Molecular Spectra of Sulfur Molecules and Solid Sulfur Allotropes
Molecular spectroscopy is one of the most important means to characterize the various species in solid, liquid and gaseous elemental sulfur. In this chapter the vibrational, UV-Vis and mass spectra of sulfur molecules with between 2 and 20 atoms are critically reviewed together with the spectra of liquid sulfur and of solid allotropes including polymeric and high-pressure phases. In particular, low temperature Raman spectroscopy is a suitable technique to identify single species in mixtures. In mass spectra cluster cations with up to 56 atoms have been observed but fragmentation processes cause serious difficulties. The UV-Vis spectra of S4 are reassigned. The modern XANES spectroscopy has just started to be applied to sulfur allotropes and other sulfur compounds.
KeywordsVibrational spectra Electronic spectra Mass spectra XANES spectra Photolysis
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