno, M., Kondo, N., Yoshiki, T., Shida, H., Nakayama, E., and Shiku, H., 1989, Rat cytotoxic T lymphocytes against human T-lymphotrophic virus type I-infected cells recognize gag gene and env gene encoded antigens, J. Immunol. 143:3737–3742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hori, M., Ami, Y., Kushida, S., Kobayashi, M., Uchida, K., Abe, M., and Miwa, M., 1995, Intrauterine transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in rats, J. Virol. 69:1302–1305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hirose, S., Kotani, S., Uemura, Y., Fujishita, M., Taguchi, H., Ohtsuki, Y., and Miyoshi, I., 1988, Milk-borne transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I in rabbits, Virology 162:487–489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yoshiki, T., Tateno, M., Sakurai, H., Ishiguro, N., Ikeda, H., and Wakisaka, A., 1992, A rat model of HTLV-I infection, Gann Monogr. Cancer Res. 39205–216.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lairmore, M. D., Roberts, B. D., Frank, D., Rovnak, J., Weiser, M. G., and Cockerell, G. L., 1991, Comparative biological responses of rabbits infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I isolates from patients with lymphoproliferative and neurodegenerative disease, Int. J. Cancer 49:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ibrahim, F., Fiette, L., Gessain, A., Buissan, N., de The, G., and Bonford, R., 1994, Infection of rats with human T-cell leukemia virus type-I susceptibility of inbred strains, antibody response and provirus location, Int. J. Cancer 58:446–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kazanji, M., Bomford, R., Bessereau, J.-L., and de The, G., 1997, Expression and immunogeneity in rats of recombinant adenovirus 5 DNA plasmids and vaccinia virus containing the HTLV-I env gene, Int. J. Cancer 71:300–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kazanji, M., Moreau, J. P., Mahieux, R., Bonnemains, B., Bomford, R., Gessain, A., and de The, G., 1997, HTLV-I infection in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) using autologous, homologous, or heterologous HTLV-I-transformed cell lines, Virology 231:258–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Neurath, A. R., Adamowicz, P., Kent, S. B. H., Riottot, M. M., Strick, N., Parker, R, Offensperger, W., Petit, M. A., Wahl, S., Budkowska, A., Girard, M., and Pillot, J., 1986, Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the pre-S2 region of the hepatitis B virus envelope protein, Mol. Immunol. 23:991–997.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Petit, M. A., Maillard, P., Capel, F., and Pillot, J., 1986, Immunochemical structure of the hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine-11. Analysis of antibody responses in human sera against the envelope proteins, Mol. Immunol. 23:511–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Waters, J., Pignatelli, S., Galpin, K., Ishihara, K., and Thomas, H. C., 1986, Virus-neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis B virus: The nature of an immunogenic epitope on the S gene peptide, J. Gen. Virol. 67:2467–2473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ogawa, K., Matsuda, S., and Seto, A., 1989, Induction of leukemic infiltration by allogeneic transfer of HTLV-I-transformed T cells in rabbits, Leuk. Res. 13:399–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Seto, A., Kawanishi, M., Matsuda, S., Ogawa, R, and Miyoshi, I., 1988, Adult T cell leukemia-like disease experimentally induced in rabbits, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 79:335–341.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kushida, S., Mizusawa, H., Matsumura, M., Tanaka, H., Ami, Y., Hori, M., Yagami, K., Kameyama, T., Tanaka, Y., Yoshida, A., Nyunoya, H., Shimotohno, K., Iwasaki, Y., Uchida, K., and Miwa, M., 1994, High incidence of HAM/TSP-like symptoms in WKA rats after administration of human T-cell leukemia virus type I-producing cells, J. Virol. 68:7221–7226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kazanji, M., Ibrahim, F., Fiette, L., Bomford, R., and de The, G., 1997, Role of the genetic background of rats in infection by HTLV-I and HTLV-II and the development of associated diseases, Int.J. Cancer 73:131–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ishihara, S., Tachibana, N., Okayama, A., Murai, R, Tsuda, K., and Mueller, N., 1992, Successful graft of HTLV-I-transformed human T-cells (MT-2) in severe combined immunodeficiency mice treated with anti-asialo GM-1 antibody, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83:320–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Feuer, G., Zack, J. A., Harrington, W., Valderama, R., Rosenblatt, J. D., Wachsman, W., Baird, S. M., and Chen, I. S. Y., 1993, Establishment of human T-cell leukemiavirus type I T-cell lymphomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice, Blood 82:722–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schiedner, G., Morral, N., Parks, R. J., Wu, Y., Koopsmans, S. C., Langston, C., Graham, F. L., Beaudet, A. L., and Kochanek, S., 1998, Genomic DNA transfer with a high-capacity adenovirus vector results in improved in vivo gene expression and decreased toxicity, Nature Genet. 