A formal embedding of agentspeak(L) in 3APL

  • Koen V. Hindriks
  • Frank S. de Boer
  • Wiebe van der Hoek
  • John-Jules Ch. Meyer
Scientific Track
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1502)


Agent-based computing in Artificial Intelligence has given rise to a number of diverse and competing proposals for agent programming languages. For several reasons it has been difficult to evaluate and compare those different proposals. One of the main reasons is the lack of a general semantic framework. In this paper, we give a formal embedding of the agent language AgentSpeak(L) in our own agent language 3APL. To this end we define a notion of simulation based on the formal operational semantics of the languages. A main result of the paper is a proof that 3APL can simulate AgentSpeak(L). As a consequence, 3APL has at least the same expressive power as AgentSpeak(L). The comparison yields some new insights into the features of the agent languages. One of the results in that AgentSpeak(L) can be substantially simplified.


Achievement Goal Transition Relation Operational Semantic Transition Rule Proof System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Felleisen. On the expressive power of programming languages. In G. Goos and J. Hartmanis, editors, 3rd European Symposium on Programming (LNCS 432), pages 134–151. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. V. Hindriks, F. S. de Boer, W. van der Hoek, and J.-J. C. meyer. A Formal Embedding of AgentSpeak(L) in 3APL. Technical Report UU-CS-1998-07, University Utrecht, Department of Computer Science, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. V. Hindriks, F. S. de Boer, W. van der Hoek, and J.-J. C. Meyer. Control Structures of Rule-Based Agent Languages. Accepted for ATAL98, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. V. Hindriks, F. S. de Boer, W. van der Hoek, and J.-J. C. Meyer. Formal Semantics for an Abstract Agent Programming Language. In M. P. Singh, A. Rao, and M. J. Wooldridge, editors, Intelligent Agents IV (LNAI 1365), pages 215–229, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. M. R. Park. Concurrency and Automata on Infinite Sequences (LNCS 104). Springer-Verlag, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Plotkin. A structural approach to operational semantics. Technical report, Aarhus University, Computer Science Department, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. S. Rao. AgentSpeak(L): BDI Agents Speak Out in a Logical Computable Language. In W. van der Velde and J. Perram, editors, Agents Breaking Away, pages 42–55. Springer, 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. S. Rao. Private communication, March 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Shoham. Agent-oriented programming. Artificial Intelligence, 60:51–92, 1993.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koen V. Hindriks
    • 1
  • Frank S. de Boer
    • 1
  • Wiebe van der Hoek
    • 1
  • John-Jules Ch. Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations