Afferent vagal C fibre innervation of the lungs and airways and its functional significance

  • John C. G. Coleridge
  • Hazel M. Coleridge
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (volume 99)


We have attempted in this review to give an account of an afferent vagal input from the lower respiratory tract that has still to be explored fully, and to present experimental evidence that this fine fibre afferent system plays a significant role in the neural control of respiratory function in both normal and pathological circumstances.

We have made a distinction between the afferent C fibres that innervate the lung parenchyma adjacent to the pulmonary capillary bed and those that innervate the conducting airways, even though the afferent C fibres in the two locations appear to have reflex properties that are at least qualitatively similar. We believe that the functional significance of these lower respiratory tract C fibres is determined not simply by their location but also by certain differences in afferent properties that should not be overlooked.

Douglas and Ritchie (1962) suggested, in their review of mammalian non-myelinated nerve fibres, that the teleological advantage of the finefibre afferent system, especially in the case of a visceral input where speed of impulse transmission was not of primary importance, was that it allows fibres of a variety of sensory modalities to be accommodated in a small cross-sectional area of nerve trunk. There is no reason to think that the full range of sensory modalities of the afferent C fibres in the lungs and airways has yet been explored. The custom of injecting certain chemicals to identify the presence of lower respiratory tract C fibres when recording the activity in vagal strands is highly selective, so that even now our view of this afferent fibre system may be unnecessarily narrow.

Some of the conclusions arrived at in these pages are either purely speculative or derived from experimental evidence that is at best indirect. Whether they prove to be correct or incorrect — and some are sure to fall into the latter category — their purpose will have been served if they are put to the test of experiment.


Vagus Nerve Lower Respiratory Tract Airway Smooth Muscle Bronchial Artery Lung Inflation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott BC, Howarth JV, Ritchie JM (1965) The initial heat production associated with the nerve impulse in crustacean and mammalian non-myelinated nerve fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 178:368–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe K, Watanabe N, Kumagi N, Mouri T, Seki T, Yoshinaga K (1967) Circulating plasma kinin in patients with bronchial asthma. Experientia 23:626–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adrian ED (1933) Afferent impulses in the vagus and their effect on respiration. J Physiol (Lond) 79:332–358Google Scholar
  4. Agostoni E, Chinnock JE, Daly M de B, Murray JG (1957) Functional and histological studies of the vagus nerve and its branches to the heart, lungs and abdominal viscera in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 135:182–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahluwalia J, Devanandan MS, Shukla SB (1977) Some functional properties of the inhibition of skeletal muscles by activation of type-J pulmonary endings. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Inst, Delhi, pp 447–465Google Scholar
  6. Allison DJ, Clay TP, Hughes JMB, Jones HA, Shevis A (1974) Effects of nasal stimulation on total respiratory resistance in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 239:23–24PGoogle Scholar
  7. Anand A, Paintal AS (1980) Reflex effects following selective stimulation of J receptors in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 299:553–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anand A, Loeschcke HH, Marek W, Paintal AS (1982) Significance of the respiratory drive by impulses from J receptors. J Physiol (Lond) 325:14PGoogle Scholar
  9. Anrep GV, Pascual W, Rössler R (1936) Respiratory variations of the heart rate I. The reflex mechanism of the respiratory arrhythmia. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 119:191–217Google Scholar
  10. Armstrong DJ, Luck JC (1974) A comparative study of irritant and type J receptors in the cat. Respir Physiol 21:47–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Armstrong DJ, Miller SA (1980) Lung irritant and C fibre responses to embolism in thrombocytopaenic rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 303:41–42PGoogle Scholar
  12. Armstrong DJ, Miller SA (1981) Intrapulmonary C fibres contribute to the afferent arm of the vagally mediated responses to right atrial injections of prostacyclin into rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 310:65–66PGoogle Scholar
  13. Armstrong DJ, Luck JC, Martin VM (1976) The effect of emboli upon intrapulmonary receptors in the cat. Respir Physiol 26:41–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Armstrong DJ, Lacey M, Luck JC (1979) The role of platelets in the post-embolic responses of slowly adapting intrapulmonary stretch receptors in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 289:93–94PGoogle Scholar
  15. Aviado DM, Li TH, Kalow W, Schmidt CF, Turnbull GL, Peskin GW, Hess ME, Weiss AJ (1951) Respiratory and circulatory reflexes from the perfused heart and pulmonary circulation of the dog. Am J Physiol 165:261–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Baker DG, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1979) Vagal afferent C fibres from the ventricle. In: Hainsworth R, Kidd C, Linden RJ (eds) Cardiac receptors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 117–137Google Scholar
  17. Banister J, Fegler G, Hebb C (1950) Initial respiratory responses to the intratracheal inhalation of phosgene or ammonia. Q J Exp Physiol 35:233–250Google Scholar
  18. Barer GR, Nusser E (1953) The part played by bronchial muscles in pulmonary reflexes. Br J Pharmacol 8:315–320Google Scholar
  19. Barer GR, Nusser E (1958) Cardiac output during excitation of chemoreflexes in the cat. Br J Pharmacol 13:372–377Google Scholar
  20. Bartoli A, Bystrzycka E, Guz A, Jain SK, Noble MIM, Trenchard D (1973) Studies of the pulmonary vagal control of central respiratory rhythm in the absence of breathing movements. J Physiol (Lond) 230:449–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bartoli A, Cross BA, Guz A, Huszczuk A, Jefferies R (1975) The effect of varying tidal volume on the associated phrenic motoneurone output: studies of vagal and chemical feedback. Respir Physiol 25:135–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bevan JA (1962) Action of lobeline and capsaicine on afferent endings in the pulmonary artery of the cat. Circ Res 10:792–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bevan JA, Murray JF (1963) Evidence for a ventilation modifying reflex from the pulmonary circulation in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 114:393–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bleecker ER, Cotton DJ, Fischer SP, Graf PD, Gold WM, Nadel JA (1976) The mechanism of rapid, shallow breathing after inhaling histamine aerosol in exercising dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 114:909–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boushey HA, Richardson PS, Widdicombe JG (1972) Reflex effects of laryngeal irritation on the pattern of breathing and total lung resistance. J Physiol (Lond) 224:501–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boushey HA, Holtzman MJ, Sheller JR, Nadel JA (1980) Bronchial hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 121:389–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bouverot P, Crance JP, Dejours P (1970) Factors influencing the intensity of the Breuer-Hering inspiration-inhibiting reflex. Respir Physiol 8:376–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bradley GW (1977) Control of the breathing pattern. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) International review of physiology. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 185–217, (Respiratory Physiology II, vol 14)Google Scholar
  29. Bradley GW, Euler C von, Marttila I, Roos B (1974) Transient and steady state effects of CO2 on mechanisms determining rate and depth of breathing. Acta Physiol Scand 92:341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brender D, Webb-Peploe MM (1969) Vascular responses to stimulation of pulmonary and carotid baroreceptors by capsaicin. Am J Physiol 217:1837–1845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brodie TG (1900) The immediate action of an intravenous injection of blood-serum. J Physiol (Lond) 26:48–71Google Scholar
  32. Brodie TG, Russell AE (1900) On reflex cardiac inhibition. J Physiol (Lond) 26:92–106Google Scholar
  33. Brown JK, Leff AR, Frey MJ, Reed BR, Gold WM (1980) Physiological and pharmacological properties of canine trachealis muscle in vivo. J Appl Physiol 49:84–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bucher K (1958) Pathophysiology and pharmacology of cough. Pharmacol Rev 10:43–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cahill JM, Attinger EO, Byrne JJ (1961) Ventilatory responses to embolization of lung. J Appl Physiol 16:469–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Casey KL, Blick M (1969) Observations on anodal polarisation of cutaneous nerve. Brain Res 13:155–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cassidy SS, Mitchell JH (1981) Effects of positive pressure breathing on right and left ventricular preload and afterload. Fed Proc 40:2178–2181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cassidy SS, Robertson CH, Pierce AK, Johnson RL (1978) Cardiovascular effects of positive end-expiratory pressure in dogs. J Appl Physiol 44:743–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cassidy SS, Eschenbacher WL, Johnson RL (1979) Reflex cardiovascular depression during unilateral lung hyperinflation in the dog. J Clin Invest 64:620–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chapman LF, Goodell H (1964) The participation of the nervous system in the inflammatory reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:990–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Churchill ED, Cope O (1929) The rapid shallow breathing resulting from pulmonary congestion and edema. J Exp Med 49:531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clark FJ, Euler C von (1972) On the regulation of depth and rate of breathing. J Physiol (Lond) 222:267–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1975) Two types of afferent vagal C-fibre in the dog lung: their stimulation by pulmonary congestion. Fed Proc 34:372Google Scholar
  44. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1977a) Afferent vagal C-fibers in the dog lung: their discharge during spontaneous breathing and their stimulation by alloxan and pulmonary congestion. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Inst, Delhi, pp 393–406Google Scholar
  45. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1977b) Impulse activity in afferent vagal C-fibres with endings in the intrapulmonary airways of dogs. Respir Physiol 29:125–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1981) Afferent fibers involved in defense reflexes from the respiratory tract. In: Hutas I, Debreczeni LA (eds) Advances in physiological science, vol 10. Academiai Kiado, Budapest, pp 467–477Google Scholar
  47. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (to be published) Reflexes from the tracheobronchial tree and lungs. In: Cherniak N, Widdicombe JG (eds) Control of breathing. American Physiological Society, Washington DC (Handbook of physiology, The respiratory system, vol 1)Google Scholar
  48. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Kidd C (1964a) Cardiac receptors in the dog, with particular reference to two types of afferent ending in the ventricular wall. J Physiol (Lond) 174:323–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Kidd C (1964b) Role of the pulmonary arterial baroreceptors in the effects produced by capsaicin in the dog. J Physiol (Lond) 170:272–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Luck JC (1965) Pulmonary afferent fibres of small diameter stimulated by capsaicin and by hyperinflation of the lungs. J Physiol (Lond) 179:248–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Luck JC, Norman J (1968) The effect of four volatile anesthetic agents on the impulse activity of two types of pulmonary receptor. Br J Anaesth 40:484–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Dangel A, Kidd C, Luck JC, Sleight P (1973a) Impulses in slowly conducting vagal fibers from afferent endings in the veins, atria and arteries of dogs and cats. Circ Res 33:87–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Rosenthal F, Dangel A (1973b) Stimulation of C-fibers accompanying anodal polarization block of A-fibers in the vagus nerves of cats. Fed Proc 32:355Google Scholar
  54. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Ginzel KH, Baker DG, Banzett RB, Morrison MA (1976) Stimulation of ‘irritant’ receptors and afferent C-fibres in the lungs by prostaglandins. Nature 264:451–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Baker DG, Ginzel KH, Morrison MA (1978a) Comparison of the effects of histamine and prostaglandin on afferent C-fiber endings and irritant receptors in the intrapulmonary airways. In: Fitzgerald RS, Gautier H, Lahiri S (eds) Regulation of respiration during sleep and anesthesia. Adv Exp Med Biol 99:291–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Banzett RB (1978b) Effect of CO2 on afferent vagal endings in the canine lung. Respir Physiol 34:135–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Coleridge HM, Roberts AM, Coleridge JCG (1981) Stimulation of bronchial C-fibers in dogs causes rapid shallow breathing. Fed Proc 40:452Google Scholar
  58. Coleridge HM, Roberts AM, Coleridge JCG (1982b) Effect of vagal cooling on activity in lung afferent fibers in dogs. Fed Proc 41:986Google Scholar
  59. Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Roberts AM (1983) Rapid shallow breathing evoked by selective stimulation of airway C fibres in dogs. J Physiol (Lond) 340:415–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Coleridge JCG, Coleridge HM (1977c) Afferent C-fibers and cardiorespiratory chemoreflexes. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:251–260Google Scholar
  61. Coleridge JCG, Coleridge HM (1979) Chemoreflex regulation of the heart. In: Berne RM (ed) The cardiovascular system, vol. 1. The heart. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 653–676 (Handbook of physiology, vol 2)Google Scholar
  62. Coleridge JCG, Coleridge HM, Roberts AM, Kaufman MP, Baker DG (1982a) Tracheal contraction and relaxation initiated by lung and somatic afferents in dogs. J Appl Physiol 52:984–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Costantin LL (1959) Effect of pulmonary congestion on vagal afferent activity. Am J Physiol 196:49–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Cotton DJ, Bleecker ER, Fischer SP, Graf PD, Gold WM, Nadel JA (1977) Rapid, shallow breathing after ascaris suum antigen inhalation: role of vagus nerves. J Appl Physiol 42:101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cromer SP, Young RH, Ivy AC (1933) On the existence of afferent respiratory impulses mediated by the stellate ganglia. Am J Physiol 104:468–475Google Scholar
