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α1-Adrenergic signaling mechanisms in contraction of resistance arteries

  • W. G. WierEmail author
  • K. G. Morgan
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (REVIEWS, volume 150)

Abstract

Our goal in this review is to provide a comprehensive, integrated view of the numerous signaling pathways that are activated by α1-adrenoceptors and control actin-myosin interactions (i.e., crossbridge cycling and force generation) in mammalian arterial smooth muscle. These signaling pathways may be categorized broadly as leading either to thick (myosin) filament regulation or to thin (actin) filament regulation. Thick filament regulation encompasses both “Ca2+ activation” and “Ca2+-sensitization” as it involves both activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) by Ca2+-calmodulin and regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity. With respect to Ca2+ activation, adrenergically induced Ca2+ transients in individual smooth muscle cells of intact arteries are now being shown by high resolution imaging to be sarcoplasmic reticulum-dependent asynchronous propagating Ca2+ waves. These waves differ from the spatially uniform increases in [Ca2+] previously assumed. Similarly, imaging during adrenergic activation has revealed the dynamic translocation, to membranes and other subcellular sites, of protein kinases (e.g., Ca2+-activated protein kinases, PKCs) that are involved in regulation of MLCP and thus in “Ca2+ sensitization” of contraction. Thin filament regulation includes the possible disinhibition of actin-myosin interactions by phosphorylation of CaD, possibly by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that are also translocated during adrenergic activation. An hypothesis for the mechanisms of adrenergic activation of small arteries is advanced. This involves asynchronous Ca2+ waves in individual SMC, synchronous Ca2+ oscillations (at high levels of adrenergic activation), Ca2+ sparks, “Ca2+-sensitization” by PKC and Rho-associated kinase (ROK), and thin filament mechanisms.

Keywords

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Myosin Light Chain Kinase Extracellular Regulate Kinase Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Myosin Phosphatase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

2-APB

2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate

ABS-1

Actin binding sequence no. 1

BK

Large conductance potassium channel

CaD

Caldesmon

CaM

Calmodulin

CaMKinase II

Calmodulin kinase II

CaP

Calponin

CICR

Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

CPA

Cyclopiazonic acid

CPI-17

Protein kinase C-potentiated 17 kDa inhibitor protein

2,4-DCB

2,4-Dichlorobenzamil

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DHP

Dihydropyridine

DOG

1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol

ERK

Extracellular-regulated kinase

FDS

Frequent discharge sites

FRAP

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

FRET

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer

GEF

Guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GS17C

Fluorophore peptide antagonist of caldesmon

HA-1077

1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)homopiperazine, Di-HCl Salt

IICR

InsP3−induced Ca2+ release

ILK

Integrin-linked kinase

InsP3R

1,4,5-Trisphosphate receptor

IVC

Inferior vena cava

jCaTs

Junctional calcium transients

LC20

20,000 Da light chain of smooth muscle myosin

M20

Small noncatalytic subunit of myosin phosphatase

M130

Large noncatalytic subunit of myosin phosphatase

MAP kinase

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEK

MAPK kinase

ML-9

1-(5-Chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride

MLCK

Myosin light chain kinase

MLCP

Myosin light chain phosphatase

MLC20

Myosin light chain 20

MP

Myosin phosphatase

MYPT1

Targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase

NCX

Na/Ca exchanger

NE

Norepinephrine

p160ROCK

A rho kinase

PAK

P21-activated kinase

PE

Phenylephrine

PGF2α

Prostaglandin factor 2α

PKC

Protein kinase C

PKC-α

Protein kinase C-α

PKN

Rho effector, protein kinase C-related kinase

PL

Plasmalemma

PLC

Phospholipase C

PL-jSR

Plasmalemma-junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum

PMA

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

PP1c

Catalytic subunit of myosin phosphatase

PSF

Point spread function

PMCA

Plasmalemma Ca2+ pumping ATPase

PM-SR

Plasma membrane-sarcoplasmic reticulum

ROK

Rho-associated kinase

RYR

Ryanodine receptor

SBB

Superficial buffer barrier

SERCA

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase

Ser/Thr

Serine/threonine

SMC

Smooth muscle cell

SMPP-1M

Smooth muscle phosphatase-1M

SOC

Store-operated channels

SR

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

STOCs

Spontaneous transient outward currents

TnI

Inhibitory subunit troponin I

TPEN

N,N,N′N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine

Tyr

Tyrosine

UTP

Uridine 5′-triphosphate

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cells

ZIP kinase

Zipper interacting protein kinase

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Boston Biomedical Research InstituteWatertownUSA

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