NMR • 3D Analysis • Photopolymerization pp 169-273

Part of the Apvances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 170)

Two-Photon Photopolymerization and 3D Lithographic Microfabrication

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter attempts to give an overview of the historical development and current progress of femtosecond laser micro-nanofabrication based on multiphoton absorption, and particular emphasis is placed on two-photon photopolymerization. Femtosecond laser interaction with matter differs essentially from those with longer pulses or CW lasers in its significant nonlinearity, ultrafast characteristics and the possibility of highly localization of reaction volume. These features enable three-dimensional (3D) micro-nanofabrication in solid and liquid media. In two-photon photopolymerization, when a near-infrared femtosecond laser is tightly focused into a photopolymerizable resin, 3D polymer micro-nanostructures are produced by pinpoint photopolymerization of liquid precursory resins. Using this direct laser writing scheme, various photonic, micro-optical components and micromechanical devices have been readily produced. The two-photon photopolymerization technology is expected to play a similar role to that played by lithography for planar semiconductor device processing, but for micro-nanofabrication of 3D polymer-based optoelectronic devices as well for microelectromechanical systems.

Keywords

3D lithography Two-photon photopolymerization Femtosecond laser Micro-nanodevice Micro-nanofabrication 

Abbreviations and Symbols

2D

Two-dimensional

3D

Three-dimensional

AFM

Atomic force microscope

B1536

1,2-Dicyano-1,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thienyl)ethane

BCC

Body-centered cubic

BSA

Bovin serum albumin

CAM

Computer-aided manufacturing

CAD

Computer-aided design

CCD

Charge coupled device

CW

Continuous wave

DBR

Distributed Bragg reflection

DFB

Distributed feedback

DMF

Dimethyl formamide

FCC

Face-centered cubic

FWHM

Full width at half maximum

HCP

Hexagonal close packing

IR

Infrared

LD

Laser diode

LED

Light emitting diode

?CP

Microcontact printing

MEMS

Microelectromechanical system

MMA

Methyl methacrylate

MW

Molecular weight

NA

Mumerical aperture

NIR

Near-infrared

NSOM

Near-field scanning optical microscope

PAG

Photoacid generator

PBG

Photonic bandgap

PDMS

Poly(dimethyl siloxane)

PhC

Photonic crystal

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PSF

Point spread function

PVK

Poly(vinyl carbazole)

PZT

Lead zirconate titanate

R

Radical

RB

Rose Bengal

S

Photosensitizer

SC

Simple cubic

SDL

Sub-diffraction-limited

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SLI

Square of light intensity

SLM

Spatial light modulator

STM

Scanning tunneling microscope

TE

Transverse electric

THPMA

Tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate

TM

Transverse magnetic

TPA

Two-photon absorption

TPE

Two-photon excitation

UV

Ultraviolet

Voxel

Volume element

XUV

Extreme UV

n

Refractive index

?

Two-photon absorption cross-section

?

Electrical permittivity

Tg

Glass transition temperature

E

Electric field strength; Young’s modulus

I

Light intensity

?

Wavelength

?

Lightwave frequency

lc,

Coherence length

Q

Quality factor

?0,

Beam waist of Gaussian beam

ZR

Rayleigh depth

?H+

Quantum efficiency of proton generation

Gs

Shear modulus

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysicsOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST)Japan
  3. 3.RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research)SaitamaJapan

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