  66. Crosfill ML, Widdicombe JG (1961) Physical characteristics of the chest and lungs and the work of breathing in different mammalian species. J Physiol (Lond) 158:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cross BA, Guz A, Jain SK, Archer S, Stevens J, Reynolds F (1976) The effect of anaesthesia of the airway in dog and man: a study of respiratory reflexes, sensations and lung mechanics. Clin Sci 50:439–454Google Scholar
  68. Dain DS, Boushey HA, Gold WM (1975) Inhibition of respiratory reflexes by local anesthetic aerosols in dogs and rabbits. J Appl Physiol 38:1045–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Daly M de B (1972) Interaction of cardiovascular reflexes. Lectures Scient Basis Med, The Scientific Basis of Medicine Annual Reviews, University of London, Athlone Press, London, pp 307–332Google Scholar
  70. Daly I de B, Hebb C (1966) Pulmonary and bronchial vascular systems. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Daly M de B, Robinson BH (1968) An analysis of the reflex systemic vasodilator response elicited by lung inflation in the dog. J Physiol (Lond) 195:387–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Daly M de B, Hazzledine JL, Ungar A (1967) The reflex effects of alterations in lung volume on systemic vascular resistance in the dog. J Physiol (Lond) 188:331–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Davies A, Dixon M, Callanan D, Huszczuk A, Widdicombe JG, Wise JCM (1978) Lung reflexes in rabbits during pulmonary stretch receptor block by sulphur dioxide. Respir Physiol 34:83–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Davis B, Chinn R, Gold J, Popovac D, Widdicombe JG, Nadel JA (1982a) Hypoxemia reflexly increases secretion from tracheal submucosal glands in dogs. J Appl Physiol 53:1416–1419Google Scholar
  75. Davis B, Roberts AM, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1982b) Reflex tracheal gland secretion evoked by stimulation of bronchial C-fibers in dogs. J Appl Physiol 53:985–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Dawes GS, Comroe JH Jr (1954) Chemoreflexes from the heart and lungs. Physiol Rev 34:167–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Dawes GS, Mott JC, Widdicombe JG (1951) Respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes from the heart and lungs. J Physiol (Lond) 115:258–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dawes GS, Mott JC, Widdicombe JG (1952) Chemoreceptor reflexes in the dog and the action of phenyl diguanide. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 90:203–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. DeKock MA, Nadel JA, Zwi S, Colebatch HJH, Olsen CR (1966) New method for perfusing bronchial arteries: histamine bronchoconstriction and apnea. J Appl Physiol 21:185–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Delpierre S, Grimaud C, Jammes Y, Mei N (1981) Changes in activity of vagal bronchopulmonary C fibres by chemical and physical stimuli in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 316:61–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Deshpande SS, Devanandan MS (1970) Reflex inhibition of monosynaptic reflexes by stimulation of type J pulmonary endings. J Physiol (Lond) 206:345–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Dickinson CJ, Paintal AS (1970) Stimulation of type-J pulmonary receptors in the cat by carbon dioxide. Clin Sci 38:33PGoogle Scholar
  83. Dixon M, Jackson DM, Richards IM (1979a) The effects of histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine on lung mechanics and irritant receptors in the dog. J Physiol (Lond) 287:393–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Dixon M, Jackson DM, Richards IM (1979b) The effect of a respiratory tract infection on histamine-induced changes in lung mechanics and irritant receptor discharge in dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 120:843–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Douglas WW, Ritchie JM (1957) On excitation of non-medullated afferent fibres in the vagus and aortic nerves by pharmacological agents. J Physiol (Lond) 138:31–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Douglas WW, Ritchie JM (1962) Mammalian nonmyelinated nerve fibers. Physiol Rev 42:297–334Google Scholar
  87. Douglas WW, Ritchie JM, Schaumann W (1956) Depressor reflexes from medullated and non-medullated fibres in the rabbit's aortic nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 132:187–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Downing SE (1957) Reflex effects of acute hypertension in the pulmonary vascular bed of the dog. Yale J Biol Med 30:43–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. During M von, Andres KH, Irvani J (1974) The fine structure of the pulmonary stretch receptor in the rat. Z Anat Entwickl-Gesch 143:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Eckenhoff JE, Comroe JH Jr (1951) Blocking action of tetra-ethylammonium on lobelin-induced thoracic pain. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 76:725–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Elftman AG (1943) The afferent and parasympathetic innervation of the lungs and trachea of the dog. Am J Anat 72:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Evans MH, McPherson A, (1958) The effects of stimulation of visceral afferent nerve fibres on somatic reflexes. J Physiol (Lond) 140:201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Fastier FN, McDowall MA, Wall H (1959) Pharmacological properties of phenyldiguanide and other amidine derivatives in relation to those of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Br J Pharmacol 14:527–535Google Scholar
  94. Fillenz M, Widdicombe JG (1972) Receptors of the lungs and airways. In: Neil E (ed) Enteroceptors. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 81–112 (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 3/1)Google Scholar
  95. Fishman NH, Phillipson EA, Nadel JA (1973) Effect of differential vagal cold blockade on breathing pattern in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 34:754–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fox B, Bull TB, Guz A (1980) Innervation of alveolar walls in the human lung: an electron microscopic study. J Anat (Lond) 131:683–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Frankstein SI (1970) Neural control of respiration. In: Porter R (ed) Breathing: Hering-Breuer centenary symposium. Churchill, London, pp 53–58Google Scholar
  98. Frankstein SI, Sergeeva ZN (1966) Tonic activity of lung receptors in normal and pathological states. Nature 210:1054–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Franz DN, Iggo A (1968) Conduction failure in myelinated and non-myelinated axons at low temperatures. J Physiol (Lond) 199:319–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Franz DN, Perry RS (1974) Mechanisms for differential block among single myelinated and non-myelinated axons by procaine. J Physiol (Lond) 236:193–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Gallagher JT, Kent PW, Passatore M, Phipps RJ, Richardson PS (1975) The composition of tracheal mucus and the nervous control of its secretion in the cat. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 192:49–76Google Scholar
  102. Garcia Leme J (1978) Bradykinin-System. In: Vane JR, Ferreira SH (eds) Inflammation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 464–522 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 50/1)Google Scholar
  103. Ginzel KH (1978) The respiratory effect of vagal lung afferents ('J receptors') excited by phenyldiguanide (PDG). Fed Proc 37:579Google Scholar
  104. Ginzel KH, Eldred E (1969) Relief of decerebrate rigidity by viscero-somatic reflex action. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 12:41–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ginzel KH, Eldred E (1977) Reflex depression of somatic motor activity from heart, lungs and carotid sinus. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, pp 358–394Google Scholar
  106. Ginzel KH, Eldred E, Sasaki Y (1969) Comparative study of the actions of nicotine and succinylcholine on the monosynaptic reflex and spindle afferent activity. Int J Neuropharmacol 8:515–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ginzel KH, Eldred E, Watanabe S, Grover F (1971) Drug induced depression of gamma afferent activity. III. Viscerosomatic reflex action of phenyldiguanide, veratridine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Neuropharmacology 10:77–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ginzel KH, Morrison MA, Baker DG, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1978) Stimulation of afferent vagal endings in the intrapulmonary airways by prostaglandin endoperoxide analogues. Prostaglandins 15:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Glick G, Wechsler AS, Epstein SE (1969) Reflex cardiovascular depression produced by stimulation of pulmonary stretch receptors in the dog. J Clin Invest 48:467–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Glogowska M, Richardson PS, Widdicombe JG, Winning AJ (1972) The role of the vagus nerves, peripheral chemoreceptors and other afferent pathways in the genesis of augmented breaths in cats and rabbits. Respir Physiol 16:179–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Gold WM, Kessler GF, Yu DYC (1972) Role of vagus nerves in experimental asthma in allergic dogs. J Appl Physiol 33:719–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Green JF, Sheldon MI (1983) Ventilatory changes associated with changes in pulmonary blood flow in dogs. J Appl Physiol 54:997–1002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Greenwood PV, Hainsworth R, Karim F, Morrison GW, Sofola OA (1977) Cardiac inotropic responses from lung inflation. J Physiol (Lond) 271:37–38PGoogle Scholar
  114. Guz A (1977a) Control of ventilation in man with special reference to abnormalities in asthma. In: Lichtenstein LM, Austen KF (eds) Asthma. Physiology, immunopharmacology, and treatment. Academic Press, New York, pp 211–223Google Scholar
  115. Guz A (1977b) Respiratory sensations in man. Br Med Bull 33:175–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Guz A, Trenchard DW (1971) The role of non-myelinated vagal afferent fibres from the lungs in the genesis of tachypnoea in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 213:345–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Guz A, Noble MIM, Widdicombe JG, Trenchard D, Muschin WW (1966) The effect of bilateral block of vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves on the ventilatory response to CO2 of conscious man. Respir Physiol 1:206–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Guz A, Noble MIM, Eisele JH, Trenchard D (1970) Experimental results of vagal block in cardiopulmonary disease. In: Porter R (ed) Breathing: Hering-Breuer centenary symposium. Churchill, London, pp 315–329Google Scholar
  119. Hahn HL, Johnson HG, Chow AW, Graf PD, Nadel JA (1982a) Reflex stimulation of submucosal gland secretion by sulfur dioxide. Fed Proc 41:1509Google Scholar
  120. Hahn HL, Sasaki K, Nadel JA (1982b) Effects of sulfur dioxide on ventilation in conscious dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 125:220Google Scholar
  121. Hainsworth R (1974) Circulatory responses from lung inflation in anesthetized dogs. Am J Physiol 226:247–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Halmagyi DFJ, Colebatch HJH (1961) Cardiorespiratory effects of experimental lung embolism. J Clin Invest 40:1785–1796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hammouda M, Wilson WH (1935a) Further observations on the respiratory-accelerator fibres of the vagus. J Physiol (Lond) 85:62–72Google Scholar
  124. Hammouda M, Wilson WH (1935b) The presence in the vagus of fibres transmitting impulses augmenting the frequency of respiration. J Physiol (Lond) 83:292–312Google Scholar
  125. Hammouda M, Wilson WH (1939) Reflex acceleration of respiration arising from excitation of the vagus or its terminations in the lungs. J Physiol (Lond) 94:497–524Google Scholar
  126. Hanacek J, Widdicombe JG, Korpas J (1980) Stretch receptors of the lung and their effect on lung defensive reflexes. Proceedings of the 28th international congress of physiology, Budapest, vol XIV. Hungarian Physiological Society, Budapest, pp 460Google Scholar
  127. Head H (1889) On the regulation of respiration, part I. Experimental. J Physiol (Lond) 10:1–70Google Scholar
  128. Hendrix SG, Munoz NM, Leff AR (1983) Physiological and pharmacological response of canine bronchial smooth muscle in situ. J Appl Physiol 54:215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Hering E, Breuer J (1868) Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch den Nervus vagus. Sitzber Akad Wiss, Wien 57:672–677Google Scholar
  130. Herxheimer H, Roetscher I (1971) Effects of prostaglandin E1 on lung function in bronchial asthma. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 3:123–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Holmes R, Torrance RW (1959) Afferent fibres of the stellate ganglion. Q J Exp Physiol 44:271–281Google Scholar
  132. Hopp FA, Zuperku EJ, Coon RL, Kampine JP (1980) Effect of anodal blockade of myelinated fibers on vagal C-fiber afferents. Am J Physiol 239:R454–R462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Hung KS, Hertweck MS, Hardy JD, Loosli CG (1972) Innervation of pulmonary alveoli of the mouse lung: an electron microscopic study. Am J Anat 135:477–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hung KS, Hertweck MS, Hardy JD, Loosli CG (1973a) Electron microscopic observations of nerve endings in the alveolar walls of mouse lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 108:328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Hung KS, Hertweck MS, Hardy JD, Loosli CG (1973b) Ultrastructure of nerves and associated cells in bronchiolar epithelium of the mouse lung. J Ultrastruct Res 43:426–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Iggo A (1958) The electrophysiological identification of single nerve fibres, with particular reference to the slowest-conducting vagal afferent fibres in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 142:110–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Jain SK, Subramanian S, Julka DB, Guz A (1972) Search for evidence of lung chemoreflexes in man: study of respiratory and circulatory effects of phenyldiguanide and lobeline. Clin Sci 42:163–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Jain SK, Trenchard D, Reynolds F, Noble MIM, Guz A (1973) The effect of local anaesthesia of the airway on respiratory reflexes in the rabbit. Clin Sci 44:519–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Jammes Y, Mei N (1979) Assessment of the pulmonary origin of bronchoconstrictor vagal tone. J Physiol (Lond) 291:305–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Jansco G, Kiraly E, Jansco-Gabor A (1977) Pharmacologically induced selective degeneration of chemosensitive primary sensory neurons. Nature 270:741–743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jessell TM, Iversen LL, Cuello AC (1978) Capsaicin-induced depletion of substance P from primary sensory neurones. Brain Res 152:183–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Junod AF (1975) Metabolism, production and release of hormones and mediators in the lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 112:93–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Junod AF (1977) Metabolism of vasoactive agents in lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kalia M (1973) Effects of certain cerebral lesions on the J reflex. Pfluegers Arch 343:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kalia M, Koepchen HP, Paintal AS (1973) Somatomotor and autonomous effects of type J-receptor stimulation in awake-freely moving and restrained cats. Pfluegers Arch 339: Suppl R80Google Scholar
