Sources and Impacts of Pesticides in Indoor Environments
Indoor contamination is one source of exposure to toxic pollutants and has been classified as a high environmental risk. Epidemiological research linked health effects including childhood leukemia and neuroblastoma to the indoor occurrence of pesticides. Pesticides in indoor environments contribute to human exposure via inhalation, nondietary ingestion and dermal contact. Sources for pesticides indoors are direct applications, pesticides used in varnishes, colors, adhesives, etc., or in finishing textiles, leather, carpets, etc., and pesticides brought in from outdoors. Results for pesticides in indoor environments from different countries and obtained under different conditions are compiled in this chapter. They are discussed by applying two approaches: (1) the comparison with reference values and (2) the application of a risk assessment methodology related to the hazard of the compound, leading to standards or guideline values.
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