18:180–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sommerfelt, M., Williams, B., Clapham, P., Solomon, E., Goodfellow, P., and Weiss, R., 1988, Human T cell leukemia viruses use a receptor determined by human chromosome 17, Ann N Y. Acad. Sci. 242:1557–1560.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ford, C. M., Arp, J., Palker, T. J., King, E., and Dekaban, G. A., 1992, Characterization of the antibody response to three different versions of the HTLV-I envelope protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses: Induction of neutralizing antibody, Virology 191:448–455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Arp, J., Ford, C. M., Palker, T. J., King, E., and Dekaban, G. A, 1993, Expression and immunogenicity of the entire human T cell leukaemia virus type I envelope protein produced in a baculovirus system, J. Gen. Virol. 74:211–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Blakeslee, J. R., McClure, M. H., Anderson, D. C., Bauer, R. M., Huff, L. Y., and Olsen, R. G., 1986, Chronic fatal disease in gorillas seropositive for simian T-lymphotropic virus I antibodies, CancerLett. 37:1–6.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Homma, T., Kanki, P. J., King, N. M., Hunt, R. D., O’Connell, M. J., Letvin, N. L., Daniel, M. D., Desrosiers, R. C., Yang, C. S., and Essex, M., 1984, Lymphoma in macaques: Association with virus of human T-lymphotropic family, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 225:716–718.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tsujimoto, H., Noda, Y., Ishibishi, K., Nakamura, H., Fukasawa, M., Sakakibara, I., Sasagawa, M., Honjo, S., and Hayami, M., 1987, Development of adult T-cell leukemia-like disease in African green monkey associated with clonal integration of simian T-cell leukemia virus type I, Cancer Res. 47:269–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schatzl, H., Tschikobava, M., Rose, D., Voevodin, A., Nitschko, H., Sieger, E., Busch, U., von der Helm, K., and Lapin, B., 1993, The Sukhumi primate monkey model for viral lymphomogenesis: High incidence of lymphomas with presence of STLV-I and EBV-like virus, Leukemia 7(Suppl. 2):S86–S92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shida, H., Tochikura, T., Sato, T., Konno, T., Hirayoshi, R, Seki, M., Ito, Y., Hatanaka, M., Hinuma, Y., Sugimoto, M., Takahashi-Nishimaki, F., Maruyama, T., Miki, K., Suzuki, K., Morita, M., Sashiyama, H., and Hayami, M., 1987, Effect of recombinant vaccinia viruses, EMBOJ. 6:3379–3384.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Takehara, N., Iwahara, Y., Uemura, Y., Sawada, T., Ohtsuki, Y., Hoshino, H., and Miyoshi, I., 1989, Effect of immunization on HTLV-I infection in rabbits, Int.J. Cancer 44:332–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hakoda, E., Machida, H., Tanaka, Y., Morishita, N., Sawada, T., Shida, H., Hoshino, H., and Miyoshi, I., 1995, Vaccination for rabbits with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the envelope gene of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I, Int. J.Cancer 60:567–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kataoka, R., Takehara, N., Iwahara, Y., Sawada, T., Ohtsuki, Y., Dawei, Y., Hoshino, H., and Miyoshi, I., 1990, Transmission of HTLV-I by blood transfusion and its prevention by passive immunization in rabbits, Blood 76:1657–1661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Miyoshi, I., Takehara, N., Sawada, T., Iwahara, Y., Kataoka, R., Yang, D., and Hoshino, H., 1992, Immunoglobulin prophylaxis against HTLV-I in a rabbit model, Leukemia 6:24–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Murata, N., Hakado, E., Machida, H., Ikezoe, T., Sawada, T., Hoshino, H., and Miyoshi, I., 1996, Prevention of human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection in Japanese macaques by passive immunization, Leukemia 10:1971–1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dezzutti, C. S., Frazier, D., Lafrado, L., and Olsen, R., 1990, Evaluation of a HTLV-I subunit vaccine in prevention of experimental STLV-I infection in Macaca nemestrina, J. Med. Primatol. 