  146. Karczewski W, Widdicombe JG (1969a) The effect of vagotomy, vagal cooling and efferent vagal stimulation on breathing and lung mechanics of rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 201:259–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Karczewski W, Widdicombe JG (1969b) The role of the vagus nerves in the respiratory and circulatory reactions to anaphylaxis in rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 201:293–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Karczewski W, Widdicombe JG (1969c) The role of the vagus nerves in the respiratory and circulatory responses to intravenous histamine and phenyl diguanide in rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 201:271–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kardon MB, Peterson DF, Bishop VS (1973) Reflex bradycardia due to aortic nerve stimulation in the rabbit. Am J Physiol 225:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kaufman MP, Baker DG, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1980a) Stimulation by bradykinin of afferent vagal C-fibers with chemosensitive endings in the heart and aorta of the dog. Circ Res 46:476–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kaufman MP, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Baker DG (1980b) Bradykinin stimulates afferent vagal C-fibers in intrapulmonary airways of dogs. J Appl Physiol 48:511–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kaufman MP, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Baker DG (1980c) Differential sensitivity of bronchial and pulmonary C-fibers in dogs to bradykinin, histamine and serotonin. Fed Proc 39:828Google Scholar
  153. Kaufman MP, Iwamoto GA, Ashton JH, Cassidy SS (1982a) Responses to inflation of vagal afferents with endings in the lungs of dogs. Circ Res 51:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kaufman MP, Ordway GA, Longhurst JC, Mitchell JH (1982b) Reflex relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle by thin-fiber muscle afferents in dogs. Am J Physiol 243:R383–R388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kawakami Y, Uchiyama K, Irie T, Murao M (1973) Evaluation of aerosols of prostaglandins E1 and E2 as bronchodilators. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 6:127–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Keele CA, Armstrong D (1964) Substances producing pain and itch. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  157. Kessler GF, Austin JHM, Graf PD, Gamsu G, Gold WM (1973) Airway constriction in experimental asthma in dogs: tantalum bronchographic studies. J Appl Physiol 35:703–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Knowlton GC, Larrabee MG (1946) A unitary analysis of pulmonary volume receptors. Am J Physiol 147:100–114Google Scholar
  159. Koepchen HP, Kalia M, Sommer D, Klussendorf D (1977) Action of type J afferents on the discharge pattern of medullary respiratory neurons. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, pp 407–425Google Scholar
  160. Koller EA, Ferrer P (1973) Discharge patterns of the lung stretch receptors and activation of deflation fibres in anaphylactic bronchial asthma. Respir Physiol 17:113–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Kostreva DR, Zuperku EJ, Hess GL, Coon RL, Kampine JP (1975) Pulmonary afferent activity recorded from sympathetic nerves. J Appl Physiol 39:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lahari S, Mulligan E, Nishino T, Mokashi A (1979) Aortic body chemoreceptor responses to changes in Pco2 and Po2 in the cat. J Appl Physiol 47:858–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Larsell O (1921) Nerve terminations in the lung of the rabbit. J Comp Neurol 33:105–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lauweryns JM, Cokelaere M (1973) Hypoxia-sensitive neuro-epithelial bodies intrapulmonary secretory neuroceptors, modulated by the CNS. Z Zellforsch 145:521–540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Lauweryns JM, Goddeeris P (1975) Neuroepithelial bodies in the human child and adult lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 111:469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Lecomte J, Petit JM, Melon J, Troquet J, Marcelle R (1962) Proprietes broncho-constrictrices de la bradykinine chez l'homme asthmatique. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 137:232–235Google Scholar
  167. Lee LY, Dumont C, Djokic TD, Menzel TE, Nadel JA (1979) Mechanism of rapid, shallow breathing after ozone exposure in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 46:1108–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Lee LY, Morton RF, Hord AH, Frazier DT (1983) Reflex control of breathing following inhalation of cigarette smoke in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 54:562–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Leff AR, Munoz NM, Alderman B (1982) Measurement of airway response by isometric and nonisometric techniques in situ. J Appl Physiol 52:1363–1367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Levine BW, Talamo RC, Kazemi H (1973) Action and metabolism of bradykinin in dog lung. J Appl Physiol 34:821–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Linden RJ, Mary DASG, Weatherill D (1981) The effect of cooling on transmission of impulses in vagal nerve fibres attached to atrial receptors in the dog. Q J Exp Physiol 66:321–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Lloyd TC Jr (1978) Reflex effects of lung inflation and inhalation of halothane, ether and ammonia. J Appl Physiol 45:212–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Lloyd TC Jr (1979) Effects of extrapulmonary airway distension on breathing in anesthetized dogs. J Appl Physiol 46:890–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Loofbourrow GN, Wood WB, Baird IL (1957) Tracheal constriction in the dog. Am J Physiol 191:411–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Lucas EA, Ginzel KH (1980) The effect of “J receptor” stimulation on respiration in the non-anesthetized cat. Fed Proc 39:1017Google Scholar
  176. Lundberg JM, Saria A (1982) Capsaicin-sensitive vagal neurons involved in control of vascular permeability in rat trachea. Acta Physiol Scand 115:521–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lynn B (1977) Cutaneous hyperalgesia. Br Med Bull 33:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Marshall R, Widdicombe JG (1958) The activity of pulmonary stretch receptors during congestion of the lungs. Q J Exp Physiol 43:320–330Google Scholar
  179. Mei N (1966) Existence d'une séparation anatomique des fibres vagales efférentes et afférentes au niveau du ganglion plexiforme du chat. Etude morphologique et électrophysiologique. J Physiol (Paris) 58:253–254Google Scholar
  180. Meyrick B, Reid L (1971) Nerves in rat intra-acinar alveoli: an electron microscopic study. Respir Physiol 11:367–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Mills JE, Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1969) Activity of lung irritant receptors in pulmonary micro-embolism, anaphylaxis and drug-induced bronchoconstrictions. J Physiol (Lond) 203:337–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Mills JE, Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1970) Epithelial irritant receptors in the lungs. In: Porter R (ed) Breathing: Hering-Breuer centenary symposium. Churchill, London, pp 77–92Google Scholar
  183. Miserocchi G, Sant'Ambrogio G (1974) Distribution of pulmonary stretch receptors in the intrapulmonary airways of the dog. Respir Physiol 21:71–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Miserocchi G, Trippenbach T, Mazzarelli M, Jaspar N, Hazucha M (1978) The mechanism of rapid shallow breathing due to histamine and phenyldiguanide in cats and rabbits. Respir Physiol 32:141–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Moncada S, Ferreira SH, Vane JR (1978) Pain and inflammatory mediators. In: Vane JR, Ferreira SH (eds) Inflammation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 588–616 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 50/1)Google Scholar
  186. Mortola J, Sant'Ambrogio G, Clement MG (1975) Localization of irritant receptors in the airways of the dog. Respir Physiol 24:107–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Morton DR, Klassen KP, Curtis GM (1951) The clinical physiology of the human bronchi. II. The effect of vagus section upon pain of tracheobronchial origin. Surgery 30:800–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Munger BL (1971) Patterns of organization of peripheral sensory receptors. In: Lowenstein WR (ed) Principles of receptor physiology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 523–556 (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 1)Google Scholar
  189. Nadel JA (1976) Airways: autonomic regulation and airway responsiveness. In: Weiss EB, Segal MS (eds) Bronchial asthma. Little Brown, Boston, pp 155–162Google Scholar
  190. Nadel JA (1980) Autonomic regulation of airway smooth muscle. In: Nadel JA (ed) Physiology and pharmacology of the airways. Dekker, New York, pp 217–257Google Scholar
  191. Nadel JA, Davis B (1980) Parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation of secretion from submucosal glands in airways. Fed Proc 39:3075–3079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Nadel JA, Widdicombe JG (1962a) Effect of changes in blood gas tensions and carotid sinus pressure on tracheal volume and total lung resistance to airflow. J Physiol (Lond) 163:13–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Nadel JA, Widdicombe JG (1962b) Reflex effects of upper airway irritation on total lung resistance and blood pressure. J Appl Physiol 17:861–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Nadel JA, Wolfe WG, Graf PD (1968) Powdered tantalum as a medium for bronchography in canine and human lungs. Invest Radiol 3:229–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Nadel JA, Davis B, Phipps RJ (1979) Control of mucus secretion and ion transport in airways. Ann Rev Physiol 41:369–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Nakano J, Rodgers RL (1976) The prostaglandins: biochemistry, pathophysiology, and clinical pharmacology in asthma and other lung disorders. In: Weiss EB, Segal MS (eds) Bronchial asthma mechanism and therapeutics. Little Brown, Boston, pp 191–216Google Scholar
  197. Nathan PW, Sears TA (1961) Some factors concerned in differential nerve block by local anaesthetics. J Physiol (Lond) 157:565–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Noble MIM, Eisele JH, Trenchard D, Guz A (1970) Effect of selective peripheral nerve blocks on respiratory sensations. In: Porter R (ed) Breathing: Hering-Breuer centenary symposium. Churchill, London, pp 233–246Google Scholar
  199. Orehek J (1981) Neurohumoral control of airway caliber. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) Respiratory physiology III. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 1–74 (International review of physiology, vol 23)Google Scholar
  200. Pack AI (1981) Sensory inputs to the medulla. Annu Rev Physiol 43:73–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pack AI, Delaney RG, Fishman AP (1981) Augmentation of phrenic neural activity by increased rates of lung inflation. J Appl Physiol 50:149–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Paintal AS (1955) Impulses in vagal afferent fibres from specific pulmonary deflation receptors. The response of these receptors to phenyl diguanide, potato starch, 5-hydroxytryptamine and nicotine, and their role in respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes. Q J Exp Physiol 40:89–111Google Scholar
  203. Paintal AS (1957) The location and excitation of pulmonary deflation receptors by chemical substances. Q J Exp Physiol 42:56–71Google Scholar
  204. Paintal AS (1963) Vagal afferent fibres. Ergeb Physiol 52:74–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Paintal AS (1964) Effects of drugs on vertebrate mechanoreceptors. Pharmacol Rev 16:341–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Paintal AS (1965) Block of conduction in mammalian myelinated nerve fibres by low temperatures. J Physiol (Lond) 180:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Paintal AS (1966) Re-evaluation of respiratory reflexes. Q J Exp Physiol 51:151–163Google Scholar
  208. Paintal AS (1967) Mechanism of stimulation of aortic chemoreceptors by natural stimuli and chemical substances. J Physiol (Lond) 189:63–84Google Scholar
  209. Paintal AS (1969) Mechanism of stimulation of type J pulmonary receptors. J Physiol (Lond) 203:511–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Paintal AS (1970) The mechanism of excitation of type J receptors, and the J reflex. In: Porter R (ed) Breathing: Hering-Breuer centenary symposium. Churchill, London, pp 59–71Google Scholar
  211. Paintal AS (1973) Vagal sensory receptors and their reflex effects. Physiol Rev 53:159–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Paintal AS (1974) Fluid pump of type J receptors of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 238:53–54PGoogle Scholar
  213. Paintal AS (1977a) The nature and effects of sensory inputs into the respiratory centers. Fed Proc 36:2428–2432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Paintal AS (1977b) Thoracic receptors connected with sensation. Br Med Bull 33:169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Paintal AS, Damodaran VN, Guz A (1973) Mechanism of excitation of type J receptors. Acta Neurobiol Exp 33:15–19Google Scholar
  216. Phillipson EA, Hickey RF, Bainton CR, Nadel JA (1970) Effect of vagal blockade on regulation of breathing in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 29:475–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Phillipson EA, Hickey RF, Graf PD, Nadel JA (1971) Hering-Breuer inflation reflex and regulation of breathing in conscious dogs. J Appl Physiol 31:746–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Phillipson EA, Fishman NH, Hickey RF, Nadel JA (1973) Effect of differential vagal blockade on ventilatory response to CO2 in awake dogs. J Appl Physiol 34:759–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Phillipson EA, Murphy E, Kozar LF (1975a) Role of pulmonary J receptors in regulation of ventilation in conscious dogs. Fed Proc 34:371Google Scholar