19:305–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Dezzutti, C. S., Frazier, D., Huff, L., Stromberg, P., and Olsen, R., 1990, Subunit vaccine protects Macaca nemestrina (Pig-tailed Macaque) against simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I challenge, CancerRes. 50:5687s–5691s.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Grassmann, R., Dengler, C., Muller-Fleckenstein, I., Fleckenstein, B., McGuire, K., Dokhelar, M. C., Sodroski, J., and Haseltine, W., 1989, Transformation to continuous growth of primary human T lymphocytes by human T-cell leukemia virus type I X-region genes transduced by a Herpesvirus saimirivector, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:3351–3355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Franchini, G., Mulloy, J. C., Koralnik, I.J., Lo Monico, A., Sparkowski, J.J., Andresson, T., Goldstein, D. J., and Schlegel, R., 1993, The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I p121 protein cooperates with the E5 oncoprotein of bovine papillomavirus in cell transformation and binds the 16-kilodalton subunit of the vacuolar H+ ATPase, J. Virol. 67:7701–7704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vile, R. G., Schulz, T. F., Danos, 0. F., Collins, M. R, and Weiss, R., 1991, A murine cell line producing HTLV-I pseudotype virions carrying a selectable marker gene, Virology 180:420–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wilson, C., Reitz, M., Okayama, H., and Eiden, M., 1989, Formation of infectious hybrid virions with Gibbon ape leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia virus retroviral envelope glycoproteins and the gag and pol proteins of Moloney murine leukemia virus, J. Virol. 63:2374–2378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Denesvre, C., Carrington, C., Corbin, A., Takeuchi, Y., Cosset, F.-C., Schulz, T., Sitbon, M., and Sonigo, P., 1996, TM domain swapping of murine leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia virus envelopes confers different infectious abilities despite similar incorporation into virions, J. Virol. 70:4380–4386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hu, S.-L., Abrams, K., Barber, G., Moran, P., Zarling, J., Langlois, A., Kuller, L., Morton, W., and Benveniste, R., 1992, Protection of macaques against SIV infection by subunit vaccines of SIV envelope glycoprotein gp160, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 255:456–459.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Franchini, G., Tartaglia, J., Markham, P., Benson, J., Fullen, J., Wills, J., Arp, J., Dekaban, G. A., Paoletti, E., and Gallo, R., 1995, Highly attenuated HTLV type I, poxvirus vaccines induce protection against a cell associated HTLV-I challenge in rabbits, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 11:307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lubeck, M. D., Natuk, R., Myagkikh, M., Kalyan, N., Aldrich, R, Sinangil, F., Alipanah, S., Murthy, S. C. S., Chanda, P., Nigida, S. M., Markham, P., Zolla-Pazner, S., Steimer, R, Wade, M., Reitz, M. S., Arthor, L. O., Mizutani, S., Davis, A., Hung, P. P., Gallo, R. C., Eichberg, J, and Rober-Guroff, M., 1997, Long-term protection of chimpanzees against high-dose HIV-I challenge induced by immunization, Nature Med. 3:651–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kim, J. J., Begarazzi, M. L., Trivedi, N., Hu, Y., Kazahaya, K., Wilson, D. M., Ciccarelli, R., Chaattergoon, M. A., Dang, R, Mahalingam, S., Chalin, A. A., Agagjanyan, M. G., Boyer, J. D., Wang, B., and Weiner, D. B., 1997, Engineering of in vivoimmune responses to DNA immunization via codelivery of costimulatory molecules genes, Nature Biotechnol. 15:651–646.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fynan, E., Webster, R., Fuller, D., Haynes, J. R., Santoro, J., and Robinson, H., 1993, DNA vaccines: Protective immunizations by parenteral, mucosal, and gene-gun inoculations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11478–11482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ugen, K. E., Agadjanyan, M. G., Wang, B., Merva, M., Williams, W. V., and Weiner, D. B., 1994, Genetic immunization against HTLV-I, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir 10:445.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Agadjanyan, M. G., Wang, B., Nyland, S. B., Weiner, D. B., and Ugen, K. E., 1998, DNA plasmid based vaccination against the oncogenic human T cell leukemiavirus type I, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 226:175–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Boyle, J. S., Koniaras, C., and Lew, A. M., 1997, Influence of cellular location of expressed antigen on the efficacy of DNA vaccination: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses are suboptimal when antigen is cytoplasmic after intramuscular DNA immunization, Int. Immunol. 9:1897–1906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ruegg, C., Monell, C., and Strand, M., 1989, Identification, using synthetic peptides, of the minimum amino acid sequence from the retroviral transmembrane protein p15E required for inhibition of lymphoproliferation and its similarity to gp21 of human T-lym-photropic virus types I and II, J. Virol. 63:3250–3256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lafrado, L., Lewis, M., Mathes, I., and Olsen, R., 1987, Suppression of in vitro neutrophil function by feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and purified FeLV-p15E, J.Gen.Virol. 68:507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shida, H., Tochikura, T., Sato, T., Konno, T., Hirayoshi, K., Seki, M., Ito, Y., Hatanaka, M., Hinuma, Y., Sugimoto, M., Takahashi-Nishimaki, F., Maruyama, T., Miki, K., Suzuki, R, Morita, M., Sashiyama, H., and Hayami, M., 1987, Effect of the recombinant vaccinia viruses that express HTLV-I envelope gene on HTLV-I infection, EMBOJ. 6:3379–3384.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kageyama, S., Katsumoto, T., Taniguchi, R, Ismail, S. I., Shimmen, T., Sasao, F., Gao, M., Owatari, S., Wakamiya, N., Tsuchie, H., Ueda, S., and Kurimura, T., 1996, Neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) with antibody from carriers’ plasma against HIV-1 protein p17, Acta Virol. 40:195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Papsidero, L. D., Sheu, M., and Ruscetti, F. W., 1989, Human immunodeficiency virus type-I-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies which react with p17 core protein, J. Virol. 63:267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Emini, E. A., Schleif, W. A., Quintero, J. C., Conard, P. G., Eichberg, J., Vlasuk, G. P., Lehman, E. D., Polokoff, M. A. Schaeffer, T. F., Schultz, L. D., Hofmann, K. J., Lewis, J. A., and Larson, V. M., 1990, Yeast-expressed p55 precursor core protein of human immuno-deficiency virus type 1 does not elicit protective immunity in chimpanzees, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 6:1247–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Buseyne, F., McChesney, M., Porrot, F., Kovarik, S., Guy, B., and Riviere, Y., 1993, Gagspecific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals: Gag epitopes are clustered in three regions of the p24gag protein, J. Virol. 67:694–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wiktor, S. Z., Pate, E. J., Murphy, E. L., Palker T.J., Champegnie, E., Ramlal, A., Cranston, B., Hanchard, B., and Blattner, W. A., 1993, Mother-to-child tranmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I(HTLV-I) in Jamaica: Association with antibodies to envelope glycoprotein (gp46) epitopes. J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 6:1162–1167.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Green, J., Hinrichs, S. H., Vogel, J., and Jay, G., 1989, Exocrinopathy resembling Sjogren’s syndrome in HTLV-I tax transgenic mice, Nature 341:72–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Parker, C. E., Nightingale, S., Taylor, G. P., Weber, J., and Bangham, C. R., 1994, Circulating anti-Tax cytotoxic T lymphocytes from human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected people, with and without tropical spastic paraparesis, recognize multiple epitopes simultaneously, J. Virol. 68:2860–2868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Greene, W. C., Bohnlein, E., and Ballard, D. W., 1989, HIV-1, HTLV-I and normal T-cell growth: Transcriptional strategies and surprises, Immunol. Today 10:272–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kelly, K., Davis, P., Mitsuya, H., Irving, S., Wright, J., Grassmann, R., Fleckenstein, B., Wano, Y., Greene, W. C., and Siebenlist, U., 1992, A high proportion of early response genes are constitutively activated in T cells by HTLV-I, Oncogene 7:1463–1470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gartenhaus, R., Lunardi-Iskandar, Y., Berneman, Z., Reitz, M., Gallo, R. C., and Klotman, M., 1994, Soluble recombinant HTLV-Itax protein has proliferative effects on cells of lymphoid origin, J. Clin. Invest.:1–34.