  220. Phillipson EA, Murphy E, Kozar LF, Schultze RK (1975b) Role of vagal stimuli in exercise ventilation in dogs with experimental pneumonitis. J Appl Physiol 39:76–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Phipps RJ, Richardson PS (1976) The effects of irritation at various levels of the airway upon tracheal mucus secretion in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 261:563–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Piper P, Vane J (1971) The release of prostaglandins from lung and other tissues. Ann NY Acad Sci 180:363–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Plaut M, Lichtenstein LM (1978) Histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, SRS-A: Discussion of type I hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis). In: Vane JR, Ferreira SH (eds) Inflammation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 345–373 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 50/1)Google Scholar
  224. Porszasz J, Such G, Porszasz-Gibiszer K (1957) Circulatory and respiratory chemoreflexes. I. Analysis of the site of action and receptor types of capsaicine. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 12:189–205Google Scholar
  225. Rao KS, Devanandan MS (1977) Spinal organisation of the reflex inhibition of the skeleto-motor system by activation of type J pulmonary afferents. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhabhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, pp 466–484Google Scholar
  226. Raybould HE, Russell NJW (1982) Afferent activity in pulmonary vagal C-fibres reflexly increases respiratory rate during hypercapnia in the anaesthetized rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 326:60–61PGoogle Scholar
  227. Reid L (1960) Chronic bronchitis and hypersecretion of mucus. Lect Sci Basis Med 8:235–255Google Scholar
  228. Reynolds LB Jr (1962) Characteristics of an inspiration-augmenting reflex in anesthetized cats. J Appl Physiol 17:683–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rhodin JAG (1966) Ultrastructure and function of the human tracheal mucosa. Am Rev Respir Dis 93:1–15Google Scholar
  230. Richardson PS, Widdicombe JG (1969) The role of the vagus nerves in the ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized rabbits. Respir Physiol 7:122–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Richardson CA, Herbert DA, Mitchell RA (1982) Pulmonary resistance is modulated in step with inspiratory output in paralyzed cats. Physiologist 25:189Google Scholar
  232. Roberts AM, Armstrong DJ, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1981a) Paradoxical trachael contraction produced by bronchodilator prostaglandins PGE2 and PGI2. Fed Proc 40:595Google Scholar
  233. Roberts AM, Kaufman MP, Baker DG, Brown JK, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1981b) Reflex tracheal contraction induced by stimulation of bronchial C-fibers in dogs. J Appl Physiol 51:485–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Roberts AM, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1982a) Reciprocal action of pulmonary stretch receptors and lung C-fibers on tracheal smooth muscle tone in dogs. Fed Proc 41:986Google Scholar
  235. Roberts AM, Hahn HL, Schultz HD, Nadel JA, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1982b) Afferent vagal C fibers are responsible for the reflex airway constriction and secretion evoked by pulmonary administration of SO2 in dogs. Physiologist 25:226Google Scholar
  236. Roumy M, Leitner LM (1980) Localization of stretch and deflation receptors in the airways of the rabbit. J Physiol (Paris) 76:67–70Google Scholar
  237. Russell JA (1978) Responses of isolated canine airways to electrical stimulation and acetylcholine. J Appl Physiol 45:690–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Russell JA, Lai-Fook SJ (1979) Reflex bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin in the dog. J Appl Physiol 47:961–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Russell NJW, Trenchard D (1980) Non-myelinated vagal lung receptors in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 300:31PGoogle Scholar
  240. Russell NJW, Trenchard D (1981) Chemoreflexes of pulmonary origin elicited by sodium dithionite in the anaesthetized rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 310:63–64PGoogle Scholar
  241. Salisbury PF, Galletti PM, Lewin RJ, Rieben PA (1959) Stretch reflexes from the dog's lung to the systemic circulation. Circ Res 7:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Sampson SR (1977) Sensory neurophysiology of airways. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:107–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Sampson SR, Vidruk EH (1975) Properties of ‘irritant’ receptors in canine lung. Respir Physiol 25:9–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Sampson SR, Vidruck EH (1978) Chemical stimulation of rapidly adapting receptors in the airways. In: Fitzgerald RS, Gautier H, Lahiri S (eds) The regulation of respiration during sleep and anesthesia. Adv Exp Med Biol 99:281–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Sant'Ambrogio FB, Sant'Ambrogio G (1982) Circulatory accessibility of nervous receptors localized in the tracheobronchial tree. Respir Physiol 49:49–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Sant'Ambrogio G (1982) Information arising from the tracheobronchial tree of mamals. Physiol Rev 62:531–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sant'Ambrogio G, Sant'Ambrogio FB, Davies A (1980) Coughing to irritation of the tracheo-bronchial tree and the larynx after sulphur dioxide inhalation in rabbits in dogs. Physiologist 23:88Google Scholar
  248. Sapru HN, Willette RN, Krieger AJ (1981) Stimulation of pulmonary J-receptors by an enkephalin-analog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 217:228–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Satchell GH (1977) The J reflex in fish. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh centenary symposium on respiratory adaptations, capillary exchange and reflex mechanisms. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, pp 432–439Google Scholar
  250. Schmidt CF (1941) The reflex regulation of respiration. In: Bard P (ed) MacLeod's physiology in modern medicine, 9th edn. Kimpton, London, pp 569–600Google Scholar
  251. Schmidt T, Wellhoner HH (1970) The reflex influence of a group of slowly conducting vagal afferents on α and γ discharges in cat intercostal nerves. Pfluegers Arch 318:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Schulte FJ, Henatsch HD, Busch G (1959) Über den Einfluß der Carotid-sinus-Sensibilität auf die spinalmotorischen Systeme. Pfluegers Arch 269:248–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Schweitzer A, Wright S (1937) Effects on the knee jerk of stimulation of the central end of the vagus and of various changes in the circulation and respiration. J Physiol (Lond) 88:459–475Google Scholar
  254. Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1969) The activity of lung irritant receptors during pneumothorax, hyperpnoea and pulmonary vascular congestion. J Physiol (Lond) 203:359–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1970) Vagal deflation and inflation reflexes mediated by lung irritant receptors. Q J Exp Physiol 55:153–163Google Scholar