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schonbach, C., Nokihara, K., Bangham, C. R., Kariyone, A., Karaki, S., Shida, H., Takatsu, K., Egawa, K., Weismuller, K., and Takiguchi, M., 1996, Identification of HTLV-I-specific CTL directed against synthetic and naturally processed peptides in HLA-B*3501transgenic mice, Virology 226:102–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lal, R. B., Giam, C. Z., Coligan, J. E., and Rudolph, D. L., 1994, Differential immune responsiveness to the immunodominant epitopes of regulatory proteins (Tax and Rex) in human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy, J. Infect. Dis. 169:496–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kuga, T., Hattori, S., Yoshida, M., and Taniguchi, T., 1986, Expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I envelope protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gene 44:337–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Arp, J., LeVatte, M., Rowe, J., Perkins, S., King, E., Leystra-Lantz, C., Foung, S. K., and Dekaban, G. A., 1996, A source of glycosylated human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: Expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase system, J. Virol. 70:7349–7359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hadlock, K. G., Rowe, J., Perkins, S., Bradshaw, P., Song, G.Y., Cheng, C., Yang, J., Gascon, R., Halmos, J., Rehman, S. M. M., McGrath, M. S., and Foung, S. K., 1997, Neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 gp46, J. Virol. 71:5828–5840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Palker, T. J., Tanner, M., Scearce, R., Streilein, R., Clark, M., and Haynes, B., 1989, Mapping of immunogenic regions of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) gp46 and gp21 envelope glycoproteins with env-encoded synthetic peptides and a monoclonal antibody to gp46, J. Immunol. 142:971–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, R., and Hoshino, H., 1994, Identification of a novel neutralization epitope on envelope gp46 antigen of human T-cell-leukemia virus-type-I1 (HTLV-II), Int, J. Cancer 59:655–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Baba, E., Nakamura, M., Tanaka, Y., Kuroki, M., Itoyama, Y., Nakano, S., and Niho, Y., 1993, Multiple neutralizing B-cell epitopes of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) identified by human monoclonal antibodies, J. Immunol. 151:1013–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Palker, T. J., Riggs, E., Spragion, D., Muir, A., Scearce, R., Randall, R., McAdams, M., McKnight, A., Clapham, P., Weiss, R., and Haynes, B., 1992, Mapping of homologous, amino-terminal neutralizing regions of humanT-cell lymphotropic virustypeI and II gp46 envelope glycoproteins, J.Virol. 66:5879–5889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Manca, F., Li Pira, G., Fenoglio, D., Valle, M., Kunkl, A., Ferraris, A., Lancia, F., Saverino, D., Mortara, L., Balderas, R., Arp, J., Dekaban, G., Dalgleish, A., Lozzi, L., and Theofilopoulos, A., 1995, Recognition of human T-leukemia virus (HTLV-I) envelope by human CD4+ T-cell lines from HTLV-I seronegative individuals: Specificity and clonal heterogeneity, Blood 85:1547–1554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bab, E., Nakamura, M., Ohkuma, K., Kira, J. I., Tanaka, Y., Nakano, S., and Niho, Y., 1995, A peptide based human T-cell leukemia virus type I vaccine containing T and B cell epitopes that induces high titers of neutralizing antibodies, J. Immunol. 154:399–412.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ralston, S., Hoeprich, P., and Akita, R., 1989, Identification and synthesis of the epitope for a human monoclonal antibody which can neutralize human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I, J. Biol. Chem. 264:16343–16346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Desgranges, C., Souche, S., Vernant, J. C., Smadja, D., Vahlne, A. and Horal, P., 1994, Identification of novel neutralization-inducing regions of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type I envelope glycoproteins with human HTLV-I-seropositive sera, AIDSRes. Hum. Retrovir. 10:163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lafrado, L., Lewis, M., Mathes, L., and Olsen, R., 1987, Suppression of in vitro neutrophil function by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and purified FeLV-p15E, J.Gen.Virol. 68:507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Tanaka, Y., Zeng, L., Shiraki, H., Shida, H., and Tozawa, H., 1991, Identification of a neutralization epitope on the envelope gp46 antigen of human T-cell leukemiavirus type I and induction of neutralizing antibody by peptide immunization, J.Immunol. 147:354–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Jacobson, S., Reuben, J., Streilein, R., and Palker, T. J., 1991, Induction of CD4+ human T lymphotropic virus type-I-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients with HAM/TSP, J.Immunol. 146:1155–1162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Palker, T. J., Scearce, R., Copeland, T. D., Oroszlan, S., and Haynes, B., 1986, Gterminal region of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) p19 core protein is immunogenic in humans and contains an HTLV-I-specific epitope, J. Immunol. 136:2393–2397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Noguchi, Y., Noguchi, T., Sato, T., Yokoo, Y., Itoh, S., Yoshida, M., Yoshiki, T., Akiyoshi, K., Sunamoto, J,, Nakayama, E., and Shiku, H., 1991, Priming for in vitro and in vivo anti-human T lymphotropic virus type I cellular immunity by virus-related protein reconstituted into liposome, J. Immunol. 146:3599–3603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Dokhelar, M. C., Pickford, H., Sodroski, J., and Haseltine, W., 1989, HTLV-I p27rex regulates gag and env protein expression, J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 2:431–440.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Schwartz, S., Felber, B., and Pavlakis, G., 1992, Distinct RNA sequences in the gag region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 decrease RNA stability and inhibit expression in the absence of Rev protein, J.Virol. 66:150–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lal, R. B., Owen, S. M., Rudolph, D., and Levine, P. H., 1994, Sequence variation within the immunodominant epitope-coding region from the external glycoprotein of human T lymphotropic virus type II in isolates from Seminole indians, J. Infect. Dis. 169:407–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sonoda, S., Yashiki, S., Takahashi, K, Arhna, N., Daitoku, Y., Matsumoto, M., Matsumoto, T., Tara, M., Shinmyoszu, K, Sato, K., Inoko, H., Ando, A., and Tsuji, K, 1987, Altered HLA antigens expressed on T and B lymphocytes of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patients and their relatives, Int. J.Cancer 40:629–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Haynes, B., 1993, Scientific and social issues of immunodeficiency virus vaccine develop ment, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 260:1279–1286.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Milich, D. R., and McLachlan, A., 1986, The nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus is both a T-cell-independent antigen and a T-cell-dependent antigen, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 234:1398–1401.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Haynes, J. R., Cao, S. X., Rovinski, B., Sia, C., James, O., Dekaban, G. A., and Klein, M. H., 1991, Production of immunogenic HIV-I viruslike particles in stably engineered monkey cell lines, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 1:17–27.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Weiss, S. H., 1994, The evolving epidemiology of human T lymphotropic virus type II [editorial], J. Infect. Dis. 169:1080–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Calender, A., Gessain, A., Essex, M., and de The, G., 1984, Seroepidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus in the French West Indies: Antibodies in blood donors and patients with lymphoproliferative diseases who do not have AIDS, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 437:175–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lairmore, M. D., Roberts, B. D., Frank, D., Rovnak, J., Weiser, M. G., and Cockerell, G. L., 1992, Comparative biological responses of rabbits infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I isolates from patients with lymphoproliferative and neurodegenerative disease, Int. J. Cancer 50:124–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Cockerell, G. L., Weiser, M. G., Rovnak, J., Wicks-Beard, B., Roberts, B. D., Post, A., Chen, I. S. Y., and Lairmore, M. D., 1991, Infectious transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in rabbits, Blood 78:1532–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Abiad, H., and Hershow, R., 1997, Current understanding of HTLV-II and its role in disease, Infect. Med. 14:815–820.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Dekaban
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Peters
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Arp
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Franchini
    • 3
  1. 1.Gene Therapy and Molecular Virology GroupThe John P. Robarts Research InstituteLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  3. 3.Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda

Personalised recommendations