  256. Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1971) Stimulation of lung irritant receptors by cigarette smoke, carbon dust, and histamine aerosol. J Appl Physiol 31:15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Shanes AM, Gershfeld NL (1960) Interactions of veratrum alkaloids, procaine, and calcium with monolayers of stearic acid and their implications for pharmacological action. J Gen Physiol 44:345–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Sheldon MI, Green JF (1982) Evidence for pulmonary CO2 chemosensitivity: effects on ventilation. J Appl Physiol 52:1192–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Simonsson BG, Skoogh BE, Bergh NP, Andersson R, Svedmyr N (1973) In vivo and in vitro effect of bradykinin on bronchial motor tone in normal subjects and patients with airways obstruction. Respiration 30:378–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Smith AP (1973) The effects of intravenous infusion of graded doses of prostaglandins F and E2 on lung resistance in patients undergoing termination of pregnancy. Clin Sci 44:17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Smith AP, Cuthbert MF (1976) The response of normal and asthmatic subjects to prostaglandins E2 and F by different routes, and their significance in asthma. In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin and thromboxane research, vol 1. Raven Press, New York, pp 449–459Google Scholar
  262. Souhrada JF, Dickey DW (1976) Mechanical activities of trachea as measured in vitro and in vivo. Respir Physiol 26:27–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Stephens NL, Kroeger EA (1980) Ultrastructure, biophysics, and biochemistry of airway smooth muscle. In: Nadel JA (ed) Physiology and pharmacology of the airways. Dekker, New York, pp 31–121Google Scholar
  264. Stern S, Bruderman I, Braun K (1966) Localization of lobeline-sensitive receptors in the pulmonary circulation in man. Am Heart J 71:651–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Stransky A, Szereda-Przestaszewska M, Widdicombe JG (1973) The effects of lung reflexes on laryngeal resistance and motoneurone discharge. J Physiol (Lond) 231:417–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Thorén P, Mancia G, Shepherd JT (1975) Vasomotor inhibition in rabbits by vagal non-medullated fibers from cardiopulmonary area. Am J Physiol 229:1410–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Thorén P, Shepherd JT, Donald DE (1977) Anodal block of medullated cardiopulmonary vagal afferents in cats. J Appl Physiol 42:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Toh CC, Lee TS, Kiang AK (1955) The pharmacological actions of capsaicin and analogues. Br J Pharmacol 10:175–182Google Scholar
  269. Tomori Z, Widdicombe JG (1969) Muscular bronchomotor and cardiovascular reflexes elicited by mechanical stimulation of the respiratory tract. J Physiol (Lond) 200:25–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Torebjörk HE, Hallin RG (1974) Identification of afferent C units in intact human skin nerves. Brain Res 67:387–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Trenchard D (1977) Role of pulmonary stretch receptors during breathing in rabbits, cats and dogs. Respir Physiol 29:231–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Trenchard D (1980) A reappraisal of vagal lung chemoreflex changes in breathing. J Physiol (Lond) 302:16–17PGoogle Scholar
  273. Trenchard D, Gardner D, Guz A (1972) Role of pulmonary vagal afferent nerve fibres in the development of rapid shallow breathing in lung inflammation. Clin Sci 42:251–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Waaler BA (1961) The effect of bradykinin in an isolated perfused dog lung preparation. J Physiol (Lond) 157:475–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Wasserman MA (1975) Bronchopulmonary responses to prostaglandin F, histamine and acetylcholine in the dog. Eur J Pharmacol 32:146–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Whitteridge D (1948) The action of phosgene on the stretch receptors of the lungs. J Physiol (Lond) 107:107–114Google Scholar
  277. Whitteridge D (1950) Multiple embolism of the lung and rapid shallow breathing. Physiol Rev 30:475–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Whitteridge D, Bulbring E (1944) Changes in activity of pulmonary receptors in anaesthesia and their influence on respiratory behavior. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 81:340–359Google Scholar
  279. Whitwam JG, Kidd C (1975) The use of direct current to cause selective block of large fibres in peripheral nerves. Br J Anaesth 47:1123–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Widdicombe JG (1954a) Receptors in the trachea and bronchi of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 123:71–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Widdicombe JG (1954b) Respiratory reflexes excited by inflation of the lungs. J Physiol (Lond) 123:105–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Widdicombe JG (1954c) Respiratory reflexes from the trachea and bronchi of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 123:55–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Widdicombe JG (1963) Regulation of tracheobronchial smooth muscle. Physiol Rev 43:1–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Widdicombe JG (1964) Respiratory reflexes. In: Fenn WO, Rahn H (eds) Respiration. American Physiological Society, Washington, DC, pp 585–630 (Handbook of physiology, vol 1)Google Scholar
  285. Widdicombe JG (1966) Action potentials in parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent fibres to the trachea and lungs of dogs and cats. J Physiol (Lond) 186:56–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Widdicombe JG (1967) Head's paradoxical reflex. Q J Exp Physiol 52:44–50Google Scholar
  287. Widdicombe JG (1974a) Reflex control of breathing. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) Respiratory physiology. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 273–301 (MTP International review of science, ser 1, Physiology, vol 2)Google Scholar
  288. Widdicombe JG (1974b) Reflexes from the lungs in the control of breathing. In: Linden RJ (ed) Recent advances in physiology. Churchill, London, pp 239–278Google Scholar
  289. Widdicombe JG (1977a) Defensive mechanisms of the respiratory system. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) International review of physiology, vol 14. Respiratory physiology II. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 291–315Google Scholar
  290. Widdicombe JG (1977b) Some experimental models of acute asthma. J R Coll Physicians Lond 11:141–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Widdicombe JG (1978) Control of secretion of tracheobronchial mucus. Br Med Bull 34:57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Widdicombe JG (1981) Nervous receptors in the respiratory tract and lungs. In: Hornbein TH (ed) Regulation of breathing, part I. Dekker, New York, pp 429–472Google Scholar
  293. Widdicombe JG, Nadel JA (1963) Reflex effects of lung inflation on tracheal volume. J Appl Physiol 18:681–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Winning AJ, Widdicombe JG (1976) The effect of lung reflexes on the pattern of breathing in cats. Respir Physiol 27:253–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Woolcock AJ, Macklem PT, Hogg JC, Wilson NJ, Nadel JA, Frank NR, Brain J (1969) Effect of vagal stimulation on central and peripheral airways in dogs. J Appl Physiol 26:806–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Yamatake Y, Yanaura S (1978) New method for evaluating bronchomotor and bronchosecretory activities: effects of prostaglandins and antigen. Jpn J Pharmacol 28:391–402PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. G. Coleridge
    • 1
  • Hazel M. Coleridge
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of PhysiologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations